In this book, Olivier Roy examines the history, ideology and structures of the Afghan resistance. He argues that the forces opposing Marxist rule of the country, though advocating a return to the basic tenets of Islam, are far from reactionary or backward-looking. Indeed he sees an Islamic revolution, advocating a modernisation of Afghan society, taking place under the eyes of the Russian occupation forces, whose efforts to contain it have so far served mainly to consolidate it. This penetrating study charts the history of resistance to the present Afghan central government and its Russian ally. The first five chapters deal with the political, social and religious history of Afghanistan UP to 1978 and later chapters are concerned with the organisation of resistance, the parties involved and the differences between various groups, as well as their relations with Pakistan.