A joint task force (JTF) is established when the scope, complexity, or other factors of the contingency or crisis require capabilities of Services from at least two Military Departments operating under a single joint force commander (JFC). The JTF establishing authority designates the commander, joint task force (CJTF), assigns the mission, designates forces, delegates command authorities and relationships, and provides other command and control (C2) guidance necessary for the CJTF to form the joint force and begin operations. The appropriate authority may establish a JTF on a geographic or functional basis or a combination of the two. In either case, the establishing authority typically assigns a joint operations area (JOA) to the JTF. The size, composition, capabilities, and other attributes will vary significantly among JTFs based on the mission and various factors of the operational environment, such as the adversary, the geography of the JO A, the nature of the crisis (e.g., flood, earthquake), and the time available to accomplish the mission. Joint functions are related capabilities and activities grouped together to help the JFC and component commanders integrate, synchronize, and direct joint operations. Functions that are common to joint operations at all levels of war fall into six basic groups: C2, intelligence, fires, movement and maneuver, protection, and sustainment. The Basic Element of the JTF Staff is the Directorate. Typically, these are the manpower and personnel directorate of a joint staff (J-1), intelligence directorate of a joint staff (J-2), operations directorate of a joint staff (J-3), logistics directorate of a joint staff (J-4), plans directorate of a joint staff (J-5), and communications system directorate of a joint staff (J-6). The CJTF, joint force staff, and components may operate with m any interorganizational partners throughout the course of a single operation. The nature of interaction and considerations (type, authorities, protocols, etc.) vary with each potential partner. This publication provides joint doctrine for the formation and employment of a JTF HQ to C2 joint operations. It provides guidance on the role of the JTF HQ in planning, preparing, executing, and assessing JTF operations.