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Benjamin Cummings
Introductory Chemistry / Edition 3

Introductory Chemistry / Edition 3

by Steve Russo


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 2900805382982
Publisher: Benjamin Cummings
Publication date: 05/25/2006
Series: Alternative eText Formats Series
Edition description: REV
Pages: 864
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 1.25(h) x 9.00(d)

About the Author

Steve Russo is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Chemistry at Cornell University and the Director of Organic Laboratories. Prior to that, he was an Assistant Professor at Indiana University. While there, he designed and implemented a state-of-the-art computer resource center for the undergraduate chemistry curriculum. He received his B.S. in chemistry from St. Francis College and his Ph.D. in physical organic chemistry from Cornell University. He is a member of the American Chemical Society and has been a recipient of the Dupont Teaching Award, Clark Teaching Award, and the Amoco Distinguished Teaching Award.

Mike Silver is a Professor of Chemistry at Hope College. He received his B.S. in chemistry from Fairleigh Dickinson University and his Ph.D. in inorganic chemistry from Cornell University. He is a member of the American Chemical Society, past president of the West Michigan Section, and a member of the Council of Undergraduate Research. He has received the Camille and Henry Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar Award for excellence in teaching and research and the Provost's Award for Teaching Excellence. Currently he is involved in collaborative research with the Dow Corning Chemical Company.

Table of Contents

About the Authorsv
Chapter 1What Is Chemistry?1
1.1Science and Technology1
1.3Matter and Its Physical Transformations9
1.4Matter and Its Chemical Transformations12
1.5How Science Is Done-The Scientific Method15
1.6Learning Chemistry with This Book18
Chapter 2The Numerical Side of Chemistry27
2.1Numbers in Chemistry-Precision and Accuracy27
2.2Numbers in Chemistry-Uncertainty and Significant Figures30
2.3Zeros and Significant Figures33
2.4Scientific Notation36
2.5How to Handle Significant Figures and Scientific Notation When Doing Math40
2.6Numbers with a Name-Units of Measure44
2.7Density: A Useful Physical Property of Matter50
2.8Doing Calculations in Chemistry-Unit Analysis52
2.9Rearranging Equations-Algebraic Manipulations with Density57
2.10Quantifying Energy60
Chapter 3The Evolution of Atomic Theory77
3.1Dalton's Atomic Theory77
3.2Development of a Model for Atomic Structure82
3.3The Nucleus83
3.4The Structure of the Atom87
3.5The Law of Mendeleev-Chemical Periodicity93
3.6The Modern Periodic Table98
3.7Other Regular Variations in the Properties of Elements104
Chapter 4The Modern Model of the Atom121
4.1Seeing the Light-A New Model of the Atom121
4.2A New Kind of Physics-Energy Is Quantized125
4.3The Bohr Theory of Atomic Structure126
4.4Periodicity and Line Spectra Explained129
4.5Subshells and Electron Configuration136
4.6Compound Formation and the Octet Rule144
4.7Atomic Size Revisited149
4.8The Modern Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom150
Chapter 5Chemical Bonding and Nomenclature165
5.1Molecules-What Are They? Why Are They?165
5.2Holding Molecules Together-The Covalent Bond166
5.3Molecules, Dot Structures, and the Octet Rule172
5.4Multiple Bonds178
5.5Ionic Bonding-Bring on the Metals183
5.6Equal Versus Unequal Sharing of Electrons-Electronegativity and the Polar Covalent Bond185
5.7Nomenclature-Naming Chemical Compounds189
Chapter 6The Shape of Molecules211
6.1Why Is the Shape of a Molecule Important?211
6.2Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory213
6.3Polarity of Molecules, or When Does 2 + 2 Not Equal 4?222
6.4Intermolecular Forces-Dipolar Interactions230
Chapter 7Chemical Reactions243
7.1What Is a Chemical Reaction?243
7.2How Are Reactants Transformed into Products?244
7.3Balancing Chemical Equations247
7.4Types of Reactions251
7.5Solubility and Precipitation Reactions253
7.6Introduction to Acid-Base Reactions260
Chapter 8Stoichiometry and the Mole273
8.1Stoichiometry-What Is It?273
8.2The Mole276
8.3Reaction Stoichiometry285
8.4Dealing with a Limiting Reactant291
8.5Combustion Analysis297
8.6Going Back and Forth Between Formulas and Percent Composition305
Chapter 9The Transfer of Electrons from One Atom to Another in a Chemical Reaction323
9.1What Is Electricity?323
9.2Electron Bookkeeping-Oxidation States324
9.3Recognizing Electron-Transfer Reactions336
9.4Electricity from Redox Reactions341
9.5Which Way Do Electrons Flow?-The EMF Series348
9.6Another Look at Oxidation: The Corrosion of Metals353
Chapter 10Intermolecular Forces and the Phases of Matter369
10.1Why Does Matter Exist in Different Phases?369
10.2Intermolecular Forces375
10.3A Closer Look at Dipole Forces-Hydrogen-Bonding379
10.4Vancomycin-The Antibiotic of Last Resort and Its Life-Saving Hydrogen Bonds!383
10.5Nonmolecular Substances387
Chapter 11What If There Were No Intermolecular Forces? The Ideal Gas399
11.1Describing the Gas Phase-P, V, n, and T399
11.2Describing a Gas Mathematically-The Ideal Gas Law406
11.3Getting the Most from the Ideal Gas Law413
Chapter 12Solutions433
12.1What Is a Solution?433
12.2Energy and the Formation of Solutions436
12.3Entropy and the Formation of Solutions444
12.4Solubility, Temperature, and Pressure447
12.5Getting Unlikes to Dissolve-Soaps and Detergents450
12.7Percent Composition462
12.8Reactions in Solution465
12.9Colligative Properties of Solutions473
Chapter 13When Reactants Turn into Products499
13.1Chemical Kinetics499
13.2Energy Changes and Chemical Reactions502
13.3Reaction Rates and Activation Energy-Getting over the Hill511
13.4How Concentration Affects Reaction Rate520
13.5Reaction Order525
13.6Why Reaction Orders Have the Values They Do-Mechanisms529
Chapter 14Chemical Equilibrium547
14.1Dynamic Equilibrium-My Reaction Seems To Have Stopped!547
14.2Why Do Chemical Reactions Reach Equilibrium?553
14.3The Position of Equilibrium-The Equilibrium Constant, K[subscript eq]557
14.4Disturbing a Reaction Already at Equilibrium-Le Chatelier's Principle563
14.5How Equilibrium Responds to Temperature Changes567
14.6Equilibria for Heterogeneous Reactions, Solubility, and Equilibrium Calculations570
Chapter 15Electrolytes, Acids, and Bases591
15.1Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes591
15.2Electrolytes Weak and Strong598
15.3Acids Weak and Strong600
15.4Bases-The Opposites of Acids604
15.5Help! I Need Another Definition of Acid and Base608
15.6Weak Bases611
15.7Is This Solution Acidic or Basic? Understanding Water, Autodissociation, and K[subscript w]614
15.8The pH Scale620
15.9Resisting pH Changes-Buffers625
Chapter 16Nuclear Chemistry647
16.1The Case of the Missing Mass-Mass Defect and the Stability of the Nucleus647
16.2Half-Life and the Band of Stability652
16.3Spontaneous Nuclear Changes-Radioactivity655
16.4Using Radioactive Isotopes to Date Objects666
16.5Nuclear Energy-Fission and Fusion668
16.6Biological Effects and Medical Applications of Radioactivity673
Chapter 17The Chemistry of Carbon683
17.1Carbon-A Unique Element683
17.2Naturally Occurring Compounds of Carbon and Hydrogen-Hydrocarbons687
17.3Naming Hydrocarbons694
17.4Properties of Hydrocarbons706
17.5Functionalized Hydrocarbons-Bring On the Heteroatoms707
Chapter 18Synthetic and Biological Polymers727
18.1Building Polymers727
18.2Polyethylene and Its Relatives728
18.3Nylon-A Polymer You Can Wear731
18.4Polysaccharides and Carbohydrates733
18.6DNA-The Master Biopolymer741
Selected AnswersA-1

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