The Language of Time: A Reader / Edition 1

The Language of Time: A Reader / Edition 1

Pub. Date:
Oxford University Press, USA


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The Language of Time: A Reader / Edition 1

This reader collects and introduces important work on the use of linguistic devices in natural languages to situate events in time: for instance, whether an event is past, present, or future; whether it is real or hypothetical; when it occurred; and how long it lasted. In focussing on the treatment and retrieval of time-based information it seeks to lay the foundation for temporally-aware natural language computer processing systems, such as those that process documents on the worldwide web to answer questions or produce summaries. The development of such systems requires the application of technical knowledge from many different disciplines. This book is the first to bring this work together, by means of classic and contemporary papers in four areas: tense, aspect, and event structure; temporal reasoning; the temporal structure of natural language discourse; and temporal annotation. Clear, self-contained editorial introductions to each area provide the necessary technical background for the non-specialist and explain the underlying connections across disciplines.

Readers in academia and industry will value this introduction and guide to a new and vital technology. The former include researchers, students, and teachers of natural language processing, linguistics, artificial intelligence, computational linguistics, computer science, information retrieval (including the growing speciality of question-answering), library sciences, human-computer interaction, and cognitive science. Those in industry include corporate managers and researchers, software product developers, and engineers in information-intensive companies, such as on-line database and web-service providers.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780199268542
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Publication date: 05/01/2005
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 600
Product dimensions: 9.70(w) x 6.70(h) x 1.40(d)

About the Author

Georgetown University

Brandeis University

University of Sheffield

Table of Contents

List of Contributorsxi
Part ITense, Aspect, and Event Structure1
Introduction to Part I3
1Verbs and Times21
2The Syntax of Event Structure33
3The Algebra of Events61
4The Tenses of Verbs71
5Tense Logic and the Logic of Earlier and Later79
6Temporal Ontology and Temporal Reference93
7Deriving Verbal and Compositional Lexical Aspect for NLP Applications115
8A Computational Model of the Semantics of Tense and Aspect129
Part IITemporal Reasoning159
Introduction to Part II161
9A Temporal Logic for Reasoning about Processes and Plans173
10A Logic-based Calculus of Events217
11Extending the Event Calculus with Temporal Granularity and Indeterminacy241
12Towards a General Theory of Action and Time251
13A Critical Examination of Allen's Theory of Action and Time277
14Annotating and Reasoning about Time and Events301
Part IIITemporal Structure of Discourse317
Introduction to Part III319
15The Effects of Aspectual Class on the Temporal Structure of Discourse: Semantics or Pragmatics?333
16Temporal Interpretation, Discourse Relations, and Commonsense Entailment353
17News Stories as Narratives397
18Tense as Discourse Anaphor411
19Tense Interpretation in the Context of Narrative431
20An Empirical Approach to Temporal Reference Resolution443
21Tense Trees as the 'Fine Structure' of Discourse461
22Algorithms for Analysing the Temporal Structure of Discourse475
Part IVTemporal Annotation485
Introduction to Part IV487
23A Multilingual Approach to Annotating and Extracting Temporal Information505
24The Annotatin of Temporal Information in Natural Language Sentences513
25Assigning Time-Stamps to Event-Clauses523
26From Temporal Expressions to Temporal Information: Semantic Tagging of News Message533
27The Specification Language TimeML545
28A Model for Processing Temporal References in Chinese559
29Using Semantic Inferences for Temporal Annotation Comparison575

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