ISBN-10:
1418080772
ISBN-13:
2901418080777
Pub. Date:
11/10/2008
Publisher:
Cengage Learning
Introduction to Normal Auditory Perception / Edition 1

Introduction to Normal Auditory Perception / Edition 1

by Faith Loven

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Overview

Introduction to Normal Auditory Perception / Edition 1

Taking a classical approach to psychoacoutstics, Introduction to Normal Auditory Perception guides students toward a basic understanding of hearing science and theory. The book explores the germinal research published in the field of auditory perception and then clearly interprets the findings which have formed the foundations of modern auditory theory. Complex theories are broken down for easy comprehension. Starting with the basic principles of acoustics, the text moves through seminal experiments in psychoacoustics regarding the role of stimulus intensity, frequency, and duration on fundamental auditory perceptions. Basic principles of binaural listening are also covered.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 2901418080777
Publisher: Cengage Learning
Publication date: 11/10/2008
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 260
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 1.25(h) x 9.00(d)

Table of Contents

Section 1 Acoustics: Characteristics of the Sound Source and the Medium Important to Auditory Perception 1

Chapter 1 Simple Harmonic Motion, Sine Waves, and Pure Tones 3

Vibration 4

Repetitive Linear Motion 4

Simple Harmonic Motion 6

Sine Waves 13

Important Characteristics of Sine Waves 14

Adding Sine Waves 21

Special Cases 24

Fourier Synthesis and Fourier Analysis 25

Vibrations and Sound 27

Pure Tones 27

Complex Tones 28

Aperiodic Sounds 29

Chapter 2 Sound Transmission and Sound Waves 33

Sound Transmission 34

The Source 34

The Medium 36

The Receiver 38

Important Characteristics of Sound Transmission and Sound Waves 40

Propagation Velocity 40

Wavelength 41

Sound Wave Motion 42

Chapter 3 Sound Measurement and the Decibel Scale 45

The Decibel Scale 46

Logarithmic Scales 46

Ratios 52

References Used in the Decibel Scale 52

The Sound Pressure Level Reference (dB SPL) 52

The Hearing Level Reference (dB HL) 53

The Sensation Level Reference (dB SL) 54

Some Caveats Regarding the Decibel 54

Decibel Computation 55

Applying the Equations 56

Conceptual Application of the Decibel 58

The Pressure Formula 58

The Intensity Formula 59

Everyday Examples 60

Given the Intensity or Pressure Ratio 60

Applying the Decibel Concept to a New Problem 62

Section 2 Intensity: Intensity as an Important Stimulus Variable to Auditory Perception 65

Chapter 4 Auditory Sensitivity 67

Detection and the Absolute Threshold 68

Measuring Absolute Threshold and the Psychometric Function 69

Audibility and Sensitivity 71

Previous Studies of Normal Human Auditory Sensitivity 72

What the Sivian and White Results Tell Us About NormalHuman Auditory Sensitivity 73

Chapter 5 Loudness 79

Perception Versus Stimulus Variables 80

Stimulus Intensity and Its Effect on Loudness 80

Direct Magnitude Estimation 80

Direct Magnitude Production 83

Units of Loudness Estimation 84

Stimulus Frequency and Its Effect on Loudness 84

Generating an Equal Loudness Contour Using a Loudness Balance Procedure 86

Fletcher and Munson's Equal Loudness Contours 92

Units of Loudness Estimation Using a Loudness Balance Procedure 92

What Fletcher and Munson Tell Us About the Effect of Frequency on Loudness 93

What Fletcher and Munson Tell Us About Loudness Growth Across Frequency 95

Explaining Loudness Perception 97

Chapter 6 Intensity Discrimination 103

Discrimination Thresholds: Terminology and Relevance 104

Experimental Measurements of Normal Auditory Intensity Discrimination 105

Another Method for Estimating Intensity Discrimination Thresholds 107

Normal Human Auditory Differential Thresholds for Intensity 112

The Role of Intensity on Differential Sensitivity for Intensity 113

The Role of Frequency on Differential Sensitivity for Intensity 114

Scientific Interest in Differential Sensitivity 116

A Model to Explain Our Differential Sensitivity for Intensity 118

Section 3 Frequency: Frequency as an Important Stimulus Variable to Auditory Perception 123

Chapter 7 Masking 125

Experimental Paradigm and Important Terms 126

Some Caveats Regarding the Amount of Masking 128

When the Masker is a Wideband Noise 129

When the Masker Is a Pure Tone 131

When the Masker Is a Narrow Band of Noise 135

Getting Ready for Theory 137

Chapter 8 Frequency Selectivity and the Critical Band 139

Filters 141

High-Pass Filters 141

Low-Pass Filters 144

Band-Pass Filters 145

Early Work on the Critical Band Theory 148

Fletcher's Logic 148

Fletcher's Legacy 153

Chapter 9 Frequency Discrimination 163

Measuring Frequency Discrimination 164

Frequency Discrimination as a Function of Signal Frequency 167

Frequency Discrimination and the Critical Band 168

Frequency Discrimination and Weber's Law 169

Frequency Discrimination as a Function of Intensity 171

Chapter 10 Pitch Perception 177

Stimulus Frequency and Its Effect on Pitch 178

Stimulus Intensity and Its Effect on Pitch 181

Comparing Pitch Estimation Procedures 188

Competing Theories of Pitch Perception 189

The Place Theory of Pitch Perception 190

The Volley Theory of Pitch Perception 190

Place Theory or Volley Theory-Which Is The Right One? 192

Pitch Perception of Simple Sounds 193

Pitch Perception of Complex Sounds 197

A Modern-Day Theory of Pitch Perception 201

Section 4 Duration: Duration as an Important Stimulus Variable to Auditory Perception 205

Chapter 11 Stimulus Duration and Its Role in Audibility, Loudness, and Discrimination 207

Stimulus Duration and Audibility 208

Stimulus Duration and Loudness Perception 212

Stimulus Duration and Discrimination 212

Differential Thresholds for Duration 212

The Effect of Stimulus Duration on Other Differential Thresholds 215

Chapter 12 Auditory Fatigue and Adaptation 219

Long-Term Poststimulatory Auditory Fatigue 220

Interpreting the Magnitude of TTS 222

Experimental Parameters Affecting the Amount of Temporary Threshold Shift 223

Summary Remarks Regarding Long-Term Poststimulatory Auditory Fatigue 226

Loudness Adaptation 226

Measuring Loudness Adaptation 227

Important Characteristics of Loudness Adaptation 228

Comparison of Long-Term Poststimulatory Auditory Fatigue to Loudness Adaptation 230

Chapter 13 Introduction to Binaural Hearing 233

Localization 234

Acoustic and Auditory Cues Involved in Localization 235

Other Auditory perceptions as a Consequence of Interaural Phase and Interaural Intensity Differences 239

Binaural Masking Level Differences 243

Glossary 247

Index 257

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