ISBN-10:
032191905X
ISBN-13:
2900321919051
Pub. Date:
01/20/2014
Publisher:
Pearson
Introductory Chemistry Essentials / Edition 5

Introductory Chemistry Essentials / Edition 5

by Nivaldo J. Tro

Hardcover

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 2900321919051
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 01/20/2014
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 744
Product dimensions: 8.50(w) x 11.00(h) x 1.20(d)

About the Author

Nivaldo Tro is currently chair of the department of chemistry at Westmont College in Santa Barbara, California, where he has been a faculty member since 1990. He received his B.A degree in chemistry from Westmont College and earned a Ph.D. in chemistry from Stanford University, for work on developing and using optical techniques to study the adsorption and desorption of molecules to and from surfaces in ultrahigh vacuum. He then went on to the University of California at Berkeley, where he did post-doctoral research on ultra-fast reaction dynamics in solution. Since coming to Westmont, Professor Tro has been awarded grants from the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund, from Research Corporation, and from the National Science Foundation to study the dynamics of various processes occurring in thin adlayer films adsorbed on dielectric surfaces. Honored as Westmont’s outstanding teacher of the year in 1994, 2001, and 2008, he was also named the college’s outstanding researcher of the year in 1996. Professor Tro lives in Santa Barbara with his wife, Ann, and their four children, Michael, Alicia, Kyle, and Kaden. For leisure, he enjoys reading, writing, snowboarding, biking, and other outdoor activities with his family.

Table of Contents

1 The Chemical World

1.1 Sand and Water

1.2 Chemicals Compose Ordinary Things

1.3 The Scientific Method: How Chemists Think

1.4 Analyzing and Interpreting Data

1.5 A Beginning Chemist: How to Succeed

2 Measurement and Problem Solving

2.1 The Metric Mix-up: A $125 Million Unit Error

2.2 Scientific Notation: Writing Large and Small Numbers

2.3 Significant Figures: Writing Numbers to Reflect Precision

2.4 Significant Figures in Calculations

2.5 The Basic Units of Measurement

2.6 Problem Solving and Unit Conversion

2.7 Solving Multistep Unit Conversion Problems

2.8 Unit Conversion in Both the Numerator and Denominator

2.9 Units Raised to a Power

2.10 Density

2.11 Numerical Problem-Solving Strategies and the Solution Map

3 Matter and Energy

3.1 In Your Room

3.2 What Is Matter?

3.3 Classifying Matter According to Its State: Solid, Liquid, and Gas

3.4 Classifying Matter According to Its Composition: Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures

3.5 Differences in Matter: Physical and Chemical Properties

3.6 Changes in Matter: Physical and Chemical Changes

3.7 Conservation of Mass: There Is No New Matter

3.8 Energy

3.9 Energy and Chemical and Physical Change

3.10 Temperature: Random Motion of Molecules and Atoms

3.11 Temperature Changes: Heat Capacity

3.12 Energy and Heat Capacity Calculations

4 Atoms and Elements

4.1 Experiencing Atoms at Tiburon

4.2 Indivisible: The Atomic Theory

4.3 The Nuclear Atom

4.4 The Properties of Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons

4.5 Elements: Defined by Their Numbers of Protons

4.6 Looking for Patterns: The Periodic Law and the Periodic Table

4.7 Ions: Losing and Gaining Electrons

4.8 Isotopes: When the Number of Neutrons Varies

4.9 Atomic Mass: The Average Mass of an Element’s Atoms

5 Molecules and Compounds

5.1 Sugar and Salt

5.2 Compounds Display Constant Composition

5.3 Chemical Formulas: How to Represent Compounds

5.4 A Molecular View of Elements and Compounds

5.5 Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds

5.6 Nomenclature: Naming Compounds

5.7 Naming Ionic Compounds

5.8 Naming Molecular Compounds

5.9 Naming Acids

5.10 Nomenclature Summary

5.11 Formula Mass: The Mass of a Molecule or Formula Unit

6 Chemical Composition

6.1 How Much Sodium?

6.2 Counting Nails by the Pound

6.3 Counting Atoms by the Gram

6.4 Counting Molecules by the Gram

6.5 Chemical Formulas as Conversion Factors

6.6 Mass Percent Composition of Compounds

6.7 Mass Percent Composition from a Chemical Formula

6.8 Calculating Empirical Formulas for Compounds

6.9 Calculating Molecular Formulas for Compounds

7 Chemical Reactions

7.1 Grade School Volcanoes, Automobiles, and Laundry Detergents

7.2 Evidence of a Chemical Reaction

7.3 The Chemical Equation

7.4 How to Write Balanced Chemical Equations

7.5 Aqueous Solutions and Solubility: Compounds Dissolved in Water

7.6 Precipitation Reactions: Reactions in Aqueous Solution That Form a Solid

7.7 Writing Chemical Equations for Reactions in Solution: Molecular, Complete Ionic, and Net Ionic Equations

7.8 Acid–Base and Gas Evolution Reactions

7.9 Oxidation–Reduction Reactions

7.10 Classifying Chemical Reactions

8 Quantities in Chemical Reactions

8.1 Climate Change: Too Much Carbon Dioxide

8.2 Making Pancakes: Relationships between Ingredients

8.3 Making Molecules: Mole-to-Mole Conversions

8.4 Making Molecules: Mass-to-Mass Conversions

8.5 More Pancakes: Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield

8.6 Limiting Reactant[JJ2] , Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield from Initial Masses of Reactants

8.7 Enthalpy: A Measure of the Heat Evolved or Absorbed in a Reaction

9 Electrons in Atoms and the Periodic Table

9.1 Blimps, Balloons, and Models of the Atom

9.2 Light: Electromagnetic Radiation

9.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

9.4 The Bohr Model: Atoms with Orbits

9.5 The Quantum-Mechanical Model: Atoms with Orbitals

9.6 Quantum-Mechanical Orbitals and Electron Configurations

9.7 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table

9.8 The Explanatory Power of the Quantum-Mechanical Model

9.9 Periodic Trends: Atomic Size, Ionization Energy, and Metallic Character

10 Chemical Bonding

10.1 Bonding Models and AIDS Drugs

10.2 Representing Valence Electrons with Dots

10.3 Lewis Structures of Ionic Compounds: Electrons Transferred

10.4 Covalent Lewis Structures: Electrons Shared

10.5 Writing Lewis Structures for Covalent Compounds

10.6 Resonance: Equivalent Lewis Structures for the Same Molecule

10.7 Predicting the Shapes of Molecules

10.8 Electronegativity and Polarity: Why Oil and Water Don’t Mix

11 Gases

11.1 Extra-Long Straws

11.2 Kinetic Molecular Theory: A Model for Gases

11.3 Pressure: The Result of Constant Molecular Collisions

11.4 Boyle’s Law: Pressure and Volume

11.5 Charles’s Law: Volume and Temperature

11.6 The Combined Gas Law: Pressure, Volume, and Temperature

11.7 Avogadro’s Law: Volume and Moles

11.8 The Ideal Gas Law: Pressure, Volume, Temperature, and Moles

11.9 Mixtures of Gases

11.10 Gases in Chemical Reactions

12 Liquids, Solids, and Intermolecular Forces

12.1 Spherical Water

12.2 Properties of Liquids and Solids

12.3 Intermolecular Forces in Action: Surface Tension and Viscosity

12.4 Evaporation and Condensation

12.5 Melting, Freezing, and Sublimation

12.6 Types of Intermolecular Forces: Dispersion, Dipole–Dipole, Hydrogen Bonding, and Ion–Dipole

12.7 Types of Crystalline Solids: Molecular, Ionic, and Atomic

12.8 Water: A Remarkable Molecule

13 Solutions

13.1 Tragedy in Cameroon

13.2 Solutions: Homogeneous Mixtures

13.3 Solutions of Solids Dissolved in Water: How to Make Rock Candy

13.4 Solutions of Gases in Water: How Soda Pop Gets Its Fizz

13.5 Specifying Solution Concentration: Mass Percent

13.6 Specifying Solution Concentration: Molarity

13.7 Solution Dilution

13.8 Solution Stoichiometry

13.9 Freezing Point Depression and Boiling Point Elevation: Making Water Freeze Colder and Boil Hotter

13.10 Osmosis: Why Drinking Saltwater Causes Dehydration

14 Acids and Bases

14.1 Sour Patch Kids and International Spy Movies

14.2 Acids: Properties and Examples

14.3 Bases: Properties and Examples

14.4 Molecular Definitions of Acids and Bases

14.5 Reactions of Acids and Bases

14.6 Acid–Base Titration: A Way to Quantify the Amount of Acid or Base in a Solution

14.7 Strong and Weak Acids and Bases

14.8 Water: Acid and Base in One

14.9 The pH and pOH Scales: Ways to Express Acidity and Basicity

14.10 Buffers: Solutions That Resist pH Change

15 Chemical Equilibrium

15.1 Life: Controlled Disequilibrium

15.2 The Rate of a Chemical Reaction

15.3 The Idea of Dynamic Chemical Equilibrium

15.4 The Equilibrium Constant: A Measure of How Far a Reaction Goes

15.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria: The Equilibrium Expression for Reactions Involving a Solid or a Liquid

15.6 Calculating and Using Equilibrium Constants

15.7 Disturbing a Reaction at Equilibrium: Le Châtelier’s Principle

15.8 The Effect of a Concentration Change on Equilibrium

15.9 The Effect of a Volume Change on Equilibrium

15.10 The Effect of a Temperature Change on Equilibrium

15.11 The Solubility-Product Constant

15.12 The Path of a Reaction and the Effect of a Catalyst

16 Oxidation and Reduction

16.1 The End of the Internal Combustion Engine?

16.2 Oxidation and Reduction: Some Definitions

16.3 Oxidation States: Electron Bookkeeping

16.4 Balancing Redox Equations

16.5 The Activity Series: Predicting Spontaneous Redox Reactions[JJ3]

16.6 Batteries: Using Chemistry to Generate Electricity

16.7 Electrolysis: Using Electricity to Do Chemistry

16.8 Corrosion: Undesirable Redox Reactions

17 Radioactivity and Nuclear Chemistry

17.1 Diagnosing Appendicitis

17.2 The Discovery of Radioactivity

17.3 Types of Radioactivity: Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Decay

17.4 Detecting Radioactivity

17.5 Natural Radioactivity and Half-Life

17.6 Radiocarbon Dating: Using Radioactivity to Measure the Age of Fossils and Other Artifacts

17.7 The Discovery of Fission and the Atomic Bomb

17.8 Nuclear Power: Using Fission to Generate Electricity

17.9 Nuclear Fusion: The Power of the Sun

17.10 The Effects of Radiation on Life

17.11 Radioactivity in Medicine

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