ISBN-10:
0387946411
ISBN-13:
2900387946411
Pub. Date:
07/20/1999
Publisher:
Springer New York
Introduction to Clinical Informatics / Edition 1

Introduction to Clinical Informatics / Edition 1

by Patrice Degoulet

Hardcover

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 2900387946411
Publisher: Springer New York
Publication date: 07/20/1999
Series: Health Informatics
Edition description: 1st ed. 1997. Corr. 2nd printing 1999
Pages: 247
Product dimensions: 6.50(w) x 1.50(h) x 9.50(d)

Table of Contents

1. Systems for Managing Medical Information.- Principles of Computer Operations.- Hardware Architecture.- Encoding Information in a Machine.- The Memory Hierarchy.- Computer Categories.- Central Processing Unit Operations.- Input-Output Peripherals.- Software Architecture.- Operating Systems.- Development Environments and Utilities.- Application Programs.- Communications and Networks.- Network Architecture.- Standards for Exchanging Information.- Integrated System Architectures.- Centralized Systems.- Distributed Systems.- Multimedia Workstations.- Network of Networks.- Exercises.- 2. Medical Software Development.- Computer Project Management.- Waterfall Models.- Spiral Methods and Quick Prototyping.- Conceptual Models.- The Notion of a Model.- Objects and Relationships.- Modeling Intermediate Structures.- Semantic Networks.- Software Development Tools.- Computer-Aided Software Engineering.- Database Management Systems.- Document Management Systems.- Interface Management Systems.- Natural Language Processing Tools.- Specialized Software Components.- Electronic Data Interchange.- Integrating Software Components.- Exercises.- 3. Medical Data and Semiology.- The Nature of Medical Data.- Medical Data Types.- The Variability of Medical Data.- Interpreting Medical Data.- Cognitive Processes.- Interpreting Numbers and Words.- Interpreting Associations.- Quantitative Semiology.- The Diagnostic Value of a Test.- Sensitivity and Specificity of a Sign.- Measuring the Predictive Value of a Sign.- Discussion and Conclusions.- Exercises.- 4. Medical Reasoning and Decision-Making.- Reasoning.- Deduction.- Induction.- Abduction.- Causal Reasoning.- The Steps Involved in Making a Medical Decision.- Identify the Problem.- Structure the Problem.- Choose the Solution.- Uncertainty and Medical Judgment.- Medical Judgment.- Uncertainty and Judgment Bias.- Probability Theory and Decision Analysis.- Comparing Several Diagnostic Hypotheses.- Evaluating the Benefits of Therapy.- Decision Analysis.- Symbolic Reasoning and Expert Systems.- Knowledge Representation.- Using Knowledge.- Learning.- Discussion and Conclusion.- Exercises.- 5. Medical Language and Classification Systems.- Coding and Classifications.- Examples of Classifications.- Clinical Classifications.- The NANDA Classification of Nursing Diagnoses.- Classification of Treatments and Procedures.- Multidomain Classifications.- Discussion and Conclusion.- Exercises.- 6. Documentation Systems and Information Databases.- Technical Infrastructure.- Workstations.- Connecting to Networks.- Archiving and Server Functions.- General Characteristics.- Document Mediation.- The Quality of a Documentation Management System.- Documentation Systems.- Bibliographical Databases.- Medical Information and Knowledge Bases.- Discussion and Conclusion.- Exercises.- 7. Hospital Information Systems.- Analysis of the Information System.- The Various Levels of the Information System.- The Environment of the Information System.- HIS Objectives.- Structural Analysis.- Functional Analysis.- The Components of an HIS.- Administration.- Health-Care Units.- Ancillary Departments.- Strategies and Technical Solutions.- The Vertical Approach: Centralized HIS.- The Horizontal Approach: Departmental Systems.- The Distributed Approach: Distributed and Open Systems.- Required Resources.- Allocating Resources and Estimating Costs.- Human Resources.- Discussion and Conclusion.- Exercises.- 8. Health-Care Networks.- The Health System.- Health-Care Coverage.- Medical Demographics.- Health-Care Networks and Health Information Systems.- The Components of a Health-Care Network.- Telemedicine Tools in Health-Care Networks.- Data Access and Communications.- The Information System for Generalists.- The Key Role of the Generalist in the Health-Care Network.- Computerizing the Doctor’s Office.- The Patient’s Information System.- Active Participation in Health Care.- Training at Home.- Electronic Messaging.- Discussion and Conclusion.- Exercises.- 9. Managing Patient Records.- Different Views of Patient Records.- Objectives and Expected Benefits.- Modeling Medical Information.- How to Standardize Medical Terminology.- How to Structure Medical Records.- Implementing Computerized Medical Records.- The Software Environment.- Patient Management Systems.- Hardware and Human Constraints.- Discussion and Conclusion.- Exercises.- 10. Physiological Signal Processing.- Importance and Objectives.- Basic Signal Processing Concepts.- Signal Acquisition.- Sampling and Digitizing Signals.- Basic Signal Processing Techniques.- Sample Medical Applications.- Examples of Signal Analysis.- Intensive Care Monitoring.- Integration in Information Systems.- Discussion and Conclusion.- Exercises.- 11. Medical Imaging Systems.- Importance and Objectives.- Image Acquisition Sources.- Digitized Images.- Spatial Coding.- Intensity Coding.- Temporal Coding.- Digitizing Images.- Basic Image Processing Principles.- The Imaging Process.- Image Preprocessing.- Segmentation.- Extracting Parameters.- Image Interpretation.- Sample Medical Applications.- Quantifying the Degree of a Vascular Stenosis.- Identifying Chromosomes.- Computer-Aided Surgical Techniques.- Virtual Reality.- Imaging Management and Communication Systems.- Tele-expertise.- PACS.- Discussion and Conclusion.- Exercises.- 12. Medical Decision Support Systems.- Characteristics of Decision Support Systems.- Types of Support.- Types of Intervention.- Types of Knowledge.- Methodological Basis of Decision Support Systems.- Using Mathematical Models.- Statistical Methods.- Probability-Based Systems.- Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems.- Neural Networks and Connectionist Systems.- Implementing Decision Support Systems.- The User Interface.- Knowledge Acquisition and Representation.- Evaluating and Validating Systems.- Integrating Decision Support Modules in Information Systems.- Sample Decision Support Systems.- Pharmacokinetics and Assistance in Calculating Dosages.- Assistance in Diagnosing Acute Abdominal Pain.- Diagnoses in Internal Medicine: INTERNIST and QMR.- Assistance in Chemotherapy: ONCOCIN.- Integration in a Hospital Information System. HELP.- Decision Support in Molecular Biology.- Discussion and Conclusion.- Exercises.- 13. Computer-Based Education.- The Need for a Global Pedagogical Approach.- The Role of Computer-Based Education.- Methods and Implementations.- Tutorial Training.- Modeling and Simulation.- On-Site Teaching.- Intelligent CBE Systems.- Discussion and Conclusion.- Exercises.- 14. Analysis and Control of Medical Activity.- Controlling Health-Care Expenses.- Evaluation, Control, and Quality.- Methods and Principles for Analyzing Medical Activity.- A General Model.- Evaluating Costs.- Two Approaches for “Medicalized” Management.- Analyzing Medical Activity in the Hospital.- Resource Indicators.- Activity Indicators.- Production Indicators.- Quality Indicators.- Discussion and Conclusion.- Exercises.- 15. Security and Data Protection.- Identifying the Risks.- Protecting Data Concerning Individuals.- Professional Ethics and Legal Measures.- Measures Concerning Hardware, Software, and Organization.- Discussion and Conclusion.- Exercises.- Appendix A. Review of Probabilities.- Conditional Probabilities.- Baves’ Formula.- Rc ‘ative Risk and Odds Ratio.- Appendix B. Review of Logic.- Prepositional Logic.- Predicate Logic.- Appendix C. Some Useful References.- Medical Informatics Associations.- In France.- In Europe.- In the United States.- The International Medical Informatics Association.- Principal International Conferences.- Principal Specialized Publications.- Internet Addresses.- General Catalogs and Electronic Libraries.- Informatics in Health Care and Telemedicine, Standards.- Medical Informatics Textbooks.- Data and Knowledge Banks.- Medical guidelines, Evidence-Based Medicine.

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