ISBN-10:
9004138315
ISBN-13:
9789004138315
Pub. Date:
08/19/2004
Publisher:
Brill Academic Publishers, Inc.
Languages of the Greater Himalayan Region, Volume 2 A Grammar of Wambule: Grammar, Lexicon, Texts and Cultural Survey of a Kiranti Tribe of Eastern Nepal

Languages of the Greater Himalayan Region, Volume 2 A Grammar of Wambule: Grammar, Lexicon, Texts and Cultural Survey of a Kiranti Tribe of Eastern Nepal

by Jean Robert Opgenort

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9789004138315
Publisher: Brill Academic Publishers, Inc.
Publication date: 08/19/2004
Series: Brill's Tibetan Studies Library / Languages of the Greater Himalayan Region Series
Pages: 904
Product dimensions: 9.52(w) x 6.46(h) x 2.44(d)

About the Author

Jean Robert M.L. Opgenort, Ph.D. (2002) in Descriptive Linguistics, Leiden University, is Post-Doctoral Fellow at Leiden University. He has published several articles on the Wambule language and its linguistic relatives.

Table of Contents

List of Diagrams, Maps and Platesxi
Abbreviationsxiii
Editorial Forewordxvii
Introductionxix
Chapter 1The Wambule1
1.1Ethnolinguistic relatives1
1.2Chaurasia2
1.2.1The Wambule dialect group5
1.2.2The Jero dialect group8
1.3The mythological past8
1.4The historical past11
1.5Clans13
1.6General and sectarian religious beliefs15
1.6.1The Jagat16
1.6.2The Santa-Bhes sect35
1.6.3The Hwam sect41
1.7Some patterns of linguistic, ethnic and religious interaction43
1.8The life cycle and its rites44
1.8.1Birth44
1.8.2Naming a child45
1.8.3Giving a child its first solid food46
1.8.4Cutting a boy's hair and giving a girl her first skirt and bodice47
1.8.5Marriage48
1.8.6Death50
Chapter 2Phonology55
2.1Vowels56
2.1.1Phonemic length56
2.1.2Neutralisation of phonemic length64
2.1.3Diphthongs71
2.2Consonants73
2.2.1Plosive stops and affricates74
2.2.2Implosive stops and the glottal stop79
2.2.3Nasals82
2.2.4Fricatives, trills and laterals84
2.2.5Approximants and the status of the sequences /ya/ and /wa/85
2.2.6Initial consonant clusters90
2.2.7Geminate consonants and sequences of homorganic plosives92
2.3The orthography and the transcription of loans93
Chapter 3Morphophonology97
3.1Morphophonemic and phonemic vowel length97
3.2Bound morphemes100
3.2.1Lexical affixes101
3.2.2Phrasal affixes103
3.2.3Clitics106
3.3Full and abbreviated morphs108
3.4The morphophoneme [left angle bracket]y[right angle bracket] and vowel sequences110
3.5Final consonants of verb roots111
3.5.1Deletion of post-final [left angle bracket]t[right angle bracket]111
3.5.2Retention of post-final [left angle bracket]t[right angle bracket]112
3.5.3Assimilation and deletion of final [left angle bracket]t[right angle bracket]113
3.5.4Recurrent grammatically conditioned rules113
3.5.5Assimilation of final [left angle bracket]n[right angle bracket]116
3.5.6The velar alternation116
3.6Plosion of suffix-initial nasals117
3.7Rules for transcribing texts120
Chapter 4Nominal Categories121
4.1Grammatical characteristics of nouns and nominals121
4.2Noun classifying suffixes127
4.2.1Person suffixes127
4.2.2The implement suffix129
4.2.3The suffix 'grain'129
4.2.4The suffix 'water'130
4.2.5The suffix 'tree, wood'130
4.2.6The suffix 'fruit'131
4.2.7The suffix 'small object'131
4.2.8The suffix 'flesh, meat'132
4.2.9The suffix 'bird'132
4.3Gender suffixes132
4.4Number138
4.5Grammatical roles142
4.6Case markers145
4.6.1The unmarked form145
4.6.2The source marker149
4.6.3The directive marker152
4.6.4The locative marker153
4.6.5The comitative marker155
4.6.6The ablative marker160
4.6.7Genitive markers161
4.6.8Similaritive markers166
4.7Postpositions167
4.7.1The postposition 'without'168
4.7.2The sociative postposition169
4.7.3The postposition 'in front of, before'171
4.7.4The postposition 'behind, after'172
4.7.5The postposition 'in the middle of'175
4.7.6The postposition 'above, on top of'176
4.7.7Postpositions of location177
4.7.8Postpositions of altitude180
4.7.9The postposition 'beside'182
4.7.10The postposition 'inside'183
4.7.11The postposition 'next to'184
4.7.12The postposition 'near'185
4.7.13The postposition of direction186
4.7.14The postposition 'in front of'187
4.7.15The postposition 'as far as'187
4.7.16The postposition 'throughout'187
4.7.17The postposition 'together with'188
4.7.18The postposition 'against'189
4.7.19The postposition 'besides'189
4.7.20The postposition 'than'190
4.7.21The postposition 'for the sake of'191
4.7.22The patient postposition192
4.7.23The postposition 'concerning'193
4.8Discourse markers194
4.8.1The marker 'also'194
4.8.2The marker 'exactly'195
4.8.3The marker 'on the contrary'196
4.8.4The marker 'only'197
4.8.5The theme marker198
4.8.6The contrastive topic marker199
Chapter 5Nominals and Adverbials201
5.1Personal pronouns201
5.2Possessive pronouns204
5.3Demonstratives208
5.3.1Demonstrative pronouns208
5.3.2Locative adverbs of place213
5.3.3Locative adverbs of direction215
5.3.4Demonstrative adverbs of manner216
5.4Indefinite and interrogative words217
5.5Adjectives224
5.6Numerals230
5.7Numeral classifiers231
5.8Quantifiers and intensifiers233
5.9Nouns and adverbs of time238
5.10Adverbial proclitics of manner243
5.11Nominalisation and reification244
5.12Emphatic forms246
Chapter 6Conjugations and Morphology of Simplicia249
6.1The negative prefix249
6.2Transitivity250
6.3Conjugations and verb classes253
6.3.1Intransitive and middle conjugations260
6.3.2Transitive conjugations264
6.4Morphology of simplicia274
6.4.1Morphophonology of the verb root in simplicia274
6.4.2Simplex person and number agreement morphemes277
6.4.2.1The second and third person singular morpheme281
6.4.2.2The first person plural exclusive agent and subject morpheme282
6.4.2.3The dual morpheme282
6.4.2.4The first person dual exclusive agent and subject morpheme284
6.4.2.5The 1pi to 3 morpheme285
6.4.2.6The first person non-singular patient and subject morpheme287
6.4.2.7The first person non-singular exclusive AS morpheme288
6.4.2.8The 3/ns morpheme289
6.4.2.9The 3 to 3p morpheme292
6.4.2.10The 3s to 2s morpheme293
6.4.2.11The 1s to 2 morpheme294
6.4.2.12The second person plural morpheme295
6.4.2.13The second person singular morpheme296
6.4.2.14The dual subject morpheme297
6.4.2.15The 3s to 1s morpheme298
6.4.2.16The 2 to 1s morpheme299
6.4.2.17The first person singular morpheme300
6.4.2.18The third person non-plural agent morpheme304
6.4.2.19The middle marker305
6.4.3Differences between the Hilepane and Wamdyal dialects307
6.4.4Proto-morphemes309
Chapter 7Finite Verb Forms313
7.1The factual verbal adjective313
7.2The affirmative323
7.3The indefinitive328
7.4The simplex verb333
7.5The optative334
7.6The volitional335
7.7The imperative337
7.7.1Morphophonology of the verb root in the imperative337
7.7.2Imperative person and number agreement morphemes338
7.7.2.1The second and third person dual morpheme341
7.7.2.2The imperative morpheme341
7.7.2.3The s to 3ns morpheme344
7.7.2.4The second and third person plural morpheme344
7.7.2.5The negative imperative singular agent and subject morpheme345
7.7.2.6The first person singular patient morpheme347
7.7.2.7The dual subject morpheme347
7.7.2.8The imperative first person exclusive patient morpheme348
7.7.2.9The singular agent and subject morpheme350
7.7.3The detransitivising morpheme351
7.7.4Weakening the command352
7.7.5Strengthening the command353
7.8The particle of hearsay354
Chapter 8Non-Finite Deverbatives357
8.1Verbal nouns357
8.1.1The infinitive and the nomen actionis357
8.1.2The supine360
8.1.3The nominaliser of loan verbs361
8.2Verbal adjectives362
8.2.1The active verbal adjective363
8.2.2The passive verbal adjective368
8.2.3The verbal adjective of purpose372
8.2.4The attributive verbal adjective378
8.2.5The stative verbal adjective379
Chapter 9Gerunds and Complex Sentences381
9.1Gerunds381
9.1.1Perfect gerunds381
9.1.2Present gerunds393
9.1.3The conditional gerund and the irrealis395
9.1.4The simultaneous gerund400
9.1.5The similaritive gerund402
9.1.6The negative state gerund403
9.1.7The connective gerund404
9.1.8The gerund of manner406
9.1.9The gerund of circumvagant motion407
9.2Conjunctive particles408
Chapter 10Verbal Constructions and Complex Verbs411
10.1Auxiliaries411
10.1.1Inceptive auxiliaries414
10.1.2The ingressive auxiliary415
10.1.3The continuous auxiliary415
10.1.4The terminative auxiliary417
10.1.5Egressive auxiliaries418
10.1.6Exhaustive auxiliaries419
10.1.7The auxiliary of dispatching420
10.1.8The ponent auxiliary421
10.1.9The auxiliary of capacity422
10.1.10The auxiliary of ability422
10.1.11The auxiliary of possibility423
10.1.12The periphrastic auxiliary 'to want'423
10.1.13The auxiliary 'to like'424
10.1.14The auxiliary 'to give'424
10.1.15The auxiliary 'to agree'426
10.1.16The auxiliary 'to be sufficient'426
10.1.17The explorative auxiliary427
10.1.18The auxiliary 'to learn'427
10.1.19The provocative auxiliary428
10.1.20The performative auxiliary429
10.1.21The causative auxiliary430
10.1.22The auxiliary of reciprocity430
10.2Loan particles of necessity431
10.3Complex verbs433
10.3.1Motionalisers433
10.3.2The bound root 'leave'441
Appendix 1Texts443
1.1The horse thrower443
1.2The Magar446
1.3The glutton448
1.4The major450
1.5My maternal grandfather Agendar456
1.6In search of bandits459
1.7Grandson of the price467
1.8Rain had not fallen for twelve rainy seasons473
1.9Muddy Water475
1.10If somebody dies477
1.11Religious duties482
1.12When making rice beer485
1.13Bulldozer486
1.14To become a poor person487
1.15Eggs489
1.16The negotiators' swamdi490
Appendix 2Wambule-English Lexicon543
Appendix 3English-Wambule Lexicon753
Appendix 4Affirmative and Imperative Paradigms861
Appendix 5The 'Chouras'ya' Materials885
Bibliography895

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