Invitation to Public Speaking - National Geographic Edition / Edition 6 available in Paperback
- Pub. Date:
- Cengage Learning
Griffin's INVITATION TO PUBLIC SPEAKING, 6th Edition, equips you with solid public speaking skills that will serve you well in your college coursework and far beyond. This text illustrates the power and importance of public speaking in your life as well as in the community. Featuring spectacular photographs, this edition also includes dynamic stories and tips from NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC researchers, scientists, artists, and activists who speak to groups of all sizes and ages. In addition, sample student speeches, speech-building exercises, and step-by-step explanations thoroughly prepare you for speaking in class, at public gatherings, and ultimately throughout your career.
About the Author
Cindy L. Griffin is a professor emerita of communication studies at Colorado State University. A proponent of civic engagement and civility in people's communication and their lives, she has taught public speaking; civility; gender and communication; communication, language, and thought; contemporary theories of rhetoric; history of rhetorical theories; feminist theories of discourse; identity, voice, and agency; and graduate seminars in women's studies. Her research interests include developing the theory of invitational rhetoric, advancing theories that help communication scholars and students understand our complex identities, and exploring the relationships between civility, power, and rhetoric. Dr. Griffin is the author of INVITATION TO PUBLIC SPEAKING (Cengage, 2012) and INVITATION TO PUBLIC SPEAKING HANDBOOK (Cengage, 2011); coauthor of INVITATION TO HUMAN COMMUNICATION (with Jennifer Bone, 2013), FEMINIST RHETORICAL THEORIES (with Sonja K. Foss and Karen A. Foss, Waveland, 2006), and READINGS IN FEMINIST RHETORICAL THEORY (with Karen A. Foss and Sonja K. Foss, Waveland, 2004); and coeditor of STANDING IN THE INTERSECTIONS: FEMINIST VOICES, FEMINIST PRACTICES IN COMMUNICATION STUDIES (with Karma R. Chávez, SUNY Press, 2012). A former editor of WOMEN'S STUDIES IN COMMUNICATION (2006-2010), Dr. Griffin also has published articles and book chapters addressing identities, civilities, feminisms, and rhetorical and communication theories. She received her PhD from Indiana University.
Table of Contents
1. Why Speak in Public? Public Speaking in the Workplace: How Much Public Speaking Will You Do? The Power of Ethical Public Speaking. Culture and Speaking Style. What Is Ethical Public Speaking? Public Speaking Creates a Community. Public Speaking is Audience Centered. Public Speaking is Influenced by Technology. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Speaks: Thomas Taha Rassam Culhane: The Great Conversation. Public Speaking Encourages Ethical Dialogue. Ethical Moment: Can Breaking the Law be Ethical? A Model of the Public Speaking Process. Building Your Confidence as a Public Speaker. Do Your Research. Practice Your Speech. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Explorer Tip: Becca Skinner. Have Realistic Expectations. Practice Visualization and Affirmations. Connect with Your Audience. Civic Engagement in Action: What's Your OrangeBand? Chapter Summary. 2. Effective Listening. Why Listen to Others? Why We Sometimes Fail to Listen. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Explorer Tip: Aziz Abu Sarah. Listener Interference. Speaker Interference Caused by Information. Speaker Interference Caused by Language. Ethical Moment: The Problems with Offensive Language. Speaker Interference Caused by Differences. Technology can Help or Hinder Listening. Audience-Centered Listening. How to Listen Carefully. How to Listen Critically. How to Listen Ethically. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Speaks: K. David Harrison: Let's Listen While We Still Can. Speakers as Listeners: Adapting to Your Audience. Audiences Who Think They Aren't Interested. Audiences Who Are Distracted or Disruptive. Audiences Who Are Confused. Civic Engagement Inaction: The Listening Project: What Does The World Think of America? Audiences Who Plan Their Responses Rather Than Listen. Chapter Summary. 3. Developing Your Speech Topic and Purpose. How Context Influences Your Speaking Goals. Deciding to Speak. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Speaks: Becca Skinner: Personal Stories After Natural Disasters. Being Asked to Speak. Being Required to Speak. Choosing Your Speech Topic. Articulating Your Purpose. Stating Your Thesis. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Explorer Tip: Becca Skinner. The Classroom Setting. Choosing Your Topic and Staying Audience Centered. Brainstorming. Civic Engagement in Action: "I Had No Idea That Anyone Was Listening." Narrowing Your Topic. Articulating Your Purpose. General Speaking Purposes. Specific Speaking Purposes. Stating Your Thesis. Chapter Summary. 4. Your Audience and Speaking Environment. Considering an Audience as a Group of Diverse People. Master Statuses. Public Speaking in the Workplace: Are There Advantages to Diversity? Standpoints, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Values. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Explorer Tip: T. H. Culhane. Demographic Audience Analysis. Considering an Audience as a Community. Voluntary Audiences. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Speaks: Raghava KK: Sensitivity Toward Others. Involuntary Audiences. Considering Your Speaking Environment. Size and Physical Arrangement. Technology. Temporal Factors. Adapting to Audience Expectations. Expectations about the Speaker. Civic Engagement in Action: "I Wanted to Understand." Expectations about the Form of a Speech. Expectations about Discussions. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Explorer Tip: Barrington Irving. Chapter Summary. 5. Gathering Supporting Materials. Determine What Types of Information You Need. Use Your Personal Knowledge and Experience. Identify the Technology You Might Use. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Explorer Tip: Barrington Irving. Search for Information on the Internet. The Ethics of Internet Research. Evaluating Internet Information. Finding Information at the Library. Orientations and Librarians. Library Catalogs. Databases and Indexes. Government Documents. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Speaks: Barrington Irving: Build, Fly, and Soar. Evaluating Library Resources. Conduct Research Interviews. Determine Whom to Interview. Civic Engagement in Action: "I'm Going to Help These Kids." Schedule the Interview. Prepare for the Interview. Public Speaking in the Workplace: Conducting Interviews. Conduct the Interview. Follow Up the Interview. Ethical Interviews. Research Tips. Begin by Filling Out Your Research Inventory. Take Notes and Download Copies. Avoid Plagiarism. Set Up a Filing System. Bookmark Interesting URLs. Gather More Material than You think You'll Need. Begin Your Bibliography with Your First Source. Citing Sources. Citing Sources Is Ethical. Citing Sources Adds Credibility. Rules for Citing Sources. Chapter Summary. 6. Developing and Supporting Your Ideas. Examples. Use Examples to Clarify Concepts. Use Examples to Reinforce Points. Use Examples to Bring Concepts to Life or Elicit Emotions. Use Examples to Build Your Case or Make Credible Generalizations. Narratives. Use Narratives to Personalize a Point. Use Narratives to Challenge an Audience to Think in New Ways. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Explorer Tip: Alexandra Cousteau. Use Narratives to Draw an Audience in Emotionally. Use Narratives to Unite with Your Audience. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Speaks: Josh Thome: Young People and Social Change. Statistics. Types of Statistics. Use Statistics to Synthesize Large Amounts of Information. Use Statistics When the Numbers Tell a Powerful Story. Use Statistics When Numerical Evidence Strengthens a Claim. Testimony. Ethical Moment: Master Statuses and Unintended Consequences. Use Testimony When You Need the Voice of an Expert. Use Testimony to Illustrate Differences or Agreements. Use Your Own Testimony When Your Experience Says It Best. Paraphrase Testimony to Improve Listenability. Definitions. Use Definitions to Clarify and Create Understanding. Use Definitions to Clarify an Emotionally or Politically Charged Word. Use Definitions to Illustrate What Something Is Not. Use Definitions to Trace the History of a Word. A Map of Reasoning. Chapter Summary. 7. Organizing and Outlining Your Speech. Organize for Clarity. Main Points. Identify Your Main Points. Use an Appropriate Number of Main Points. Public Speaking in the Workplace: Different Generations Can Equal Different Styles of Communicating. Order Your Main Points. Tips for Preparing Main Points. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Speaks: Albert Yu-Min Lin: Extreme Engineering in the "Forbidden Zone." Connectives. Transitions. Internal Previews. Internal Summaries. Signposts. The Preparation Outline. Title, Specific Purpose, and Thesis Statement. Introduction. Main Points, Subpoints, and Sub-Subpoints. Conclusion. Civic Engagement in Action: Poof That One Person Does Count. Connectives. Works Cited. Tips for the Preparation Outline. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Explorer Tip: Becca Skinner. The Speaking Outline. Tips for the Speaking Outline. Note Cards. Chapter Summary. 8. Introductions and Conclusions. The Introduction. Catch the Audience's Attention. Reveal the Topic of Your Speech. Establish Your Credibility. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Speaks: Alexandra Cousteau: Water Is Life. Preview Your Speech. Preparing a Compelling Introduction. Ask a Question. Tell a Story. Recite a Quotation or a Poem. Public Speaking in the Workplace: How Your Public Speaking Skills Can Help You Keep That New Job. Give a Demonstration. Make an Intriguing or Startling Statement. State the Importance of the Topic. Share Your Expertise. State What's to Come. Civic Engagement in Action: Try to Live a Meaningful Life. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Explorer Tip: Becca Skinner. Tips for Our Introduction. The Conclusion. End Your Speech. Reinforce Your Thesis Statement. Preparing a Compelling Conclusion. Summarize Your Main Points. Answer Your Introductory Question. Refer Back to the Introduction. Recite a Quotation. Tips for Your Conclusion. Chapter Summary. 9. Language. Language Is Ambiguous. Language and Culture. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Speaks: Gregory D. S. Anderson: Language Hotspots. Language and Gender. Ethical Moment: "It Begins with the Phrase: 'That's So Gay.'" Language and Accuracy. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Explorer Tip: Aziz Abu Sarah. Language and Public Speaking. Spoken Language is More Interactive. Spoken Language is More Casual. Spoken Language is More Repetitive. Language, Imagery, and Rhythm. Language That Creates Memorable Imagery. Language That Creates a Pleasing Rhythm. Chapter Summary. 10. Delivering Your Speech. Methods of Delivery. Extemporaneous Delivery. Impromptu Delivery. Manuscript Delivery. Civic Engagement in Action: "Alright Hear This." Memorized Delivery. Technology and Delivery. Verbal Components of Delivery. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Speaks: Wade Davis: Unique Manifestations of the Human Spirit. Volume. Rate. Pitch and Inflection. Pauses. Articulation. Pronunciation. Dialect. Nonverbal Components of Delivery. Personal Appearance. Eye Contact. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Explorer Tip: Barrington Irving. Facial Expression. Posture. Gestures. Proxemics. Public Speaking in the Workplace: Managing those Nerves. Rehearsing Your Speech. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Explorer Tip: Becca Skinner. Chapter Summary. 11. Visual Aids. Why Visual Aids Are Important. Visual Aids Help Gain and Maintain Audience Attention. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Explorer Tip: Barrington Irving. Visual Aids Help Audiences Recall Information. Visual Aids Help Explain and Clarify Information. Visual Aids May Increase Persuasiveness and Enhance Credibility. Visual Aids May Reduce Nervousness. Types of Visual Aids. Apps and Computer Software. Prezi, Google, and PowerPoint Slides. Objects, Models, and Demonstrations. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Speaks: Asher Jay: Channel Your Inner Mosquito. Whiteboards, Smartboards, and Flip charts. Handouts. What to Show on a Visual Aid. Lists. Charts. Graphs. Drawings. Photographs. Maps. Formats for Visual Aids. Font Style and Size. Color. Balance. Ethical Moment: Global Graffiti: Whose Space Is It? Guidelines for Effective Use of Visual Aids. Guidelines for Ethical Use of Visual Aids. Chapter Summary. 12. Informative Speaking. Types of Informative Speeches. Speeches about Processes. Public Speaking in the Workplace: How Much Public Speaking Will You Do? Speeches about Events. Speeches about Places and People. Speeches about Objects. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Speaks: Sylvia Earle: Ocean Hero. Speeches about Concepts. Organizational Patterns for Informative Speeches. Chronological Pattern. Spatial Pattern. Causal Pattern. Tips for Giving Effective Informative Speeches. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Explorer Tip: Barrington Irving. Bring Your Topic to Life. Stay Audience Centered. Use Language That Is Clear and Unbiased. Ethical Moment: What Might Those Tattoos Be Communicating? Ethical Informative Speaking. Chapter Summary. 13. Invitational Speaking. Inviting Public Deliberation. The Invitational Speaking Environment. The Condition of Equality. The Condition of Value. The Condition of Self-Determination. The Invitational Speech. Speeches to Explore an Issue. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Explorer Tip: Alexandra Cousteau. Organizational Patterns for Invitational Speeches. Chronological Pattern. Spatial Pattern. Topical Pattern. Civic Engagement in Action. Trespassers Welcome. Multiple Perspectives Pattern. Tips for Giving Invitational Speeches. Use Invitational Language. Allow Time for Discussion. Respect Diverse Positions. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Speaks: Aziz Abu Sarah: Throwing Stones. Ethical Invitational Speaking. Stay True to Your Purpose. Share Your Perspective and Listen Fully to the Perspectives of Others. Chapter Summary. 14. Reasoning. Patterns of Reasoning. Induction, or Reasoning from Specific Instances. Deduction, or Reasoning from a General Principle. Causal Reasoning. Analogical Reasoning. Reasoning by Sign. Tips for Reasoning Ethically. Build Your Credibility. Use Accurate Evidence. Verify the Structure of Your Reasoning. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Explorer Tip: Aziz Abu Sarah. Fallacies in Reasoning. Ad Hominem: Against the Person. Bandwagon: Everyone Else Agrees. Either-Or: A False Dilemma. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Speaks: Shabana Basij-Rasikh: Create the Best Educated Leadership. False Cause (Post Hoc): Mistaking a Chronological Relationship. Ethical Moment: What Are Good Reasons? Hasty Generalization: Too Few Examples. Red Herring: Raising an Irrelevant Issue. Slippery Slope: The Second Step Is Inevitable. Staying Audience Centered. Chapter Summary. 15. Persuasive Speaking. Types of Persuasive Speeches. Questions of Fact. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Explorer Tip: Aziz Abu Sarah. Questions of Value. Questions of Policy. Organization of Speeches on Questions of Fact. Organization of Speeches on Questions of Value. Civic Engagement in Action: A Few Citizens With Buckets. Organization of Speeches on Questions of Policy. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Speaks: Sol Guy: Apathetic is Pathetic. Problem-Solution Organization. Problem-Cause-Solution Organization. Causal Organization. Narrative Organization. Comparative Advantages Organization. Monroe's Motivated Sequence. Connecting with Your Audience. Evidence and Persuasion. Use Specific Evidence. Present Novel Information. Use Credible Sources. Credibility and Persuasion. Types of Credibility. Enhancing Your Credibility. Emotion and Persuasion. Stay Audience Centered. Use Vivid Language. Balance Emotion and Reason. Public Speaking in the Workplace: Tips for Job Interviews. Tips for Giving Effective Persuasive Speeches. Be Realistic about Changing Your Audience's Views. Use Evidence Fairly and Strategically. Ethical Persuasive Speaking. Chapter Summary. 16. Speaking on Special Occasions. Speeches of Introduction. Be Brief. Be Accurate. Be Appropriate. Speeches of Commemoration. Share What Is Unique and Special. Express Sincere Appreciation. Tell the Truth. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Speaks: Chad Pregracke: Cleaning Up Our Rivers. Speeches of Acceptance. Ethical Moment: President Obama's Call to Action and the Sandy Hook Tragedy. Understand the Purpose of the Award. Recognize Others. Respect Time Limitations. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Explorer Tip: Barrington Irving. Speeches to Entertain. Use Humor Carefully. Speak about Meaningful Issues. Pay Careful Attention to Your Delivery. Chapter Summary. Appendix: Speaking in Small Groups. What are Small Groups? Why Do People Speak in Small Groups? NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Speaks: Dino Martins: Working Behind the Scenes with Insects. Formats for Small Group Speaking. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Explorer Tip: Alexandra Cousteau. Question-and-Answer Sessions in Small Group Formats. Tips for Speaking Effectively and Ethically in Small Groups. Glossary. References. Index. Bonus Custom Chapters. Impromptu Speaking. Civic Engagement. Service Learning.