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McGraw-Hill Companies, The
Introduction to Flight / Edition 5

Introduction to Flight / Edition 5

by John D. Anderson
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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780072990713
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies, The
Publication date: 03/28/2004
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 800
Product dimensions: 7.50(w) x 9.40(h) x 1.40(d)

About the Author

John D. Anderson, Jr. is the Curator of Aerodynamics at the National Air & Space Museum Smithsonian Institute and Professor Emeritus at the University of Maryland.

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Chapter 2: Fundamental Thoughts

Let us pick up the thread of aeronautical engineering history from Chap. 1. After Orville and Wilbur Wright's dramatic public demonstrations in the United States and Europe in 1908, there was a virtual explosion in aviation developments. In turn, this rapid progress had to be fed by new technical research in aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, and flight control. It is important to realize that then, as well as today, aeronautical research was sometimes expensive, always demanding in terms of intellectual talent, and usually in need of large testing facilities. Such research in many cases either was beyond the financial resources of, or seemed too out of the ordinary for, private industry. Thus, the fundamental research so necessary to fertilize and pace the development of aeronautics in the 20th century had to be established and nurtured by national governments. It is interesting to note that George Cayley himself (see Chap. 1) as long ago as 1817 called for "public subscription" to underwrite the expense of the development of airships. Responding about 80 years later, the British government set up a school for ballooning and military kite flying at Farnborough, England. By 1910, the Royal Aircraft Factory was in operation at Farnborough with the noted Geoffrey de Havilland as its first airplane designer and test pilot. This was the first major government aeronautical facility in history. This operation was soon to evolve into the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE), which today is still conducting viable aeronautical research for the British government.

In the United States, aircraft development as well as aeronautical researchlanguished after 1910. During the next decade, the United States embarrassingly fell far behind Europe in aeronautical progress. This set the stage for the U.S. government to establish a formal mechanism for pulling itself out of its aeronautical "dark ages." On March 3, 1915, by an act of Congress, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) was created, with an initial appropriation of $5000 per year for 5 years. This was at first a true committee, consisting of 12 distinguished members who were knowledgeable about aeronautics. Among the charter members in 1915 were Professor Joseph S. Ames of Johns Hopkins University (later to become president of Johns Hopkins) and Professor William F. Durand of Stanford University, both of whom were to make major impressions on aeronautical research in the first half century of powered flight. This advisory committee, NACA, was originally to meet annually in Washington, District of Columbia, on "the Thursday after the third Monday of October of each year," with any special meetings to be called by the chair. Its purpose was to advise the government on aeronautical research and development and to bring some cohesion to such activities in the United States.

The committee immediately noted that a single advisory group of 12 members was not sufficient to breathe life into U.S. aeronautics. Their insight is apparent in the letter of submittal for the first annual report of NACA in 1915, which contained the following passage:

There are many practical problems in aeronautics now in too indefinite a form to enable their solution to be undertaken. The committee is of the opinion that one of the first and most important steps to be taken in connection with the committee's work is the provision and equipment of a flying field together with aeroplanes and suitable testing gear for determining the forces acting on full-sized machines in constrained and in free flight, and to this end the estimates submitted contemplate the development of such a technical and operating staff, with the proper equipment for the conduct of full-sized experiments.

It is evident that there will ultimately be required a well-equipped laboratory specially suited to the solving of those problems which are sure to develop, but since the equipment of such a laboratory as could be laid down at this time might well prove unsuited to the needs of the early future, it is believed that such provision should be the result of gradual development.

So the first action of this advisory committee was to call for major government facilities for aeronautical research and development. The clouds of war in EuropeWorld War I had started a year earlier-made their recommendations even more imperative. In 1917, when the United States entered the conflict, actions followed the committee's words. We find the following entry in the third annual NACA report: "To carry on the highly scientific and special investigations contemplated in the act establishing the committee, and which have, since the outbreak of the war, assumed greater importance, and for which facilities do not already exist, or exist in only a limited degree, the committee has contracted for a research laboratory to be erected on the Signal Corps Experimental Station, Langley Field, Hampton, Virginia." The report goes on to describe a single, two-story laboratory building with physical, chemical, and structural testing laboratories. The building contract was for $80,900; actual construction began in 1917. Two wind tunnels and an engine test stand were contemplated "in the near future." The selection of a site 4 mi north of Hampton, Virginia, was based on general health conditions and the problems of accessibility to Washington and the larger industrial centers of the east, protection from naval attack, climatic conditions, and cost of the site.

Thus, the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Research Laboratory was born. It was to remain the only NACA laboratory and the only major U.S. aeronautical laboratory of any type for the next 20 years. Named after Samuel Pierpont Langley (see Sec. 1.7), it pioneered in wind tunnel and flight research. Of particular note is the airfoil and wing research performed at Langley during the 1920s and 1930s. We return to the subject of airfoils in Chap. 5, at which time the reader should note that the airfoil data included in App. D were obtained at Langley. With the work which poured out of the Langley laboratory, the United States took the lead in aeronautical development. High on the list of accomplishments, along with the systematic testing of airfoils, was the development of the NACA engine cowl (see Sec. 6.19), an aerodynamic fairing built around radial piston engines which dramatically reduced the aerodynamic drag of such engines.

In 1936, Dr. George Lewis, who was then NACA Director of Aeronautical Research (a position he held from 1924 to 1947), toured major European laboratories. He noted that NACA's lead in aeronautical research was quickly disappearing, especially in light of advances being made in Germany...

Table of Contents

About the Authorv
Preface to the Fifth Editionxv
Preface to the First Editionxvii
Chapter 1The First Aeronautical Engineers1
1.2Very Early Developments4
1.3Sir George Cayley (1773-1857)--The True Inventor of the Airplane6
1.4The Interregnum--From 1853 to 189113
1.5Otto Lilienthal (1848-1896)--The Glider Man17
1.6Percy Pilcher (1867-1899)--Extending the Glider Tradition20
1.7Aeronautics Comes to America21
1.8Wilbur (1867-1912) and Orville (1871-1948) Wright--Inventors of the First Practical Airplane27
1.9The Aeronautical Triangle--Langley, the Wrights, and Glenn Curtiss36
1.10The Problem of Propulsion45
1.11Faster and Higher46
Chapter 2Fundamental Thoughts52
2.1Fundamental Physical Quantities of a Flowing Gas56
2.1.4Flow Velocity and Streamlines59
2.2The Source of All Aerodynamic Forces61
2.3Equation of State for a Perfect Gas63
2.4Discussion of Units65
2.5Specific Volume70
2.6Anatomy of the Airplane76
2.7Anatomy of a Space Vehicle87
2.8Historical Note: The NACA and NASA95
Chapter 3The Standard Atmosphere101
3.1Definition of Altitude103
3.2Hydrostatic Equation104
3.3Relation Between Geopotential and Geometric Altitudes106
3.4Definition of the Standard Atmosphere107
3.5Pressure, Temperature, and Density Altitudes114
3.6Historical Note: The Standard Atmosphere117
Chapter 4Basic Aerodynamics122
4.1Continuity Equation126
4.2Incompressible and Compressible Flow127
4.3Momentum Equation130
4.4A Comment134
4.5Elementary Thermodynamics141
4.6Isentropic Flow147
4.7Energy Equation152
4.8Summary of Equations155
4.9Speed of Sound156
4.10Low-Speed Subsonic Wind Tunnels162
4.11Measurement of Airspeed168
4.11.1Incompressible Flow171
4.11.2Subsonic Compressible Flow174
4.11.3Supersonic Flow178
4.12Some Additional Considerations183
4.12.1More on Compressible Flow183
4.12.2More on Equivalent Airspeed185
4.13Supersonic Wind Tunnels and Rocket Engines187
4.14Discussion of Compressibility195
4.15Introduction to Viscous Flow196
4.16Results for a Laminar Boundary Layer205
4.17Results for a Turbulent Boundary Layer210
4.18Compressibility Effects on Skin Friction213
4.20Flow Separation219
4.21Summary of Viscous Effects on Drag224
4.22Historical Note: Bernoulli and Euler225
4.23Historical Note: The Pitot Tube226
4.24Historical Note: The First Wind Tunnels229
4.25Historical Note: Osborne Reynolds and His Number235
4.26Historical Note: Prandtl and the Development of the Boundary Layer Concept239
Chapter 5Airfoils, Wings, and Other Aerodynamic Shapes251
5.2Airfoil Nomenclature253
5.3Lift, Drag, and Moment Coefficients257
5.4Airfoil Data263
5.5Infinite Versus Finite Wings271
5.6Pressure Coefficient273
5.7Obtaining Lift Coefficient from C[subscript p]278
5.8Compressibility Correction for Lift Coefficient282
5.9Critical Mach Number and Critical Pressure Coefficient283
5.10Drag-Divergence Mach Number294
5.11Wave Drag (at Supersonic Speeds)302
5.12Summary of Airfoil Drag310
5.13Finite Wings312
5.14Calculation of Induced Drag315
5.15Change in the Lift Slope321
5.16Swept Wings329
5.17Flaps--A Mechanism for High Lift342
5.18Aerodynamics of Cylinders and Spheres348
5.19How Lift Is Produced--Some Alternate Explanations352
5.20Historical Note: Airfoils and Wings362
5.20.1The Wright Brothers363
5.20.2British and U.S. Airfoils (1910 to 1920)363
5.20.31920 to 1930364
5.20.4Early NACA Four-Digit Airfoils364
5.20.5Later NACA Airfoils365
5.20.6Modern Airfoil Work366
5.20.7Finite Wings366
5.21Historical Note: Ernst Mach and His Number369
5.22Historical Note: The First Manned Supersonic Flight372
5.23Historical Note: The X-15--First Manned Hypersonic Airplane and Stepping-Stone to the Space Shuttle376
Chapter 6Elements of Airplane Performance385
6.1Introduction: The Drag Polar385
6.2Equations of Motion392
6.3Thrust Required for Level, Unaccelerated Flight394
6.4Thrust Available and Maximum Velocity402
6.5Power Required for Level, Unaccelerated Flight405
6.6Power Available and Maximum Velocity410
6.6.1Reciprocating Engine-Propeller Combination410
6.6.2Jet Engine413
6.7Altitude Effects on Power Required and Available414
6.8Rate of Climb419
6.9Gliding Flight428
6.10Absolute and Service Ceilings432
6.11Time to Climb435
6.12Range and Endurance--Propeller-Driven Airplane436
6.12.1Physical Considerations437
6.12.2Quantitative Formulation438
6.12.3Breguet Formulas (Propeller-Driven Airplane)440
6.13Range and Endurance--Jet Airplane444
6.13.1Physical Considerations445
6.13.2Quantitative Formulation446
6.14Relations Between C[subscript D,0] and C[subscript D,i]450
6.15Takeoff Performance458
6.16Landing Performance464
6.17Turning Flight and the V-n Diagram467
6.18Accelerated Rate of Climb (Energy Method)474
6.19Special Considerations for Supersonic Airplanes481
6.20Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)485
6.21A Comment, and More on the Aspect Ratio494
6.22Historical Note: Drag Reduction--The NACA Cowling and the Fillet494
6.23Historical Note: Early Predictions of Airplane Performance499
6.24Historical Note: Breguet and the Range Formula500
6.25Historical Note: Aircraft Design--Evolution and Revolution501
Chapter 7Principles of Stability and Control513
7.2Definition of Stability and Control519
7.2.1Static Stability520
7.2.2Dynamic Stability521
7.2.4Partial Derivative523
7.3Moments on the Airplane524
7.4Absolute Angle of Attack525
7.5Criteria for Longitudinal Static Stability527
7.6Quantitative Discussion: Contribution of the Wing to M[subscript cg]532
7.7Contribution of the Tail to M[subscript cg]536
7.8Total Pitching Moment About the Center of Gravity539
7.9Equations for Longitudinal Static Stability541
7.10Neutral Point543
7.11Static Margin544
7.12Concept of Static Longitudinal Control548
7.13Calculation of Elevator Angle to Trim553
7.14Stick-Fixed Versus Stick-Free Static Stability555
7.15Elevator Hinge Moment556
7.16Stick-Free Longitudinal Static Stability558
7.17Directional Static Stability562
7.18Lateral Static Stability563
7.19A Comment565
7.20Historical Note: The Wright Brothers Versus the European Philosophy on Stability and Control566
7.21Historical Note: The Development of Flight Controls567
7.22Historical Note: The "Tuck-Under" Problem569
Chapter 8Space Flight (Astronautics)573
8.2Differential Equations580
8.3Lagrange's Equation581
8.4Orbit Equation584
8.4.1Force and Energy584
8.4.2Equation of Motion586
8.5Space Vehicle Trajectories--Some Basic Aspects590
8.6Kepler's Laws597
8.7Introduction to Earth and Planetary Entry601
8.8Exponential Atmosphere604
8.9General Equations of Motion for Atmospheric Entry604
8.10Application to Ballistic Entry608
8.11Entry Heating614
8.12Lifting Entry, with Application to the Space Shuttle621
8.13Historical Note: Kepler625
8.14Historical Note: Newton and the Law of Gravitation627
8.15Historical Note: Lagrange629
8.16Historical Note: Unmanned Space Flight629
8.17Historical Note: Manned Space Flight634
Chapter 9Propulsion639
9.3Reciprocating Engine650
9.4Jet Propulsion--The Thrust Equation660
9.5Turbojet Engine663
9.6Turbofan Engine668
9.7Ramjet Engine670
9.8Rocket Engine674
9.9Rocket Propellants--Some Considerations681
9.9.1Liquid Propellants681
9.9.2Solid Propellants684
9.9.3A Comment686
9.10Rocket Equation687
9.11Rocket Staging688
9.12Electric Propulsion692
9.12.1Electron-Ion Thruster693
9.12.2Magnetoplasmadynamic Thruster694
9.12.3Arc-Jet Thruster694
9.12.4A Comment694
9.13Historical Note: Early Propeller Development695
9.14Historical Note: Early Development of the Internal Combustion Engine for Aviation698
9.15Historical Note: Inventors of Early Jet Engines700
9.16Historical Note: Early History of Rocket Engines703
Chapter 10Flight Vehicle Structures and Materials713
10.2Some Physics of Solid Materials714
10.2.3Other Cases717
10.2.4Stress-Strain Diagram718
10.3Some Elements of an Aircraft Structure721
10.6Some Comments729
Chapter 11Hypersonic Vehicles731
11.2Physical Aspects of Hypersonic Flow735
11.2.1Thin Shock Layers735
11.2.2Entropy Layer736
11.2.3Viscous Interaction737
11.2.4High-Temperature Effects738
11.2.5Low-Density Flow739
11.3Newtonian Law for Hypersonic Flow743
11.4Some Comments on Hypersonic Airplanes749
Appendix AStandard Atmosphere, SI Units760
Appendix BStandard Atmosphere, English Engineering Units770
Appendix CSymbols and Conversion Factors778
Appendix DAirfoil Data779

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