Karl Kraus: A Viennese Critic of the Twentieth Century

Karl Kraus: A Viennese Critic of the Twentieth Century

by Wilma Abeles Iggers

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1967)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9789401502283
Publisher: Springer Netherlands
Publication date: 01/01/1967
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1967
Pages: 248
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.02(d)

Table of Contents

I Introduction. Life, Work and Thought.- Early Life (1) — Die Fackel (1) — Lectures (2) — Associates (5) — Es capism in the thirties (5) — Kraus’s works (11) — Poems (12) — Plays (15) — Epigrams and aphorisms (18) — Glossen (18) — Polemics (19).- II The Absolute Value of Language.- Language was central to Kraus (21) — Contemporary view of language (21) —Absolute value of language (21) —Content and form (23) — Importance of literal meanings (23) — “Unmaskings” (24) — Relationship to language (25) — Mysticism (26) — Reverence (27) — Languages (27) — Opposition to change (29) — Heine and the German language (29) — Criticism of the language of others (31) — Austrian German (32) — Cliché phrases (32) — Language of the Jews (33) — Kraus’s own language (34) — Jokes about weaknesses (36) — Personal attacks to be viewed as art (37) — The satirist as counterpart of the poet (37) — Method (40) — Too much bitterness for satire (40) — Quotations (41) — Picturesque expressions (41) — Humor through surprise (42) — Humor by contrast (43) — Attraction due to wit (44) — Humor in language (44) — Claim of superiority (44) — Perishability of linguistic humor (45) — Kraus’s utterances on his own writing (45) — Language as judge of good and evil (45).- III Literature, Literary Figures, and Criticism.- View of literature not purely aesthetic (48) — Main criticism is commercialism of writers (48) — Die demolierte Literatur (48) — Literature as another moneymaking racket (49) — Pretense of refinement (50) — Favored Biedermeier (51) — Emphasis on language (51) — Necessity of great poetry’s being free from causal relationships (52) — Poetry and madness (52) — Inferiority of the novel (55) — Extremeness of his views (56) — Incidental references to favorite authors (56) — Acceptance and rejection of writers (57) — Rejection of authors on nonessential grounds (59) — Criticism of contemporaries (59) — Altenberg (60) — Nestroy (61) — Wedekinds and Kraus’s similarity to Nestroy (62) — Nestroy and Hebbel (63) — Nestroy’s politics (64) — Goethe (64) — Schiller (66) — Wedekind (67) — Brecht (67) — Bahr (67) — Other very much disliked authors (68) — Heine (69) — Grillparzer (70) — Harden (71) — Hofmannsthal (73) — Rilke (74) — Ibsen (74) — Schnitzler (74) — Salten (75) — Werfel (75) — Kerr (76) — War poets (77) — Burgtheater (78) — Deterioration of the theater (79) — Theater and modern political institutions (79) — Naturalism (79) — Expressionism (81) — Absence of heroism (81) — Relations of theater and press (81) — Necessity for good plays being read and bad ones acted (82) — Deterioration of acting (83) — The status of actors and actresses (83) — Reinhardt (84) — Piscator (84) — Operetta (85) — Bad operettas (86) — Offenbach (87) — Offenbach renaissance (88) — Deterioration of criticism (88) — Not Marxist literary theory (89) — Lack of an explicit theory of literature (89) — Critics (91) — Art (91) — Art and the times (92).- IV The Pernicious Press.- Fundamental opposition to the press (94) — Harmfulness (94) — Commercialization (97) — Prestige (98) — Pretentious nonsense (99) — War (100) — Deterioration of the readers (101) — Values (102) — Lack of dignity (103) — Relations with business (103) — Plagiarism, sensationalism, and gossip (104) — Chattiness (105) — Publicity campaigns (106) — Language (106) — Attacks on specific papers (108) — Benedikt (109) — Preoccupation with topics insignificant to Kraus (110) — Feuilletonists (110) — Békessy (110) — Social Democratic press (113) — Periodicals (114) — The radio (115) — “Authorities” (115) — Power (115) — Privileges of the press (116) — Opposition to freedom of the press (116)— “Totschweigetaktik” (117) — Selfcomparison with the press (117) — Unfairness and mistakes (i18) — Reason for failure (118).- V War as a symptom of the contemporary crisis.- The war as a cultural revolution (120) — Destruction of moral values by profit principle (120) — Corruption in the intellectual sphere (121) — War instigated by profit seekers (121) — The masses as tools (121) — Disappearance of heroism (122) — Extension of society at peace (122) — Pretenses (123) — Danger of victory (124) — War against militaristic expansion (124) — Prophecy of conquest by Asia (124) — Die letzten Tage der Menschheit (125) — Businessmen (125) — Opportunities (126) — The military (126) — Rottenness of the culture (127) — The unscrupulous and profitmaking press (128) — Art in the service of the business man (129) — Poetry (129) — Science (130) — Medicine (130) — Education (130) — Religion (131) — Union-smashing (131) — Paradox (132) — Conclusion (132).- VI Reactions to political events.- Limited interest in politics (133) — A shady business (134) — Lack of understanding and faith (134) Interest in politics (135) — Personalities (135) — Lueger (136) — The emperors (137) — The Balkans (138) — The Germans (139) — Opposition to nationalism (140) — Nationalism of which he approved (140) — Nationalities (141) — The Republic (141) — Disappointment in the Republic (142) — Antagonism toward Social-Democratic personalities (144) — Liberalism and parliamentarism (145) — Belittling of politics, especially democracy (146) — Actual distance from the masses (147) — The Communists (148) — The Christian Socials and Schober (148) — Dollfuss (149) — National Socialism (150) — The retreat of Kraus (152) — Conclusion (152).- VII The Social Role of Woman.- Interest in woman (155) — General attitude (155) — Excessive interference (156) — Kraus’s opposition to the public attitude (156) — Demand for maximum freedom (157) — Private and public morality (157) — Freedom for union of mind and sensuality (157) — Man and woman (158) — Woman as the erotic creature (159) — Secondary importance of the mother aspect (159) Limited social responsibilities (160) — Wedekind’s Lulu (160) — Character of woman (161) — Opposition to the emancipated woman (161) — Woman and the artist (162) — Prostitution (163) — The prostitute and the journalist (164) — Need for discreetness (164) — Opposition to public interference (165) — Jesus as Kraus’s authority (167) — Conformity with nature (167) — — The Chinese as examples of naturalness (168) — Two kinds of homosexuality (168) — Remedy (169) — Only second-hand enjoyment is perverted (169) — Conclusion (170).- VIII The Jewish Problem.- The historical situation (171) — Jews were strangers (172) — Antisemitism (172) — Attempts at a solution (173) — Der jüdische Selbsthass (173) — Kraus and his Jewishness (174) — Language and Jewishness (177) — Materialism of the Jews (178) — Acceptance of antisemites (179) — Explanation of antisemitism (179) — Plea for assimilation (179) — Lack of discussion of Jewish religion (181) — Objections to Jews often contradictory (182) — Attacks against Jewish big business (182) — Antisemitic jokes (183) — The Dreyfus affair (183) — The Hilsner affair (185) — The Zionist movement (185) — Kraus’s authority and his misuse of it (186) — The question of Kraus’s antisemitism (189) — Other “negative Jews” (189) — Contrast with conscious Jews (190) — Attitude at the time of the Nazis (191).- IX Balance.- Negative and hidden social concept (192) — Difficulty of following Kraus (193) — Sensitivity as Kraus’s criterion and goal (194) — Life the supreme value (195) — View of death (195) — Explanation of Kraus from his Austrian background (196) — Kraus’s idea of himself as a judge (197) — Prophecies (197) — Kraus’s basic motivation (198) — Kraus’s purpose (198) — Revolt against the unbound intellect (199) — Rejection of the economic view of man (203) — Technology (204) — The loss of imagination (206) — The arrogance of the mediocre (207) — The plight of contemporary culture (207) — Pessimism concerning man (210) — Rejection of liberalism (211) — Religion (212) — Kraus’s view concerning philosophy (216) — Psychiatry (217) — Complaints about lack of results (220) — Exaggerated opinion of himself (221) — Awareness of audience (223) — Kraus’s self-consciousness (223) — The fighter against the world (224) — Kraus in his world (225) — Lack of originality (226) — Political orientation (226) — The areas of his limitations and his greatness (228).

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