This book presents updated scientific developments in theoretical, specific and applied domains of ionic liquids. Ionic liquids studies are a rapidly evolving field in physical chemistry, material science, technology and engineering. Use of ionic liquids for research in biology and natural resource domain has received significant attention. This book encompasses the latest developments in ionic liquid research on organic reactions and biological applications, and materials and processing as its relevant fields. It is a valuable source of information for scientists, engineers and academicians engaged in the research related to ionic liquids.