Language Rights / Edition 1 available in Hardcover
- Pub. Date:
- Taylor & Francis
Research on Language Rights has produced an enormousand unwieldycorpus of literature. Such work often has limitations because scholars from different disciplinary traditions have seldom coordinated their concerns or integrated the conceptual traditions of particular fields. To enable researchers and advanced students to make sense of this vast literature, and the disparate scholarly approaches, Routledge announces Language Rights, a new title in its Critical Concepts in Language Studies series. In four volumes, the set draws on a wide range of disciplines, including language policy, political theory, education, law, philosophy, anthropology, economics, minority studies, deaf studies, and Indigenous cosmologies. The editors have assembled both normative texts and studies of their practical applications over the past century in a wide range of countries, as well as more diverse interventions and interpretations.
Volume I (‘Language Rights, Past and Present: From Minority Rights to Linguistic Human Rights’) presents some of the basic concepts in language rights and traces developments from treaties and national constitutions to human rights principles, and conditions for the maintenance of languages.
Volume II (‘Multilingualism, Education, and Language Rights Granted or Denied: Policies and Politics’) explores the tensions between homogenizing nation states and the status of indigenous and minority languages in education.
Volume III in the collection (‘Language Rights and Endangered Languages’) brings together the best thinking on recent developments in language and cultural revitalization through community mobilization around language rights, especially in education, the preconditions for their success, their relationship to land rights and self-determination, and state responses to demands for language rights. Finally, Volume IV (‘Language Rights: Global and Regional Integration and Diversity Maintenance’) assesses ongoing trends of regional and global integration and questions the prospects for the world’s languages in the light of economic and cultural constraints, and the weaknesses of the international human rights system.
With newly written, comprehensive introductions to each volume, and to the collection as a whole, Language Rights is destined to be welcomed as a vital research and pedagogic resource.
About the Author
Tove Skutnabb-Kangas, Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
Tove Skutnabb-Kangas has written or edited over 50 books and over 400 articles published in 48 languages on minority education, multilingualism, linguistic human rights, linguistic genocide, ecolinguistics, and the subtractive spread of English. She was awarded the UNESCO Linguapax prize in 2003. http://www.tove-skutnabb-kangas.org.
Robert Phillipson, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.
Robert Phillipson is a prolific scholar who has written or edited books on linguistic imperialism and the globalization of English, European Union language policy, language rights, and multilingualism in education. He was awarded the UNESCO Linguapax prize in 2010. http://www.cbs.dk/en/staff/rpibc.
Table of Contents
Language Rights: Critical Concepts in Language Studies
Tove Skutnabb-Kangas and Robert Phillipson (eds)
Volume 1. Language Rights: Principles, Enactment, Application
Table of Contents
Introduction - Volume 1.
1. Tove Skutnabb-Kangas and Robert Phillipson, ‘Linguistic Human Rights, Past and Present’, in Tove Skutnabb-Kangas and Robert Phillipson (eds.), in collaboration with Mart Rannut Linguistic Human Rights: Overcoming Linguistic Discrimination Contributions to the Sociology of Language 67 (Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1994), pp. 71-110.
2. Joseph P. Gromacki, ‘The Protection of Language Rights in International Human Rights Law: A Proposed Draft Declaration of Linguistic Rights’, Virginia Journal of International Law 32, 471, 1992, 515-579.
3. League of Nations, extracts from Documents Relating to the Protection of Minorities by the League of Nations (Published in accordance with the Council Resolution of June 13th, 1929), Special Supplement No. 73. pp. 47-48.
4. Francesco Capotorti, Study of the Rights of Persons Belonging to Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities (New York: United Nations). Extract from Annex II, p. 108.
5. Amartya Sen, ‘Rights, Laws and Language’, Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 31, 3, 2011, 437-453.
6. Juan Cobarrubias, ‘Status Planning, Ethical Problems and Language Rights’, extract from ‘Ethical Issues in Status Planning’, in Juan Cobarrubias and Joshua A. Fishman (eds), Progress in Language Planning: International Perspectives (Berlin: Mouton, 1983), pp. 67-85.
7. Debi Prasanna Pattanayak, ‘Monolingual Myopia and the Petals of the Indian Lotus: Do Many Languages Divide or Unite a Nation?’, in Tove Skutnabb-Kangas and Jim Cummins (eds.), Minority Education: From Shame to Sruggle (Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters, 1988), pp. 379-389.
8. Heinz Kloss, ‘Language Rights of Immigrant Groups’, International Migration Review 5, 1971, 250-268.
9. Clifford Geertz, extracts from The Interpretation of Cultures (Hammersmith, London: Fontana Press, 1973), pp. 240-243; 255-264.
10. Lachman M. Khubchandani, ‘"Minority" Cultures and Their Communication Rights’, in Tove Skutnabb-Kangas and Robert Phillipson (eds.), in collaboration with Mart Rannut, Linguistic Human Rights: Overcoming Linguistic Discrimination (Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1994), pp. 305-315.
11. Rodolfo Stavenhagen, Conclusion from The Ethnic Question: Conflicts, Development, and Human Rights (Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 1990), pp. 71-73.
12. Alan Phillips, ‘Historical Background of the Declaration’, in Ugo Caruso and Rainer Hofmann (eds.), The United Nations Declaration on Minorities: An Academic Account on the Occasion of its 20th Anniversary (1992-2012) Studies in International Minority and Group Rights, volume 9, (Leiden/Boston: Brill Nijhoff, 2015), pp. 3-18.
13. Gudmundur Alfredsson, ‘Minority Rights and the United Nations’, in Ugo Caruso and Rainer Hofmann (eds.), The United Nations Declaration on Minorities: An Academic Account on the Occasion of its 20th Anniversary (1992-2012) Studies in International Minority and Group Rights, volume 9 (Leiden/Boston: Brill Nijhoff, 2015), pp. 19-45.
14. Robert Dunbar, ‘The Uneasy Relationship between Language Issues and Socio-Economic Participation: Linguistically Sensitive Approaches to Participation’, in Kristin Henrard (ed.), The Interrelation between the Right to Identity of Minorities and Their Socio-economic Participation, Studies in International Minority and Group Rights, Volume 2, (Leiden and Boston: Brill/ Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2013), pp. 205-226.
15. Ruth Rubio-Marí;n, ‘Language Rights: Exploring the Competing Rationales’, in Will Kymlicka and Alan Patten (eds.), Language Rights and Political Theory (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), pp. 52-79.
16. Bruno De Witte, ‘Conclusion: A Legal Perspective’, in Sergij Vilfan (ed.), in collaboration with Gudmund Sandvik and Lode Wils, Ethnic Groups and Language Rights. Comparative Studies on Governments and Non-Dominant Ethnic Groups in Europe 1850-1940 Volume 3, (Aldershot, UK: Dartmouth & New York: European Science Foundation & New York University Press, 1993), pp. 303-314.
17. Bruno De Witte, ‘Language Rights: The Interaction between Domestic and European Developments’, in Anne Lise Kjær and Silvia Adamo (eds.), Linguistic Diversity and European Democracy (Farnham & Burlington; Ashgate, 2011), pp. 167-188.
18. Kristin Henrard, ‘Language and the Administration of Justice: The International Framework’, in Kas Deprez, Theo di Plessis and Lut Teck (eds.), Multilingualism, the Judiciary and Security Services (Pretoria: Van Schaik, 2001), pp. 15-29. Henrard, Kristin (2015). Update: ‘Language and the Administration of Justice: The International Framework’.
19. Richard Vogler, ‘Lost in Translation: Language Rights for Defendants in European Criminal Proceedings’, in Stefano Ruggeri (ed.), Human Rights in European Criminal Law (Cham: Springer International Publishing Switzerland, 2015), pp. 95-109.
20. François Grin, ‘Combining Immigrant and Autochtonous Language Rights: A Territorial Approach to Multilingualism’, in Tove Skutnabb-Kangas and Robert Phillipson (eds.), in collaboration with Mart Rannut Linguistic Human Rights. Overcoming Linguistic Discrimination. Contributions to the Sociology of Language 67 (Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1994), pp. 31-48.
Volume 2. Language Policy in Education: Violations or Rights for All?
Introduction - Volume 2
Table of Contents
21. Tove Skutnabb-Kangas and Robert Dunbar, Indigenous Children’s Education as Linguistic Genocide and a Crime Against Humanity? A Global View. Gáldu Čála. Journal of Indigenous Peoples' Rights No 1, 2010.
22. Kristin Henrard, ‘International Perspectives on Minorities' Rights and Mother Tongue Education: Equality, Identity, and Integration’, newly written for this volume, 2015.
23. Stephen May, ‘Justifying Educational Language Rights’, Review of Research in Education (RRE) [Language Diversity and Language Policy and Politics in Education] 38, 1, 2014, 215-241.
24. M. K. Gandhi, extract from M. K. Gandhi’s Hind Swaraj. A Critical Edition. Annotated, translated & edited by Suresh Sharma and Tridip Suhrud (Hyderabad: Orient Blackswan, 1910), pp. 84-87.
25. Eve Mumewa D. Fesl, extracts from Conned! A Koorie perspective (St Lucian, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1993), pp. xiv, 183-184.
26. Rabindranath Tagore, Extracts from My Reminiscences (New Delhi: Rupa & Co, 1992), pp. 41, 53, 132. First published in Bengali in 1911 as Jibansmriti, and in English by Macmillan & Co. in 1917.
27. Michael Meeuwis, ‘Language Legislation in the Belgian Colonial Charter of 1908: At Textual-historical Analysis’, Language Policy 14, 2015, 49-65.
28. Alexei A. Leontiev, ‘Linguistic Human Rights and Educational Policy in Russia’, in Tove Skutnabb-Kangas and Robert Phillipson (eds.), in collaboration with Mart Rannut, Linguistic Human Rights. Overcoming Linguistic Discrimination. Contributions to the Sociology of Language 67 (Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1994), pp. 63-70.
29. Tiina Saaresranta, ‘Education in Pursuit of the Development Dream? Effects of Schooling on Indigenous Development and Rights in Bolivia’, Nordic Journal of Human Rights 32, 4, 2014, 352-371.
30. Béatrice Cabau, ‘Language Policy/Planning and Linguistic Rights in Sweden’, International Journal of Law, Language & Discourse 4, 2, 2014, 75-97.
31. E. Annamalai, ‘Conflict between Law and Language Policy in Education: Deliberations of Indian Supreme Court’, 2015.
32. Ahmed Kabel, ‘There is No Such Thing as "Keeping out of Politics": Medium of Instruction and Mother Tongue Education in Morocco’, in Tove Skutnabb-Kangas and Kathleen Heugh (eds.), Multilingual Education and Sustainable Diversity Work: From Periphery to Center (New York: Routledge, 2011), pp. 216-238.
33. H-Dirksen Bauman and Joseph J. Murray, ‘Deaf Gain: An Introduction’, in H-Dirksen Bauman and Joseph J. Murray (eds.), Deaf Gain: Raising the Stakes for Human Diversity. Foreword by Andrew Solomon. Afterword by Tove Skutnabb-Kangas (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2014), pp. xv-xlii.
34. Jan Branson and Don Miller, ‘National Sign Languages and Language Policies’, in Stephen May and Nancy H. Hornberger (eds.), Encyclopedia of Language and Education, 2nd Edition. Volume 1: Language Policy and Political Issues in Education (Springer, 2008), pp. 151-165.
35. Tove Skutnabb-Kangas, ‘Afterword: Implications of Deaf Gain: Linguistic Human Rights for Deaf Citizens’, in H-Dirksen Bauman and Joseph J. Murray (eds.), Deaf Gain. Raising the Stakes for Human Diversity. Foreword by Andrew Solomon. Afterword by Tove Skutnabb-Kangas (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2014), pp. 492-502.
36. Sherman E. Wilcox, Verena Krausneker and David F. Armstrong, ‘Language Policies and the Deaf Community’, in Bernard Spolsky (ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Language Policy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012), pp. 374-395 + Update.
37. Laura-Ann Petitto, ‘Three Revolutions: Language, Culture, Biology’, in H-Dirksen Bauman and Joseph J. Murray (eds.), Deaf Gain: Raising the Stakes for Human Diversity. Foreword by Andrew Solomon. Afterword by Tove Skutnabb-Kangas (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2014), pp. 65-76.
38. Miklós Kontra, ‘British Aid for Hungarian Deaf Education from a Linguistic Human Rights Point of View’, Alkalmazott Nyelvtudomány. Hungarian Journal of Applied Linguistics 1, 2, 2001, 63-68.
39. Robert Phillipson and Tove Skutnabb-Kangas, Extract from ‘Linguistic Rights and Wrongs’, Applied Linguistics 16, 4, 1995, 483-489.
Volume 3. Language Endangerment and Revitalisation: Language Rights Charters and Declarations
Introduction - Volume 3
Table of Contents
40. Nora C. England, ‘Doing Mayan Linguistics in Guatemala’, Language 68, 1, 1992, 29-35.
41. Ken Hale, ‘Language Endangerment and the Human Value of Linguistic Diversity’, Language 68, 1, 1992, 35-42.
42. Ken Hale, ‘On Endangered Languages and the Safeguarding of Diversity’, Language 68, 1992, 1, 1-3.
43. Michael Krauss, ‘The World’s Languages in Crisis’, Language 68, 1, 1992, 4-10.
44. Peter Ladefoged, ‘Another View of Endangered Languages’, Language 68, 4, 1992, 809-811.
45. Lucille J. Watahomigie and Akira Y. Yamamoto, ‘Local Reactions to Perceived Language Decline’, Language 68, 1, 1992, 10-17.
46. Brent Henderson, Peter Rohloff and Robert Henderson, ‘More than Words: Towards a Development-Based Approach to Language Revitalization’, Language Documentation & Conservation 8, 2014, 75-91.
47. Tove Skutnabb-Kangas, Andrea Bear Nicholas and Jon Reyhner, ‘Linguistic Human Rights and Language Revitalization in the USA and Canada’, in Serafin M. Coronel-Molina and Teresa L. McCarty (eds.), The Handbook of Indigenous Language Revitalization in the Americas (New York: Routledge, forthcoming, 2016)
48. Peter Mühlhäusler, ‘"Reducing" Pacific Languages to Writings’, in John E. Joseph and Talbot J. Taylor (eds.), Ideologies of Language (London: Routledge, 1990), pp. 189-205.
49. Kahombo Mateene, ‘Reconsideration of the Official Status of Colonial Languages in Africa’, in Kahombo Mateene, John Kalema and Bernard Chomba (eds.), Linguistic Liberation and Unity of Africa (Kampala, Uganda: OAU Interafrican Bureau of Languages, 1985), pp. 18-28.
50. Ngũgĩ, wa Thiong’o, ‘Writing for Diversity’, in Robert Phillipson (ed.), Rights to Language: Equity, Power and Education (New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000), pp. 97-101.
51. Ina Druviete, ‘Language Policy in a Changing Society: Problematic Issues of Implementation of International Linguistic Human Rights Standards’, in Miklós Kontra, Robert Phillipson, Tove Skutnabb-Kangas and Tibor Várady (eds.), Language: A Right and a Resource. Approaching Linguistic Human Rights (Budapest: Central European University Press, 1999), pp. 263-276.
52. Ulla Aikio-Puoskari and Gáppe Piera Jovnna Ulla, ‘The Status of Sámi Education in the Comprehensive Schooling of Three Nordic Countries: Norway, Finland and Sweden’, 2015. Written for this volume.
53. Minglang Zhou and Heidi A. Ross, extract from, ‘Introduction: The Context of the Theory and Practice of China’s Language Policy’, in Minglang Zhou and Hongkai Sun (eds.), Language Policy in the People’s Republic of China. Theory and Practice Since 1949 (Boston/Dordrecht/New York/London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004), pp. 9-12.
54. Minglang Zhou, ‘Minority Language Policy in China: Equality in Theory and Inequality in Practice’, in Minglang Zhou and Hongkai Sun (eds.), Language Policy in the People’s Republic of China. Theory and Practice Since 1949 (Boston/Dordrecht/New York/London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004), pp. 71-95.
55. Fernand de Varennes, ‘Language Rights and Tibetans in China: A Look at International Law’, in Kunsang Gya, Andrea Snavely and Elliot Sperling, Elliot (eds). Minority Language in Today’s Global Society (New York: Trace Foundation, 2012), pp. 14-38.
56. İsmail Beşikçi, ‘The Turkish State’s Official Ideology, the Kurdish Language, and Language Rights’, 2015. Written for this volume.
57. Derya Bayir, ‘Turkey, the Kurds, and the Legal Contours of the Right to Self-determination’, Kurdish Studies: The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 1, 1, 2013, 5-27.
58. Marja-Liisa Olthuis, Suvi Kivelä and Tove Skutnabb-Kangas, extracts from Revitalising Indigenous Languages: How to Recreate a Lost Generation (Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2013), pp. 1-6; 204-208.
59. Joseph Lo Bianco, ‘Documenting Language Loss and Endangerment. Research Tools and Approaches’, in Terrence G. Wiley, Joy Kreeft Peyton, Donna Christian, Sarah Catherine K. Moore and Na Liu (eds.), Handbook of Heritage, Community, and Native American Languages in the United States: Research, Policy, and Educational Practice (New York & London: Routledge, 2014), pp. 54-65.
60. ‘Extracts from Selected UN and Regional Documents Covering Linguistic Human Rights, Proposals for Such and Resolutions on Language Rights’, Appendix in Tove Skutnabb-Kangas and Robert Phillipson (eds.), in collaboration with Mart Rannut) Linguistic Human Rights: Overcoming Linguistic Discrimination ( Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1994), pp. 371-412.
61. (The) Asmara Declaration on African Languages and Literatures, 17 January 2000.
62. ‘The Juba Language-in-Education Conference: Concluding Statement of Principles’, in Hamish Mcllwraith (ed.), MultilingualEeducation in Africa: Lessons from the Juba Language-in-Education Conference (London: British Council, 2013).
63. The Strasbourg Manifesto on the Protection of National Minorities and Languages within the Framework of the European Union (2014). Summary.
64. Nordic Council of Ministers, Declaration on a Nordic Language Policy. København: Nordisk Ministerråd, 2006. Published in eight Nordic languages and English.
65. European Parliament resolution of 11 September 2013 on endangered European languages and linguistic diversity in the European Union (2013/2007(INI).
66. The Hague Recommendations Regarding the Educational Rights of National Minorities & Explanatory Note (The Hague: OSCE, Office of the High Commissioner on National Minorities, 1996)
67. The Oslo Recommendations Regarding the Linguistic Rights of National Minorities & Explanatory Note (1998). The Hague: OSCE, Office of the High Commissioner on National Minorities.
68. World Conference on Linguistic Rights, Barcelona, ‘Universal Declaration on Linguistic Rights’, 1996.
69. World Federation of the Deaf, ‘WFD Statement on Standardized Sign Language‘, (Sept 10, 2014).
70. World Federation of the Deaf, about Human Rights of the Deaf (2015).
71. Francisco Gomes de Matos, ‘Linguistic Rights of the Elderly: A Checklist for Reflection/ Research’, 2015.
72. Veikko Virtanen.
73. World Press Freedom (2015).
Volume 4. Language Rights: Challenges in Theory and Implementation
Introduction - Volume 4
Table of Contents
74. Rainer Enrique Hamel, ‘Introduction: Linguistic Human Rights in a Sociolinguistic Perspective’, in Rainer Enrique Hamel (ed.), Linguistic Human Rights from a Sociolinguistic Perspective. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 127, 1997, 1-24.
75. Joseph Eliot Magnet, extract from ‘Language Rights Theory’, in Official Languages of Canada. Perspectives from Law, Policy and the Future (Cowansville, Québec, Canada: Les Éditions Yvon Blais Inc., 1995), pp. 71-83.
76. Jean-Marie Woehrling, extract from ‘Introduction’, in Alba Nogueira López, Eduardo J. Ruiz Vieytez and Iñigo Urrutia Libarona (eds.), Shaping Language Rights. Commentary on the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in Light of the Committee of Experts’ Evaluation. Regional or Minority Languages, No. 9. (Strasbourg, Council of Europe Publishing, 11-31, 2012), pp. 11-18.
77. Markus Warasin, ‘Minority Protection and Lesser-Used Language Promotion: The Convention on the Future of the European Union’, In Máiréad Nic Craith (ed.), Language, Power and Identity Politics (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007), pp. 83-100.
78. Ulrike Barten, ‘Article 27 ICCPR: A First Point of Reference’, in Ugo Caruso and Rainer Hofmann (eds.), The United Nations Declaration on Minorities : An Academic Account on the Occasion of its 20th Anniversary (1992-2012). Studies in International Minority and Group Rights, volume 9 (Leiden/Boston: Brill Nijhoff, 2015), pp. 46-65.
79. Tove H. Malloy, extract from ‘The European Regime and the Applicability of the UN Declaration’, in Ugo Caruso and Rainer Hofmann (eds.), The United Nations Declaration on Minorities. An Academic Account on the Occasion of its 20th Anniversary (1992-2012). Studies in International Minority and Group Rights, volume 9 (Leiden/Boston: Brill Nijhoff, 2015), pp. 1, 240-245.
80. John Baugh, extracts from Beyond Ebonics. Linguistic Pride and Racial Prejudice. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 82-86; 117-118.
81. Sandra Del Valle, ‘The Bilingual’s Hoarse Voice: Losing Rights in Two Languages’, in M. Rafael Salaberry (ed.), Language Allegiances and Bilingualism in the USA (Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters, 2009), pp. 80-109.
82. Joshua A. Fishman and Gella Schweid Fishman, ‘Rethinking Language Defence’, in Robert Phillipson (ed.), Rights to Language: Equity, Power and Education: Celebrating the 60th Birthday of Tove Skutnabb-Kangas (Mahwah, NJ & London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000), pp. 23-27.
83. Jan Blommaert, ‘Rights in Places: Comments on Linguistic Rights and Wrongs’, in Jane Freeland and Donna Patrick (eds.), Language Rights and Language Survival: Sociolinguistic and Sociocultural Perspectives (Manchester, UK & Northampton, MA: St. Jerome Publishing, 2004), pp. 55-65.
84. Peter Ives, ‘De-politicizing Language: Obstacles to Political Theory’s Engagement with Language Policy’, Language Policy 13, 4, 2014, 335-350.
85. Stephen May, ‘Contesting Public Monolingualism and Diglossia: Rethinking Political Theory and Language Policy for a Multilingual World’, Language Policy 13, 4, 2014, 371-393.
86. Björn Jernudd, ‘Personal Names and Human Rights’, in Tove Skutnabb-Kangas, and Robert Phillipson (eds.), in collaboration with Mart Rannut, Linguistic Human Rights: Overcoming Linguistic Discrimination (Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1994), pp. 121-132.
87. F. Niyi Akinnaso, ‘Linguistic Unification and Language Rights’, Applied Linguistics 15, 2, 1994, 139-168.
88. Saudah Namyalo and Judith Nakayiza, ‘Dilemmas in Implementing Language Rights in Multilingual Uganda’, Current Issues in Language Planning 16, 4, 2015, 409-424.
89. OAU-BIL (Organisation for African Unity Inter-African Bureau of Languages), ‘Linguistic Liberation and Unity of Africa’, in Kahombo Mateene, John Kalema and Bernard Chomba (eds), Linguistic Liberation and Unity of Africa (Kampala, Uganda: OAU Interafrican Bureau of Languages, 1985), pp. 7-17.
90. Kahombo Mateene, ‘Colonial Languages, as Compulsory Means of Domination, and Indigenous Languages, as Necessary Factors of Liberation and Development’, in Kahombo Mateene, John Kalema and Bernard Chomba (eds), Linguistic Liberation and Unity of Africa (Kampala, Uganda: OAU Interafrican Bureau of Languages, 1985), 60-69.
91. Ngũgĩ, wa Thiong’o, extracts from Decolonising the Mind. The Politics of Language in African Literature (London: James Currey Ltd, 1987), pp. 26-30.
92. LANGTAG (Language Plan Task Group), extract from Towards a National Language Plan for South Africa. Summary of the Final Report of the Language Plan Task Group, Presented to the Minister of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology, Dr B.S.Ngubane, 8 August 1996, pp. 44-61, 223.
93. Government of Odisha Recommendations of the MLE Policy & Implementation Guidelines, India, Extracts, Update, summary. (2014/2015).
94. Andrea Bear Nicholas, ‘Letter to Minister of Indigenous and Northern Affairs, Canada’, (6 December 2015).
95. Peadar Ó’Flatharta, Siv Sandberg and Colin H. Williams, From Act to Action. Implementing Language Legislation in Finland, Ireland and Wales. Policy Report. Dublin City University, 2014.
96. Alexei A. Leontiev, ‘Multilingualism for All - Russians?’, in Tove Skutnabb-Kangas (ed.), Multilingualism for All (Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger, 1995), pp. 199-214.
97. Moria Paz, extracts from ‘The Failed Promise of Language Rights: A Critique of the International Language Rights Regime’, Harvard International Law Journal 54, 1, 2013, 157-170; 179-188; 198-213.
98. Amir Hassanpour, ‘The Politics of A-political Linguistics: Linguists and Linguicide’, in Robert Phillipson (ed.), Rights to Language: Equity, Power and Education (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000), pp. 33-39.
99. Otto René Castillo, (196xx). Apolitical Intellectuals. Quoted from https://www.marxists.org/subject/art/literature/castillo/works/apolitical.htm.
100. Luis Macas Ambuludí, ‘Abya Yala and the Decolonization of Democracy, Knowledge, Education, and the State’, in Lois Meyer and Benjamín Alvarado Maldonado Alvarado (eds.), New World of Indigenous Resistance: Noam Chomsky and Voices from North, South and Central America (San Francisco: City Lights Books, 2010) pp. 239-250.
101. Kirsten Anker, extracts from Declarations of Interdependence: A Legal Pluralist Approach to Indigenous Rights (Farnham: Ashgate, 2014), pp. 1-5; 195.