Introduction to Biomedical Equipment Technology

Introduction to Biomedical Equipment Technology

Hardcover(Older Edition)

$115.00

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780138494315
Publisher: Simon & Schuster Adult Publishing Group
Publication date: 08/01/1997
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 703
Product dimensions: 7.81(w) x 9.58(h) x 1.77(d)

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Preface:

PREFACE

This textbook is the fourth edition of a premier book used to educate biomedical and other technical professionals over the last two decades. Since technology advances at an ever-increasing pace, we have included some new and exciting changes, which reflect the modern world of medical instrumentation.

Part of the revision effort was a survey of instructors, successful students, managers, and clinical and biomedical engineers and technicians who ultimately employ the readers of this book. New features were added mostly in response to comments and request of the academic reader.

Since this text is broadly organized, working professionals in biomedical electronics and related fields will find it useful for looking up topics of interest and refreshing selected areas, while bypassing more familiar material. In addition, engineers and technologists, who design biomedical equipment, can easily revisit material covering the broad overview or delve into the critical points of pertinent subjects.

Important chapters added to the third edition and retained in this latest edition include information fundamental to a basic education. Chapter 3 is "Introduction to Biomedical Equipment Instrumentation and Measurement." Chapter 4 covers the "Basic Theories of Measurement" technology. Chapter 22 discusses "Computers in Biomedical Equipment," which, among other topics, includes sections on microprocessors and signal acquisition systems, as applied to medical and laboratory instrumentation. This is directed at signal measurement, analog signal processing, analog-to-digital conversion, digital-to-analog conversion, and digital signalprocessing. These chapters were added to reinforce the concept that many medical instruments are basically electronic measuring devices. The authors believe students need to put into action concepts of accuracy and precision when diagnosing problems and maintaining medical and laboratory equipment. Basic theory of signals and noise provides a necessary background for understanding commonly encountered signals and what to expect from observing them in analog, digital or software form, in addition to windows pull-down menus. In this way, the authors share their savvy with the reader, which has been formulated from theory and years of personal experience. Also, some of the original chapters were enhanced to better cover essential topics, such as the nature and impact of the Internet in medicine and the use of computers in analyzing medical signals, X-ray films, and patient records. In addition, we have extended many block and circuit diagrams with descriptions to improve the reader's working knowledge of biomedical equipment.

In the fourth edition, chapter 24 on "Electromagnetic Interference to Medical Electronic Equipment," including electromagnetic compatibility has been improved, because this is a major issue today, especially with the FDA. In concert, a new chapter 25 is provided on "Quality Assurance and Continuous Quality Improvement" for two reasons: First, most medical equipment manufacturers must meet ISO-9000 quality assurance standards to sell their equipment in Europe and, increasingly, also in the United States and Canada. Adherence to the recommendations of ISO-9000 may also prove beneficial in defending product liability challenges, because it reflects a manufacturer's ability to set up and consistently apply company and production procedures. Second, hospitals are being forced to provide continuous quality improvement by accreditation authorities, such as the FDA, and their ability to meet these requirements facilitates their competitive edge in the medical marketplace. In addition, chapter 16, "Medical Laboratory Instrumentation," now includes a section on hemodialysis machines to treat kidney failure, because of the increasing requirement for this technology from our aging population. Also, a description of the important Y2K problem now appears in chapter 22, "Computers in Biomedical Equipment," as well as a description of new computer devices in medicine, such as the extended interactive computer system and the palmtop or personal digital assistant (PDA).

We appreciate the cooperation of the Burr-Brown Corp. in providing circuit diagrams. Burr-Brown does not authorize or warrant any Burr-Brown product for use in life support devices and/or systems.

Again, we thank our families for their continuing encouragement in the researching and writing of this latest edition.

Joseph J. Carr, MSEE
Falls Church, VA

John M. Brown,
MSEE, Deng
Tucson, AZ

Table of Contents

Preface xi
1 THE HUMAN BODY: AN OVERVIEW
1(9)
1.1 Objectives
1(1)
1.2 Self-Evaluation Questions
1(1)
1.3 Introduction
1(1)
1.4 The Cell
2(1)
1.5 Body Fluids
3(1)
1.6 Musculoskeletal System
3(1)
1.7 Respiratory System
3(1)
1.8 Gastrointestinal System
3(3)
1.9 Nervous System
6(1)
1.10 Endocrine System
6(1)
1.11 The Circulatory System
6(1)
1.12 The Body as a Control System
6(2)
1.13 Summary
8(1)
1.14 Recapitulation
8(1)
Questions
8(1)
Suggested Reading
9(1)
2 THE HEART AND CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
10(15)
2.1 Objectives
10(1)
2.2 Self-Evaluation Questions
10(1)
2.3 The Circulatory System
10(4)
2.4 The Heart
14(2)
2.5 Bioelectricity
16(1)
2.6 Electroconduction System of the Heart
17(5)
2.7 Heart Problems
22(1)
2.8 Summary
22(1)
2.9 Recapitulation
23(1)
Questions
23(1)
Problems
24(1)
References
24(1)
3 INTRODUCTION TO BIOMEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT
25(20)
3.1 Objectives
25(1)
3.2 Self-Evaluation Questions
25(1)
3.3 Introduction
25(1)
3.4 Significant Figures
26(2)
3.5 Scientific Notation
28(1)
3.6 Units and Physical Constants
28(1)
3.7 What Is Average?
29(5)
3.8 Logarithmic Representation of Signal Levels: Decibel Notation
34(4)
3.9 The Basics of Measurement Theory
38(4)
3.10 Summary
42(1)
3.11 Recapitulation
42(1)
3.12 Questions
43(1)
Problems
43(1)
Reference
44(1)
Suggested Readings
44(1)
4 BASIC THEORIES OF MEASUREMENT
45(16)
4.1 Objectives
45(1)
4.2 Self-Evaluation Questions
45(1)
4.3 Introduction
45(1)
4.4 Categories of Measurement
46(3)
4.5 Factors in Making Measurements
49(4)
4.6 Measurement Errors
53(1)
4.7 Categories of Error
53(3)
4.8 Dealing with Measurement Errors
56(1)
4.9 Error Contribution Analysis
56(1)
4.10 Operational Definitions in Measurement
57(1)
4.11 Summary
58(1)
4.12 Recapitulation
59(1)
Questions
59(1)
Problems
59(2)
5 SIGNALS AND NOISE
61(22)
5.1 Objectives
61(1)
5.2 Self-Evaluation Questions
61(1)
5.3 Types of Signals
61(1)
5.4 Fourier Series
62(5)
5.5 Waveform Symmetry
67(2)
5.6 Transient Signals
69(1)
5.7 Sampled Signals
70(3)
5.8 Noise
73(1)
5.9 Signal-to-Noise Ratio
74(2)
5.10 Noise Factor, Noise Figure, and Noise Temperature
76(1)
5.11 Noise in Cascade Amplifiers
77(1)
5.12 Noise Reduction Strategies
78(2)
5.13 Summary
80(1)
5.14 Recapitulation
80(1)
Questions
80(1)
Problems
81(2)
6 ELECTRODES, SENSORS, AND TRANSDUCERS
83(42)
6.1 Objectives
83(1)
6.2 Self-Evaluation Questions
83(1)
6.3 Signal Acquisition
83(1)
6.4 Transduction
84(1)
6.5 Active versus Passive Sensors
84(1)
6.6 Sensor Error Sources
84(1)
6.7 Sensor Terminology
85(6)
6.8 Tactics and Signals Processing for Improved Sensing
91(2)
6.9 Electrodes for Biophysical Sensing
93(6)
6.10 Medical Surface Electrodes
99(3)
6.11 Microelectrodes
102(3)
6.12 Transducers and Other Sensors
105(3)
6.13 Strain Gages
108(4)
6.14 Inductive Transducers
112(2)
6.15 Quartz Pressure Sensors
114(1)
6.16 Capacitive Transducers
115(2)
6.17 Temperature Transducers
117(2)
6.18 Matching Sensors to Circuits
119(2)
6.19 Summary
121(1)
6.20 Recapitulation
122(1)
Questions
122(1)
Problems
123(1)
Suggested Readings
123(2)
7 BIOELECTRIC AMPLIFIERS
125(71)
7.1 Objectives
125(1)
7.2 Self-Evaluation Questions
125(1)
7.3 Bioelectric Amplifiers
125(1)
7.4 Operational Amplifiers
125(4)
7.5 Basic Amplifier Configurations
129(10)
7.6 Multiple-Input Circuits
139(1)
7.7 Differential Amplifiers
140(11)
7.8 Signal Processing Circuits
151(4)
7.9 Practical Op-amps: Some Problems Reviewed
155(2)
7.10 Bioelectric Amplifiers Reviewed
157(1)
7.11 Isolation Amplifiers
157(18)
7.12 Chopper Stabilized Amplifiers
175(1)
7.13 Input Guarding
176(13)
7.14 Summary
189(2)
7.15 Recapitulation
191(1)
Questions
191(2)
Problems
193(1)
Suggested Reading
193(3)
8 ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHS
196(38)
8.1 Objectives
196(1)
8.2 Self-Evaluation Questions
196(1)
8.3 The Heart as a Potential Source
196(1)
8.4 The ECG Waveform
197(1)
8.5 The Standard Lead System
197(1)
8.6 Other ECG Signals
198(2)
8.7 The ECG Preamplifier
200(18)
8.8 ECG Readout Devices
218(1)
8.9 ECG Machines
218(6)
8.10 ECG Machine Maintenance
224(1)
8.11 ECG Faults and Troubleshooting
225(3)
8.12 Summary
228(1)
8.13 Recapitulation
229(1)
Questions
229(2)
Problems
231(1)
Suggested Reading
231(3)
9 PHYSIOLOGICAL PRESSURE AND OTHER CARDIOVASCULAR MEASUREMENTS AND DEVICES
234(71)
9.1 Objectives
234(1)
9.2 Self-Evaluation Questions
234(1)
9.3 Physiological Pressures
234(1)
9.4 What Is Pressure?
235(1)
9.5 Pressure Measurements
236(2)
9.6 Blood Pressure Measurements
238(4)
9.7 Oscillometric and Ultrasonic Noninvasive Pressure Measurements
242(1)
9.8 Direct Methods: H(2)O Manometers
243(2)
9.9 Pressure Transducers
245(1)
9.10 Pressure Amplifiers
245(2)
9.11 Typical Calibration Methods
247(2)
9.12 Pressure Amplifier Designs
249(5)
9.13 ac Carrier Amplifiers
254(1)
9.14 Systolic, Diastolic, and Mean Detector Circuits
255(3)
9.15 Pressure Differentiation (dP/dT) Circuits
258(1)
9.16 Automatic Zero Circuits
258(3)
9.17 Practical Problems in Pressure Monitoring
261(5)
9.18 Step-Function Frequency Response Test
266(2)
9.19 Transducer Care
268(1)
9.20 Cardiac Output Measurement
269(1)
9.21 Dilution Methods
270(6)
9.22 Right-Side Heart Pressures
276(2)
9.23 Plethysmography
278(2)
9.24 Blood Flow Measurements
280(3)
9.25 Phonocardiography
283(3)
9.26 Vectorcardiography
286(1)
9.27 Catheterization Laboratories
287(1)
9.28 The Heart Revisited
287(2)
9.29 Defibrillators
289(4)
9.30 Defibrillator Circuits
293(1)
9.31 Cardioversion
294(1)
9.32 Testing Defibrillators
295(1)
9.33 Pacemakers
296(1)
9.34 Heart-lung Machines
297(2)
9.35 Summary
299(1)
9.36 Recapitulation
300(3)
Questions
300(3)
Problems
303(1)
References
303(2)
10 THE HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM AND ITS MEASUREMENT
305(25)
10.1 Objectives
305(1)
10.2 Self-Evaluation Questions
305(1)
10.3 The Human Respiratory System
306(1)
10.4 Gas Laws
306(1)
10.5 Internal (Cellular) Respiration
307(1)
10.6 External (Lung) Respiration
308(1)
10.7 Organs of Respiration
309(2)
10.8 Mechanics of Breathing
311(1)
10.9 Parameters of Respiration
312(3)
10.10 Regulation of Respiration
315(2)
10.11 Unbalanced and Diseased States
317(1)
10.12 Environmental Threats to the Respiratory System
317(1)
10.13 Major Measurements of Pulmonary Function
317(1)
10.14 Respiratory System Measurements
318(1)
10.15 Respiratory Transducers and Instruments
318(5)
10.16 Spirometers
323(2)
10.17 Pulmonary Measurement Systems and Instruments
325(1)
10.18 Summary
326(1)
10.19 Recapitulation
327(1)
Questions
327(1)
Problems
328(1)
Suggested Reading
329(1)
11 RESPIRATORY THERAPY EQUIPMENT
330(19)
11.1 Objectives
330(1)
11.2 Self-Evaluation Questions
330(1)
11.3 Disease States Requiring Artificial Respiratory Therapy
331(1)
11.4 Overview and Terms of Ventilation
331(1)
11.5 Historical Perspective of Artificial Respiratory Ventilation
332(1)
11.6 Medical Gasses and Safety Systems
332(1)
11.7 Oxygen Therapy
333(3)
11.8 Intermittent Positive Pressure Breathing Therapy
336(4)
11.9 Artificial Mechanical Ventilation
340(3)
11.10 Accessory Devices Used in Respiratory Therapy Apparatus
343(1)
11.11 Sterilization and Isolation Procedures in Respiratory Therapy Units
344(1)
11.12 Typical Faults and Maintenance Procedures for Ventilators
344(1)
11.13 Summary
345(1)
11.14 Recapitulation
345(1)
Questions
346(1)
Problems
347(1)
Suggested Reading
347(2)
12 THE HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM
349(20)
12.1 Objectives
349(1)
12.2 Self-Evaluation Questions
349(1)
12.3 Organization of the Nervous System
350(2)
12.4 The Neuron (Single Nerve Cell)
352(2)
12.5 Structure and Function of the Central Nervous System
354(8)
12.6 Peripheral Nervous System
362(1)
12.7 Autonomic Nervous System
362(2)
12.8 Behavior and the Nervous System
364(1)
12.9 Summary
364(1)
12.10 Recapitulation
365(1)
Questions
366(1)
Problems
366(1)
Suggested Reading
367(2)
13 INSTRUMENTATION FOR MEASURING BRAIN PARAMETERS
369(27)
13.1 Objectives
369(1)
13.2 Self-Evaluation Questions
369(1)
13.3 Instrumentation for Measuring Anatomical and Physiological Parameters of the Brain
370(1)
13.4 Cerebral Angiography
370(1)
13.5 Cranial X-rays
370(1)
13.6 Brain Scans
371(1)
13.7 Ultrasonic Equipment
371(1)
13.8 Electroencephalography
372(2)
13.9 EEG Electrodes and the 10-20 System
374(1)
13.10 EEG Amplitude and Frequency Bands
375(4)
13.11 EEG Diagnostic Uses and Sleep Patterns
379(1)
13.12 Multichannel EEG Recording Systems and Typical External Controls
380(2)
13.13 The EEG System--Simplified Block Diagram
382(1)
13.14 Preamplifiers and EEG System Specifications
383(4)
13.15 Visual and Auditory Evoked Potential Recordings
387(1)
13.16 EEG Telemetry System
388(1)
13.17 Typical EEG System Artifacts, Faults, Troubleshooting, and Maintenance
389(2)
13.18 Summary
391(2)
13.19 Recapitulation
393(1)
Questions
393(1)
Problems
394(1)
Suggested Reading
394(2)
14 INTENSIVE AND CORONARY CARE UNITS
396(26)
14.1 Objectives
396(1)
14.2 Self-Evaluation Questions
396(1)
14.3 Special Care Units
396(1)
14.4 ICU/CCU Equipment
397(1)
14.5 Bedside Monitors
398(2)
14.6 Bedside Monitor Circuits
400(6)
14.7 Central Monitoring Consoles
406(5)
14.8 ECG/Physiological Telemetry
411(9)
14.9 Summary
420(1)
14.10 Recapitulation
420(1)
Questions
420(2)
15 OPERATING ROOMS
422(5)
15.1 Objectives
422(1)
15.2 Self-Evaluation Questions
422(1)
15.3 Surgery
422(1)
15.4 Types of Surgery
423(1)
15.5 OR Personnel
423(1)
15.6 Sterilization
424(1)
15.7 OR Equipment
425(1)
15.8 Summary
426(1)
15.9 Recapitulation
426(1)
Questions
426(1)
16 MEDICAL LABORATORY INSTRUMENTATION
427(25)
16.1 Objectives
427(1)
16.2 Self-Evaluation Questions
427(1)
16.3 Blood (Purpose and Components)
427(3)
16.4 Blood Tests (Cells and Chemistry)
430(1)
16.5 Medical Laboratory Department
431(1)
16.6 Overview of Clinical Instrumentation
431(1)
16.7 Colorimeter
432(2)
16.8 Flame Photometer
434(1)
16.9 Spectrophotometer
435(1)
16.10 Blood Cell Counters
435(7)
16.11 pH/Blood Gas Analyzers
442(3)
16.12 Chromatograph
445(1)
16.13 Autoanalyzer
446(3)
16.14 Summary
449(1)
16.15 Recapitulation
450(1)
Questions
450(1)
Problems
451(1)
References
451(1)
17 MEDICAL ULTRASOUND
452(32)
17.1 Objectives
452(1)
17.2 Self-Evaluation Questions
452(1)
17.3 What Is Ultrasound?
452(1)
17.4 Physics of Sound and Ultrasound Waves
453(6)
17.5 Ultrasound Transducers
459(3)
17.6 Absorption and Attenuation of Ultrasound Energy
462(3)
17.7 Scan Modes and Scanning Systems
465(6)
17.8 Biological Effects of Ultrasound
471(1)
17.9 Doppler Effect
472(1)
17.10 Transcutaneous Doppler Flow Detectors
473(1)
17.11 Flowmeters
473(4)
17.12 Ultrasonic Blood Pressure Measurement
477(2)
17.13 Echoencephalography
479(2)
17.14 Summary
481(1)
17.15 Recapitulation
481(1)
Questions
481(2)
Problems
483(1)
Suggested Reading
483(1)
18 ELECTROSURGERY GENERATORS
484(10)
18.1 Objectives
484(1)
18.2 Self-Evaluation Questions
484(1)
18.3 Electrosurgery Machines
484(1)
18.4 Electrosurgery Circuits
485(5)
18.5 Electrosurgery Safety
490(1)
18.6 Testing Electrosurgery Units
490(2)
18.7 Summary
492(1)
18.8 Recapitulation
492(1)
Questions
492(1)
Problems
493(1)
19 ELECTRICAL SAFETY IN THE MEDICAL ENVIRONMENT
494(20)
19.1 Objectives
494(1)
19.2 Self-Evaluation Questions
495(1)
19.3 Definition of Electrical Safety
495(1)
19.4 Scope of Electrical Safety in Medical Institutions
495(1)
19.5 Major Organizations Producing Publications Pertinent to Electrical Safety
496(1)
19.6 Responsibilities of Hospital Personnel
496(1)
19.7 Preventive Maintenance Programs to Reduce Electrical Hazards
496(1)
19.8 Legal and Insurance Requirements of Electrical Safety
497(1)
19.9 Setting Up an Electrical Safety Program in the Hospital
497(1)
19.10 Physiological Effects of Electricity on the Human (Theory of Macroshock and Microshock)
498(1)
19.11 Leakage Current
499(4)
19.12 Line Isolation Systems
503(3)
19.13 Equipotential Grounding System in Reducing Electrical Shock Hazards
506(1)
19.14 Ground Fault Interrupters in Reducing Electrical Shock Hazards
506(3)
19.15 Proper Power Wiring, Distribution, and Ground System in Reducing Electrical Shock Hazards
509(1)
19.16 Specialized Electrical Safety Test Equipment
509(1)
19.17 Summary
510(1)
19.18 Recapitulation
511(1)
Questions
511(2)
References
513(1)
20 WAVEFORM DISPLAY DEVICES
514(24)
20.1 Objectives
514(1)
20.2 Self-Evaluation Questions
514(1)
20.3 Permanent Magnet Moving Coil Instruments
515(1)
20.4 PMMC Writing Systems
515(3)
20.5 Servorecorders and Recording Potentiometers
518(3)
20.6 X-Y Recorders
521(1)
20.7 Problems in Recorder Design
521(2)
20.8 Maintenance of PMMC Writing Styluses and Pens
523(2)
20.9 Dot Matrix Analog Recorders
525(2)
20.10 Oscilloscopes
527(1)
20.11 Medical Oscilloscopes
528(1)
20.12 Multibeam Oscilloscopes
529(3)
20.13 Nonfade Oscilloscopes
532(3)
20.14 Modern Oscilloscope Designs
535(1)
20.15 Summary
536(1)
20.16 Recapitulation
536(1)
Questions
536(1)
Problems
536(2)
21 ELECTRO-OPTICS (FIBER OPTICS AND LASERS)
538(28)
21.1 Objectives
538(1)
21.2 Self-Evaluation Questions
538(1)
21.3 Fiber-Optic Technology
538(1)
21.4 Fiber-Optic Isolation
539(1)
21.5 History of Fiber Optics
539(1)
21.6 Review of Some Basics
540(1)
21.7 Fiber Optics
541(2)
21.8 Intermodal Dispersion
543(1)
21.9 Graded Index Fibers
544(1)
21.10 Losses in Fiber-Optic Systems
545(2)
21.11 Losses in Fiber-Optic Circuits
547(2)
21.12 Fiber-Optic Communications Systems
549(1)
21.13 Receiver Amplifier and Transmitter Driver Circuits
549(3)
21.14 Lasers
552(1)
21.15 Laser Classification
552(1)
21.16 Basic Concepts
552(2)
21.17 Types of Lasers
554(4)
21.18 Driver Circuits for Solid-State Laser Diodes
558(4)
21.19 Laser Diode Receiver Circuits
562(1)
21.20 Summary
563(1)
21.21 Recapitulation
564(1)
Questions
564(1)
Problems
565(1)
22 COMPUTERS IN BIOMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
566(38)
22.1 Objectives
566(1)
22.2 Self-Evaluation Questions
566(1)
22.3 Introduction
567(2)
22.4 Computer Hardware and Software
569(2)
22.5 Computer Programming Languages
571(2)
22.6 Microprocessor/Microcomputer System
573(2)
22.7 Interface Between Analog Signals and Digital Computers
575(2)
22.8 Hardware, Software, and Firmware
577(1)
22.9 Modern Communications
577(2)
22.10 Modern Microprocessors
579(1)
22.11 Microcontrollers
580(1)
22.12 Digital Signal Processors
580(1)
22.13 Capabilities of Microcomputers versus Mainframes
580(1)
22.14 The Power of Interactive Data Bases
581(1)
22.15 Impact and Limitations of Computers
581(1)
22.16 Computers Can Cause Health Problems
581(1)
22.17 Computer Viruses
582(1)
22.18 Supercomputers
582(1)
22.19 Neural Networks and Computing Applications
582(1)
22.20 The Internet
583(1)
22.21 Internet and Medical Computer Information
584(1)
22.22 PC-Based and CD-ROM-based Health Care
585(1)
22.23 Expert System
585(1)
22.24 Computer-Based Patient Record
586(1)
22.25 Computer Workstations
586(1)
22.26 Computers in Laboratory Instrumentation
587(4)
22.27 Brief Glossary of Computer and Laboratory Instrumentation Words
591(1)
22.28 Computers in Medical Research
592(1)
22.29 Computers in Biomedical Equipment
593(3)
22.30 Summary
596(2)
22.31 Recapitulation
598(1)
Questions
598(1)
References
599(5)
23 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE EQUIPMENT
604(19)
23.1 Objectives
604(1)
23.2 Self-Evaluation Questions
604(1)
23.3 Types and Uses of X-ray and Nuclear Medicine Equipment
605(2)
23.4 Origin and Nature of X-rays
607(2)
23.5 Nature and Types of Nuclear Radiation
609(1)
23.6 Units for Measuring Radioactivity
610(1)
23.7 Health Dangers from X-ray and Nuclear Radiation
611(1)
23.8 Generation of X-rays in an X-ray Tube
611(1)
23.9 Block Diagram and Operation of an X-ray Machine
612(4)
23.10 Block Diagram and Operation of a Fluoroscopic Machine
616(1)
23.11 Block Diagram and Operation of a Nuclear Medicine System
616(3)
23.12 Computer Systems Used in X-ray and Nuclear Medicine Equipment
619(1)
23.13 Calibration, Typical Faults, Troubleshooting, and Maintenance Procedures
620(1)
23.14 Summary
620(1)
23.15 Recapitulation
621(1)
Questions
621(1)
Problems
622(1)
References
622(1)
24 ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE TO MEDICAL ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT
623(20)
24.1 Objectives
623(1)
24.2 Self-Evaluation Questions
623(1)
24.3 Introduction
623(1)
24.4 Intermodulation Problems
624(5)
24.5 Dealing with TVI/BCI
629(1)
24.6 Dealing with Signal Overload Problems
630(7)
24.7 ECG Equipment and EMI
637(1)
24.8 EMI to Biomedical Sensors
637(4)
24.9 Summary
641(1)
24.10 Recapitulation
641(1)
Questions
641(1)
Problems
642(1)
References
642(1)
25 CARE AND FEEDING OF BATTERY-OPERATED MEDICAL EQUIPMENT
643(11)
25.1 Objectives
643(1)
25.2 Self-Evaluation Questions
643(1)
25.3 Introduction
643(1)
25.4 Cells or Batteries?
644(1)
25.5 Nickel Cadmium Cells and Batteries
644(1)
25.6 Battery Capacity
644(1)
25.7 Battery-Charging Protocols
645(1)
25.8 NiCd Battery Memory
646(1)
25.9 Battery Maintenance
646(1)
25.10 Charging NiCd Batteries
647(2)
25.11 Multiple-Cell Batteries
649(1)
25.12 Other Batteries
649(3)
25.13 Summary
652(1)
25.14 Recapitulation
652(1)
Questions
652(1)
Problems
653(1)
Reference
653(1)
26 MEDICAL EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE: MANAGEMENT, FACILITIES, AND EQUIPMENT
654(13)
26.1 Objectives
654(1)
26.2 Self-Evaluation Questions
654(1)
26.3 Introduction
654(1)
26.4 Types of MROs
655(1)
26.5 Levels of Capability
655(2)
26.6 Types of Organization
657(3)
26.7 Technical Personnel
660(3)
26.8 Management Approaches
663(2)
26.9 Summary
665(1)
26.10 Recapitulation
665(1)
Questions
665(1)
References
666(1)
Appendix A: Some Math Notes 667(3)
A-1 Differentiation 667(1)
A-2 Integration 668(2)
Appendix B: Medical Terminology 670(3)
Appendix C: Glossary 673(8)
Index 681

Preface

Preface:

PREFACE

This textbook is the fourth edition of a premier book used to educate biomedical and other technical professionals over the last two decades. Since technology advances at an ever-increasing pace, we have included some new and exciting changes, which reflect the modern world of medical instrumentation.

Part of the revision effort was a survey of instructors, successful students, managers, and clinical and biomedical engineers and technicians who ultimately employ the readers of this book. New features were added mostly in response to comments and request of the academic reader.

Since this text is broadly organized, working professionals in biomedical electronics and related fields will find it useful for looking up topics of interest and refreshing selected areas, while bypassing more familiar material. In addition, engineers and technologists, who design biomedical equipment, can easily revisit material covering the broad overview or delve into the critical points of pertinent subjects.

Important chapters added to the third edition and retained in this latest edition include information fundamental to a basic education. Chapter 3 is "Introduction to Biomedical Equipment Instrumentation and Measurement." Chapter 4 covers the "Basic Theories of Measurement" technology. Chapter 22 discusses "Computers in Biomedical Equipment," which, among other topics, includes sections on microprocessors and signal acquisition systems, as applied to medical and laboratory instrumentation. This is directed at signal measurement, analog signal processing, analog-to-digital conversion, digital-to-analog conversion, and digitalsignalprocessing. These chapters were added to reinforce the concept that many medical instruments are basically electronic measuring devices. The authors believe students need to put into action concepts of accuracy and precision when diagnosing problems and maintaining medical and laboratory equipment. Basic theory of signals and noise provides a necessary background for understanding commonly encountered signals and what to expect from observing them in analog, digital or software form, in addition to windows pull-down menus. In this way, the authors share their savvy with the reader, which has been formulated from theory and years of personal experience. Also, some of the original chapters were enhanced to better cover essential topics, such as the nature and impact of the Internet in medicine and the use of computers in analyzing medical signals, X-ray films, and patient records. In addition, we have extended many block and circuit diagrams with descriptions to improve the reader's working knowledge of biomedical equipment.

In the fourth edition, chapter 24 on "Electromagnetic Interference to Medical Electronic Equipment," including electromagnetic compatibility has been improved, because this is a major issue today, especially with the FDA. In concert, a new chapter 25 is provided on "Quality Assurance and Continuous Quality Improvement" for two reasons: First, most medical equipment manufacturers must meet ISO-9000 quality assurance standards to sell their equipment in Europe and, increasingly, also in the United States and Canada. Adherence to the recommendations of ISO-9000 may also prove beneficial in defending product liability challenges, because it reflects a manufacturer's ability to set up and consistently apply company and production procedures. Second, hospitals are being forced to provide continuous quality improvement by accreditation authorities, such as the FDA, and their ability to meet these requirements facilitates their competitive edge in the medical marketplace. In addition, chapter 16, "Medical Laboratory Instrumentation," now includes a section on hemodialysis machines to treat kidney failure, because of the increasing requirement for this technology from our aging population. Also, a description of the important Y2K problem now appears in chapter 22, "Computers in Biomedical Equipment," as well as a description of new computer devices in medicine, such as the extended interactive computer system and the palmtop or personal digital assistant (PDA).

We appreciate the cooperation of the Burr-Brown Corp. in providing circuit diagrams. Burr-Brown does not authorize or warrant any Burr-Brown product for use in life support devices and/or systems.

Again, we thank our families for their continuing encouragement in the researching and writing of this latest edition.

Joseph J. Carr, MSEE
Falls Church, VA

John M. Brown,
MSEE, Deng
Tucson, AZ

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