The third edition of Knitting Technology, widely recognised as the definitive text on the subject, has been thoroughly revised and updated to include all the latest developments. Beginning with the fundamental principles and moving on to more advanced aspects, it combines in a single comprehensive volume the basics of warp and weft knitting, fabric structures and products, the different types of machines, principles of production and terminology to provide an invaluable reference for textiles students, textile engineers and technicians involved in knitted garment design and manufacture.
Fundamental rules and principles are emphasised throughout. Aspects covered include flat, circular, full fashioned, hosiery, raschel, tricot and crochet production. Development of the various types of knitting machines, their actions and mechanisms as well as the construction, properties and end uses of the products which they manufacture are also included.
The book is indexed and referenced in detail and includes numerous labelled diagrams and photographs. Terminology is defined either according to The Textile Institute's terms and definitions or current usage in the industry and is supplemented where necessary by American or continental terminology. Although SI units and the tex yarn count system are explained and used in the text, other systems have also been employed wherever it has been considered that their usage is still important. A number of worked calculations are included to clarify the examples given.
Knitting technology is the ideal textbook for a range of textile courses from technician to degree level and The Textile Institute's examinations as well as being an essential companion to all those involved in the knitting industry.
- An essential reference for all textiles student textile engineers and technicians involved in knitted garment design and manufacture
About the Author
David J. Spencer, C Text, FTI, ACFI, recently retired as a senior lecturer in Textile and Knitting Technology at De Montfort University Leicester. He has been an examiner and moderator in the Manufacture of Hosiery and Knitted Goods for the City and Guilds of London Institute. He has written numerous technical articles and is technical editor of the journal Knitting International and contributing editor of ATA Journal and China Textile Journal. He is Chairman of the Textile Institute Knitting Terms and Definitions Committee. He obtained his initial industrial experience with Corah of Leicester who were then world leaders in the application of knitting technology.
Table of Contents
An introduction to textile technology - The evolution of textiles - Textile fabrics - Textile yarns and fibres - Yarn count numbering systems - Conversion formulae From hand knitting to frame knitting - The evolution of hand knitting - The spread of knowledge of hand pin knitting - The principles of hand knitting using two pins - The invention of the stocking had frame - The bearded needle - The principles of frame knitting - The evolution of other weft knitting machines - The development of warp knitting - The potential of knitting technology - Meeting the challenge of new markets General terms and principles of knitting technology - Machine knitting - The knitted loop structure - A course - A Wale - Stitch density - Technically upright - Design appearance requirements - The main features of the knitting machine - The needle - Fabric draw-off - The front of rectilinear needle bar machines - The basic knitting action of a needle - The bearded needle - The latch needle - Friction and frictionless needles - The bi-partite compound needle - A comparison of latch and compound needles - Machine gauge Basic mechanical principles of knitting technology - The sinker - The jack - Cams - The two method of yarn feeding - The three methods of forming yarn into needle loops Elements of knitted loop structure - The needle loop - The sinker loop - Warped knitted laps - The overlap - The underlap - The closed lap - The open lap - Wrapping - The knitted stitch - The interesting point of a needle loop - The face loop stitch - The reverse loop stitch - Single-faced structures - Double-faced structures - A balanced structure - Face and reverse stitched in the same wale - Selvedged fabric - Cut edge fabric - Tubular fabric - Upright loop structures - Knitting notations Comparison of weft and warp knitting - Yarn feeding and loop formation - The two industries - Productivity - Machine design - Comparison of patterning and fabric structures - Course length and run-in per pack - Fabric quality - Structural modifications commonly used in weft and warp knitting The four primary base weft knitted structures - Introduction - Plain structure - Rib structure - Interlock structure - Purl structure The vairious types of weft knitting machines - Fabric machines and garment-length machines - Knitting welts and rib borders - Integral knitting - The three classes of weft insertion knitting machines Stitching produced by varying the sequence of the needle loop intermeshing - Knitted stitches - The held loop - The drop or press-off stitch - The float stitch - Float plating - The tuck stitch Coloured stitch designs in weft knitting - Horizontal stitches - Intarsia - Plating - Individual stitch selection - Jacquard design areas - Worked example Pattern and selection devices - Weft knitted patterns - Different lengths of butt - Different butt positions - Multi-step butt set-outs - Selection devices - Element selection - Selection area arrangement - Full Jacquard mechanical needle selection - Multi-step geometric needle selection - Needle selection by disc - The pattern wheel - Pattern wheel design areas - Electronic needle selection Electronics in knitting - The disadvantages of mechanical control - The advantages of mechanical programming - The advantages of electronic control and programming - The compatibility of electronic signals and knitted data - Microprocessors and computers - The computerised knitting machine - Computer graphics and pattern preparation - The Stoll CAD patter preparation system - The Shima total design system Circular fabric knitting - Weft knitted fabric production - Single- and double-jersey compared - Simple tuck and float stitch single-jersey fabrics - The history of double-jersey - Types of double-jersey structure - Non-jacquard double-jersey structures - Double jersey inlay - The modern circular fabric knitting machine - Versatility and quick response - The ‘contra’ knitting technique - Circular-machine production calculations Speciality fabrics and machines - The range of speciality fabrics - The production of fleecy on sinker-top machines - Fleecy interlock - Plush - The bearded needle sinkerwheel machine - Sinker plush knitted on single-jersey latch needle machines - Full–density patterned plush - Cut loop - Double sided plush - Silver in high-pile knitting - Wrap patterning Loop transfer stitches - Uses of loop transfer - The four main types of transfer stitches Welts, garment sequences and knitting to shape - The Welt - Rib welts - Separation - Imparting shape during knitting - Integral garment knitting The straight bar frame and full-fashioning - The development of the straight bar frame - Fully-fashioned articles - Stocking production - Underware and knitware - Knitting motions of the straight bar frame - Knitting action of the plain straight bar frame - Loop transfer - The fashioning action - Automatic control - The welt - The rib-to –plain machine - Patterned structures - The challenge of latch needle machinery Flat knitting, basic principles and structures - History - The two types of flat machine - Flat machine gauges - Conversion from Cottons Patent to V-bed gauge - Knitting widths - Yarn counts - Simple hand-manipulated V-bed rib flat machines - Stitch cam settings - Spring-loaded cams - Two of more cam carriages - Direct and indirect yarn feed - Yarn carrier arrangement - Typical structures knitted on flat machines Automatic power flat knitting - History - The MacQueen concept - Power flat machines - The versatility of V-bed power flat knitting - Electronic controls replace mechanical controls - The garment sequence programme - Mechanical Jacquard selection - The Shima Seiki electronic selection system - The take-down system - The fixed-stroke carriage transverse - Meeting the requirements of a shaping machine - The multiple-gauge technique - The split stitch - Multi-carriage flat machines - Seamless glove knitting - The Whole Garment knitting technique - The Shima model FIRST - The Tsudakoma TFK machine Circular garment-length machines - Circular versus flat machines - The double-cylinder garment-length machine - The RTR garment-length machine - Jumberca cylinder and dial and double-cylinder machines - Mecmor Variatex machines - The ‘seamless’ bodyware garment machine The manufacture of hosiery on small-diameter circular machines - Types of hosiery - Classes of hosiery machines - Gauge - The early development of ladies’ fine-gauge hosiery since 1956 - Ladder-resist structures - The development of double-cylinder machine - Single-cylinder sock machines - Timing and control of mechanical changes on circular hosiery machines - Adjustment of loop length - The double-cylinder slider butt set-out - Production of heels and toes - Automatic separation - Seamed toe closing - Automatic toe closing on the knitting machine - Tights Aspects of knitting science - Knitted loop-shape and loop-length control - Loop length - Warp let-off - Weft knitted fabric relaxation and shrinkage - Knitted fabric geometry - Tightness factor - Robbing back - Needle bounce and high-speed knitting - The Cadratex unit - Positive needle control Basic warp knitting principles - Construction of warp knitted fabrics - The warp beams - The guide bar - The guides - Single needle bar structures - The pattern mechanism - The chain links - The electronic guide bar control system - The development of lapping diagrams and chain notations - Single- or double-needle overlaps - The five basic overlap/underlap variations - The direction of lapping at successive courses Classes of warp knitting machines - Characteristics of tricot and raschel machines - The tricot machine - The raschel machine - The compound –needle warp knitting machine - The crochet machine - Tha Waltex machine - Warping Plain tricot structures knitted with two full set guide bars - Rule governing two guide bar structures - Two bar tricot - Locknit - Reverse locknit - Sharkskin - Queesncord - Double atlas - Satin - Velour and velvet - Overfed pile structures - Typical run-in ratios for nylon yarns Surface interest, relief and openwork structures - Basic principles - Miss-lapping - Part-threaded guide bars ‘Laying-in’ and full plate - Laying-in and weft insertion - General rule governing laying-in in warp knitting - Mesh structures - Full-plate patterning - Full-width weft insertion - Magazine weft insertion - Cut presser and miss-press structures - Spot or knob effects - Terry by the press-off methods Multi guide bar machines and fabrics - The development of raschel lace - The success of raschel lace - Pattern guide bars - Guide bar nesting - Multi links and electronic control of shogging - The summary drive - Raschel mesh structures - Marquisette and voile - Elasticised fabrics - Jacquard raschels - The mayer Jacquardtronic multi-bar lace raschels Double needle bar warp knitting machines - Operating principles - Double needle bar basic lapping principles - Using two fully-threaded guide bars - The simplex machine - The double needle bar raschel Technical textiles - Markets for technical textiles - The process of warp knitted structures - End-uses for technical textiles - Geotextiles - Knitted wire - The advantages of warp knitted nets - Composites - Warp knitted multi-axial weft insertion fabrics - Stitch bonding or web knitting - Spacer fabrics - Circular warp knitting - V-bed technical fabrics