Laser Applications in Medicine and Biology: Volume 4

Laser Applications in Medicine and Biology: Volume 4

by M.L. Wolbarsht (Editor)

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1989)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781461280613
Publisher: Springer US
Publication date: 10/12/2011
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1989
Pages: 310
Product dimensions: 5.98(w) x 9.02(h) x 0.03(d)

Table of Contents

1 The Laser as a Tool in the Study of Photosynthesis.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Technical Aspects of the Laser Research Methods Used in Photosynthetic Research.- 2.1. The Sources of Short and Ultrashort Pulses.- 2.1.1. Q-Switched Lasers.- 2.1.2. Mode-Locked Lasers.- 2.1.3. Frequency Tuning.- 2.2. Picosecond Spectrometers for the Absorbance Change Measurements.- 2.2.1. Echelon Method.- 2.2.2. Optical Delay Line Method.- 2.3. Picosecond Fluorometry.- 2.3.1. Optical Kerr Gate Method.- 2.3.2. Streak Camera Techniques.- 2.3.3. Photon Counting Fluorometry.- 2.3.4. Frequency Mixing in Nonlinear Crystals.- 2.4. Raman Spectroscopy.- 2.5. Laser Monitoring Techniques.- 3. Laser Studies of Photosynthesis.- 3.1. The Primary Events.- 3.1.1. Energy Migration.- 3.1.2. Charge Separation and Stabilization.- 3.2. Photosynthesizing Bacteria.- 3.3. Higher Plants.- 3.4. Molecular Organization of the Photosynthetic Apparatus.- 3.4.1. Action of Ruby Laser Radiation.- 3.4.2. Raman Scattering Spectroscopy.- 4. Conclusion.- References.- 2 Requirements and Technical Concepts of Biomedical Microprobe Analysis.- 1. Prologue.- 1.1. Introduction.- 2. Actual Microprobe Instruments.- 2.1. Electron Probe X-Ray Microanalysis (EPXM).- 2.2. Ion Microprobe.- 2.3. Raman Scattering Microprobes.- 2.4. Laser Microprobe Emission Spectroscopy.- 2.5. Laser Microprobe Mass Analysis (LAMMA).- 3. The LAMMA Instrument and Its Performance.- 3.1. General Concept.- 3.2. Laser and Laser Optics.- 3.3. The TOF Spectrometer and Signal Detection.- 3.4. Sensitivity.- 3.5. Quantitative Analysis.- 4. LAMMA Applications in Biomedical Microprobe Analysis.- 4.1. Specimen Preparation for LAMMA Analysis.- 4.2. Distribution of Physiological Cations and Trace Elements in Soft Biological Tissues.- 4.3. K/Na Ratio in Transport Active Epithelia of the Inner Ear (Stria Vascularis).- 4.4. K/Na/Ca Ratio in Single Isolated Skeletal Muscle Fibers.- 4.5. Fe/Mg Ratio in Single Human Red Blood Cells.- 4.6. Detection and Localization of Trace Elements in Biological Tissues.- 5. LAMMA Applications in Particle Analysis.- 5.1. Microanalysis of Small Particles: Some General Considerations.- 5.2. Performance and Limitations of the LAMMA Technique as Applied to Particle Research.- 5.3. LAMMA Analysis of Reference Particles.- 5.4. LAMMA Analysis of True Aerosols.- 5.5. LAMMA Analysis of Asbestos and Man-Made Mineral Fibers.- 6. LAMMA Applications in Organic Mass Spectrometry.- 6.1. Mass Spectroscopy of Nonvolatile or Thermally Labile Compounds.- 6.2. Laser Desorption Mass Spectrometry.- 6.3. Laser Pyrolysis.- 6.4. Laser Desorption Spectra of Amino Acids and Peptides.- 6.5. LAMMA Investigation of Human Skin.- 6.6. Mass Spectrometric Fingerprinting of Mycobacteria.- 7. Conclusions and Outlook.- References.- 3 Ultrashort Laser Pulses in Biomedical Research.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Study of Fast Biological Events May Require Particular Laser Technologies.- 1.2. How Lasers Deliver Short Pulses.- 1.3. Physics of Giant Light Pulses.- 1.4. Nonlinear Technologies.- 1.5. Detection of Picosecond Light Events.- 2. Use of Laser Pulses to Induce Biochemical Reactions.- 2.1. Photobiological Reactions.- 2.2. Chemical Relaxation.- 2.3. T Jumps.- 3. Use of Lasers for Monitoring Fast Biochemical Reactions.- 3.1. Multichannel Spectral Analyses.- 4. New Technologies in Multichannel Spectral Analysis.- References.- 4 The Excimer Laser: A New Ultraviolet Source for Medical, Biological, and Chemical Applications.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Physics of Excimers, and Limitations on Their Use as Laser Medium.- 3. Technology and Capabilities of Excimer Lasers.- 3.1. Excitation Techniques.- 3.2. Gas Mixtures.- 3.3. Optical Cavities.- 3.4. Wavelength Tuning.- 4. Applications.- 4.1. Photoassociation.- 4.2. Dermatology Response to Excimer Radiation.- 5. Future Improvements.- References.- 5 The Photopathology and Nature of the Blue Light and Near-UV Retinal Lesions Produced by Lasers and Other Optical Sources.- 1. Background and Current Status.- 2. Light Toxicity as Function of Wavelength.- 3. Aging and Degenerative Effects of Chronic Exposure to Light.- 4. Repetitive Exposures to Blue Light.- 5. Continuous Exposure of Rhesus Monkey to Fluorescent Light.- 6. Potential Eye Hazard from Ophthalmic Instrumentation.- 7. Photopathology of Blue Light.- 8. Photopathology of Near Ultraviolet Lesion.- 9. Validity of Animal Data as Related to Man.- 10. Protective Filtration.- 11. Possible Mechanisms Leading to Light Damage in the Primate Retina.- 12. Protective Mechanisms against Light Damage.- 13. The Effect of Oxygen on Light Toxicity.- 14. Summary.- References.- 6 Ocular Thermal Injury from Intense Light.- 1. History.- 2. Retinal Thermal Injury.- 2.1. Threshold Retinal Irradiance.- 2.2. Threshold Temperature.- 2.3. Temperature and the Damage Integral.- 2.4. Temperature Measurements.- 2.5. Blood Flow.- 2.6. Asymptotic Retinal Thermal Injury.- 3. Corneal Thermal Injury.- 4. Beyond Thermal Injury.- 5. Conclusion.- References.- Author Index.

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