ISBN-10:
1461433029
ISBN-13:
9781461433026
Pub. Date:
03/19/2012
Publisher:
Springer New York
An Introduction to Archaeological Chemistry / Edition 1

An Introduction to Archaeological Chemistry / Edition 1

by T. Douglas Price, James H. Burton

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Overview

An Introduction to Archaeological Chemistry / Edition 1

Archaeological chemistry is a subject of great importance to the study and methodology of archaeology. This comprehensive text covers the subject with a full range of case studies, materials, and research methods. With twenty years of experience teaching the subject, the authors offer straightforward coverage of archaeological chemistry, a subject that can be intimidating for many archaeologists who do not already have a background in the hard sciences. With clear explanations and informative illustrations, the authors have created a highly approachable text, which will help readers overcome that intimidation. Topics covered included: Materials (rock, pottery, bone, charcoal, soils, metals, and others), Instruments (microscopes, NAA, spectrometers, mass spectrometers, GC/MS, XRF & XRD,
Case Studies (Provinience, Sediments, Diet Reconstruction, Past Human Movement, Organic Residues).
The detailed coverage and clear language will make this useful as an introduction to the study of archaeological chemistry, as well as a useful resource for years after that introduction.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781461433026
Publisher: Springer New York
Publication date: 03/19/2012
Edition description: 2011
Pages: 311
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.03(d)

About the Author

T. Douglas Price is the Director of the Laboratory for Archaeological Chemistry at University of Wisconsin-Madison.
James H. Burton is the Associate Director of the Laboratory for Archaeological Chemistry at University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Table of Contents

1 Archaeological Chemistry 1

1.1 Archaeological Chemistry 2

1.2 Terms and Concepts 4

1.2.1 Matter 5

1.2.2 Organic Matter 6

1.2.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum 9

1.2.4 Measurement 11

1.2.5 Accuracy, Precision, and Sensitivity 12

1.2.6 Samples, Aliquots, and Specimens 13

1.2.7 Data, Lab Records, and Archives 15

1.3 A Brief History of Archaeological Chemistry 15

1.4 Laboratories 19

1.4.1 A Tour of the Laboratory for Archaeological Chemistry 20

1.5 Summary 23

Suggested Readings 24

2 What Archaeologists Want To Know 25

2.1 Archaeological Cultures 26

2.2 Time and Space 27

2.3 Environment 28

2.4 Technology 29

2.5 Economy 30

2.5.1 Food 30

2.5.2 Shelter 31

2.5.3 Raw Material and Production 31

2.5.4 Exchange 32

2.6 Organization 34

2.6.1 Social Organization 34

2.6.2 Political Organization 34

2.6.3 Settlement Pattern 36

2.7 Ideology 38

2.8 Summary 39

Suggested Readings 39

3 Archaeological Materials 41

3.1 Introduction 41

3.2 Archaeological Materials 41

3.3 Rock 42

3.4 Pottery 47

3.5 Bone 49

3.6 Sediment and Soil 51

3.7 Metals 55

3.8 Other Materials 58

3.8.1 Glass 59

3.8.2 Pigments and Dyes 62

3.8.3 Concretes, Mortars, and Plasters 66

3.8.4 Shell 68

3.9 Summary 70

Suggested Readings 71

4 Methods of Analysis 73

4.1 Magnification 74

4.1.1 Optical Microscopes 75

4.1.2 Scanning Electron Microscope 76

4.2 Elemental Analysis 78

4.2.1 Spectroscopy 81

4.2.2 Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer 84

4.2.3 X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy 86

4.2.4 CN Analyzer 88

4.2.5 Neutron Activation Analysis 89

4.3 Isotopic Analyses 90

4.3.1 Oxygen Isotopes 91

4.3.2 Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopes 92

4.3.3 Strontium Isotopes 94

4.3.4 Mass Spectrometers 98

4.4 Organic Analysis 102

4.4.1 Methods of Organic Analysis 109

4.4.2 Gas/Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry 109

4.5 Mineral and Inorganic Compounds 115

4.5.1 Petrography 116

4.5.2 X-Ray Diffraction 119

4.5.3 IR Spectroscopy 120

4.6 Summary 122

Suggested Readings 126

5 Identification and Authentication 127

5.1 What Archaeological Chemistry Can Do 127

5.2 Identification and Authentication 128

5.3 Identification 129

5.3.1 Starch Grains and Early Agriculture 131

5.3.2 Pacific Plant Identification 132

5.3.3 Keatley Creek House Floors 136

5.3.4 Chaco Coco 139

5.4 Authentication 142

5.4.1 The Getty Museum Kouros 143

5.4.2 Vinland Map 147

5.4.3 Maya Crystal Skulls 149

5.4.4 The Shroud of Turin 151

Suggested Readings 154

6 Technology, Function, and Human Activity 155

6.1 Technology 156

6.1.1 The Discovery of Fire 157

6.1.2 Maya Blue 160

6.2 Function 164

6.2.1 Microwear Analysis 165

6.2.2 Danish Pottery 168

6.3 Human Activity 173

6.3.1 Phosphate and Uppakra 175

6.3.2 Ritual Activities in the Templo Mayor (Mexico) 177

6.3.3 Lejre House Floor 180

Suggested Readings 186

7 Environment and Diet 187

7.1 Environment 188

7.1.1 Greenland Vikings 191

7.1.2 The Maya Collapse 195

7.2 Diet 199

7.2.1 Carbon Isotopes 199

7.2.2 Nitrogen Isotopes 202

7.2.3 Arizona Cannibals 203

7.2.4 Last Danish Hunters 206

7.2.5 Cape Town Slaves 208

Suggested Readings 211

8 Provenience and Provenance 213

8.1 Provenience and Provenance 213

8.1.1 Ecuadorian Pottery 219

8.1.2 Lead Glaze on Mexican Ceramics 221

8.1.3 European Copper in North America 224

8.1.4 Turkish Obsidian 227

8.1.5 Pinson Mounds Pottery 229

8.1.6 Mexican Pyramid 234

8.1.7 A Maya King 238

Suggested Readings 241

9 Conclusions 243

9.1 Multiple Investigations 245

9.1.1 Italian Iceman 245

9.2 Ethical Considerations 252

9.2.1 Destructive Analysis 253

9.2.2 The Study of Human Remains 254

9.3 What Does the Future Hold? 256

9.4 In the End 257

Suggested Readings 258

Appendix 259

Glossary 263

References 275

Figure Credits 301

Index 305

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