How to confront, embrace, and learn from the unavoidable failures of creative practice; with case studies that range from winemaking to animation.
Failure is an inevitable part of any creative practice. As game designers, John Sharp and Colleen Macklin have grappled with crises of creativity, false starts, and bad outcomes. Their tool for coping with the many varieties of failure: iteration, the cyclical process of conceptualizing, prototyping, testing, and evaluating. Sharp and Macklin have found that failureoften hidden, covered up, a source of embarrassmentis the secret ingredient of iterative creative process. In Iterate , they explain how to fail better.
After laying out the four components of creative practiceintention, outcome, process, and evaluationSharp and Macklin describe iterative methods from a wide variety of fields. They show, for example, how Radiolab cohosts Jad Abumrad and Robert Krulwich experiment with radio as a storytelling medium; how professional skateboarder Amelia Bródka develops skateboarding tricks through trial and error; and how artistic polymath Miranda July explores human frailty through a variety of media and techniques. Whimsical illustrations tell parallel stories of iteration, as hard-working cartoon figures bake cupcakes, experiment with levitating office chairs, and think outside the box in toothbrush design (“let's add propellers!”). All, in their various ways, use iteration to transform failure into creative outcomes. With Iterate , Sharp and Macklin offer useful lessons for anyone interested in the creative process.
Case Studies: Allison Tauziet, winemaker; Matthew Maloney, animator; Jad Abumrad and Robert Krulwich, Radiolab cohosts; Wylie Dufresne, chef; Nathalie Pozzi, architect, and Eric Zimmerman, game designer; Andy Milne, jazz musician; Amelia Bródka, skateboarder; Baratunde Thurston, comedian; Cas Holman, toy designer; Miranda July, writer and filmmaker
About the Author
John Sharp is Associate Professor in the School of Art, Media, and Technology at Parsons School of Design at the New School. He is the author of Works of Game: On the Aesthetics of Games and Art (MIT Press) and coauthor (with Colleen Macklin) of Games, Design, and Play: A Detailed Approach to Iterative Game Design and (with David Thomas) Fun, Taste, & Games: An Aesthetics of the Idle, Unproductive, and Otherwise Playful (MIT Press). Sharp and Macklin are Codirectors of the PETLab (Prototyping Education and Technology Lab) at Parsons.
Colleen Macklin is Associate Professor in the School of Art, Media, and Technology at Parsons School of Design at the New School and coauthor (with John Sharp) of Games, Design, and Play: A Detailed Approach to Iterative Game Design . Sharp and Macklin are Codirectors of the PETLab (Prototyping Education and Technology Lab) at Parsons.
Table of Contents
Section I Creativity, Failure, and Iteration 1
1 Creativity 3
2 Failure 23
3 Iteration 43
4 Ten Perspectives on Iteration 59
Section II Ten Perspectives 83
5 Material Contexts: Allison Tauziet, Winemaker 85
6 Reflective Contexts: Matthew Maloney, Animator 101
7 Targeted Intentions: Radiolab 115
8 Exploratory Intentions: Chef Wylie Dufresne 127
9 Methodological Processes: Nathalie Pozzi, Architect, and Erie Zimmerman, Game Designer 143
10 Improvisational Processes: Andy Milne, Musician 159
11 Internal Evaluation: Amelia Brodka, Professional Skateboarder 173
12 External Evaluation: Baratunde Thurston, Comedian 189
13 Convergent Outcomes: Cas Holman, Toy Designer 203
14 Divergent Outcomes: Miranda July, Artist 219
Section III Failing Better 239
15 Failing Better 241
Postscript: iterating on Iterate 253
What People are Saying About This
“ Iterate lifts the veil on the creative process. Rather than presenting creativity as an arcane or mysterious practice, Macklin and Sharp articulate the underlying, repeatable systems that support fruitful creative work. By examining failure and iteration through case studies with practitioners ranging from chefs to filmmakers, Iterate lays out techniques that are highly accessible and applicable to anyone working in a creative field. ” Alexis Lloyd , Head of Design Innovation, Automattic
“This book can't help but shape our understanding of the critical nature of creative systems in our life, our work, and all points in between. Just as much a spirited look at creativity as it is a way of looking at the world. Essential!” Liz Danzico , Creative Director, NPR, and Founding Chairperson, MFA Interaction Design, School of Visual Arts
“This timely and inspiring book effectively strikes 'failure' from the design lexicon and convincingly supplants it with iteration as design's essential instigator of ingenuity. Written in plain language and using examples from filmmaker Miranda July, chef Wylie Dufresne, skateboarder Amelia Brodka, and winemaker Allison Tauziet, among others, the authors ground the iterative process in relevant theory and research, while offering practical and practicable insight. ” Denise Gonzales Crisp , Designer and Professor, College of Design, NC State