Modern medicine is now in a position to make advanced prognoses that chart the entire course of illness and recovery. Paradoxically, this is coupled with a new dimension of uncertainty for the patient, i.e. coming to terms with discovering they have an increased risk of a particular disease and deciding what appropriate steps to take. In this publication, renowned experts in their fields discuss these issues. The certainty and uncertainty of one's fate are discussed from both methodological and epidemiological perspectives, using examples of diseases for which treatment and prognosis have dramatically changed. Despite profound insights into the human genome, personalized genetically tailored medicine still lies in the future. Religious, spiritual and philosophical dimensions are discussed, as are the ways in which they may help people cope with these new insights into their future, e.g. the promise of an afterlife. This publication aims to bridge the different fields dealing with this area by addressing the challenges faced and encouraging dialogue. It will be of interest to all readers who deal with ethical problems of prognosis, particularly in medicine, as well as to theologians and sociologists.