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About the Author
JEFF COBB is the founder of Tagoras, a research and consulting firm focused on continuing education. A frequent speaker and a vocal advocate of lifelong learning, Jeff has nearly two decades of experience in the world of learning technology and innovation.
Read an Excerpt
CHAPTER 1 THE NEW LEARNING LANDSCAPE
I’VE CHOSEN TO FOCUS this book on lifelong learning partly because that is my background—it is a market in which I have worked for well over a decade—but also because I think it has received surprisingly little attention in all of the excited and often heated discussion about education in the past several years. I take the term “lifelong learning” literally—it means learning that occurs throughout the life of an individual—but for the purposes of this book, I will focus on what I think of as “the other fifty years.” So much of the broader public discussion about education focuses on the K–12 sector and higher education. But the reality for most people is that they will exit these systems with at least another fifty years ahead of them. To say there is a significant—and growing—need for learning during these years would be a vast understatement, and yet you rarely hear politicians, trade and professional association CEOs, college and university presidents, or other potential learning leaders articulate a compelling vision for how we should serve this huge market.
It is clear, however, that this market is changing—indeed, already has changed significantly—and part of what inspired me to write this book is the efforts I have seen by entrepreneurial thinkers over the past several years to fill in the gaps left by traditional approaches to continuing education and professional development. In this chapter, I examine five forces that I think are driving these gaps and discuss their impact on the business of lifelong learning. By their nature, the five forces are:
I believe these forces ensure that the market for lifelong learning will continue to grow dramatically and dynamically in the coming years.
THE LEARNING ECONOMY
The study of economics has offered many important lessons over the past two hundred years, but the one I find most important to education providers as we make our way into the twenty-first century is this: The nature of work changes with increasing speed as economies mature. To
not recognize and actively address this fact is to wind up in a situation in which there is a significant gap between what businesses need and what the labor pool can provide. Indeed, that is where we find ourselves a both in the United States and many other developed economies a as I write this book.
A September 2011 article in the Economist argued that even as unemployment surges, businesses are having a difficult time finding people with the types and levels of talent they need for open positions. “[A] minority,”
the article suggests, “is benefitting from an intensifying war for talent. That minority is well placed to demand interesting and fulfilling work and set its own terms and conditions.”1 This minority, of course, is very well educated and highly capable of adapting to changing circumstances.
In retrospect, we have been evolving toward this point at an accelerating rate for centuries. In the early 1800s—a mere two hundred years ago—the vast majority of the U.S. population lived and worked on small farms or ran businesses that served the needs of farmers. The nature of work, even given a range of technical innovations, was not terribly different from what it had been for thousands of years before.
Plant, harvest, process, sell, or do things to support these activities.
Only a hundred years later the majority of the population lived in cities a and manufacturing had become the engine of our economy. The demands of this economy—both to do the work of manufacturing and to provide a food supply to support large numbers of people who no longer worked on farms—meant that a wide range of entirely new jobs were created and that the nature of the old jobs had to change significantly.
As manufacturing grew and farming evolved, both became increasingly less labor intensive and more specialized in the types of labor involved. Just as important, with the spread of public and higher education and continuing advances in technology, there was a dramatic increase in the pace at which new types of jobs emerged, became increasingly specialized, and then either disappeared or adapted to yet more change.
Skip forward another hundred years, and both rural and industrial life are distant memories for most of us. For decades we have lived in what the prescient Peter Drucker dubbed a “knowledge economy,” one driven by service- and information-based businesses. But just decades later, even Drucker’s term no longer seems quite on the mark. “Knowledge”
sounds too finite: Master a body of knowledge and you are on your way. There are professions where that still works, at least as a point of entry, but as any recent college graduate can attest, those professions and those points of entry are becoming harder and harder to find. We
now live in what is not so much a “knowledge” economy but rather a
“figure it out on a daily basis” economy. Or, more formally, a learning economy.
Many of us, even those who remain in the same jobs, see the nature of our work change from year to year, and sometimes much faster.
Technology is one key driver of this continuous change; globalization is another. Most of us are now all too familiar with the idea that a software program or a lower-paid worker in another country may be able to do our work as well or better than we can. This knowledge, in and of itself a creates a perpetual uncertainty in the labor market. And most of us recognize that we are unlikely to remain in any one job for our entire careers or even for long stretches of time, as was the norm for previous generations.
Indeed, the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department of Labor indicates that the “average person born in the later years of the baby boom held 10.8 jobs from age 18 to age 42.”2 There is little, if any a reason to believe that this number will decline—unless, of course, the drop is driven by the grim fact that so many in the younger generations will be starting work later given the current lack of entry-level job openings. In addition to shifting jobs, many of us may also shift careers at least once during our working years. Either situation creates significant new learning demands.
Increasingly, for individuals, there are two options. One is to stick to the path of traditional employment, but to be as fully prepared as possible for the less secure environment that this path now offers. This is a particular challenge in professions in which the work lends itself to being codified and systematized, as is the case in a growing number of midlevel a white-collar positions. The process of off-shoring or computerizing any job that requires straightforward information processing—from insurance claims to bookkeeping to routine legal tasks—is already well under way. Assuming that robotics finally makes the leap that seems inevitable, the situation will become only more challenging. As technology futurist Kevin Kelly puts it, “Productivity is for machines. If you can measure it, robots should do it.”3
While creativity, critical thinking, and leadership are often cited as aptitudes needed for combating this trend and securing coveted “hightalent”
jobs, I’d argue that these are not enough. These aptitudes, valuable as they are, require continual replenishment through learning.
Individuals who hope to survive, much less thrive, in traditional employ-ment in the learning economy must actively pursue educational opportunities that maintain their value to their employers. In many cases, if not most, this will mean seeking opportunities that fall outside of whatever education and training the employer offers.
The other option is to throw off the reins of traditional employment and set out on your own. This is no silver bullet, of course: Individuals who choose this path need all of the same aptitudes and the drive to learn that their more traditional peers need, but they must also have the courage and the discipline to be self-reliant. Whether by choice or force of circumstance, an increasing number of individuals are, in fact, choosing this path. A 2011 series in the Atlantic points to a surge in freelance workers and goes so far as to call it “the industrial revolution of our time.” Sara Horowitz, the series’ author and founder of the nonprofit
Freelancers Union, describes what she calls the “freelance economy,” in which “over 42 million Americans are working independently—as freelancers a part-timers, consultants, contractors, and the self-employed.”
Horowitz goes on to argue:
We haven’t seen a shift in the workforce this significant in almost
100 years when we transitioned from an agricultural to an industrial
economy. Now, employees are leaving the traditional workplace
and opting to piece together a professional life on their
own. As of 2005, one-third of our workforce participated in this
“freelance economy.” Data show that number has only increased
over the past six years. Entrepreneurial activity in 2009 was at its
highest level in 14 years, online freelance job postings skyrocketed
in 2010, and companies are increasingly outsourcing work.
While the economy has unwillingly pushed some people into
independent work, many have chosen it because of greater flexibility
that lets them skip the dreary office environment and focus
on more personally fulfilling projects.
Because workers in this freelance sector of the economy are not employed by typical companies, Horowitz argues, they fall outside of many of the protections that were put in place by the New Deal, a legislative agenda that was driven through by Franklin Roosevelt as an implicit acknowledgment of the dramatic shift in work from the farm to the factory. These workers, whether solo practitioners or operating within small business, also do not have corporate human resources and training departments.
Given economic realities at the time I am writing this book, there is little indication that the situation will change for traditional employees a and there is every indication that the ranks of freelancers will grow. In their promotional efforts as well as in the types of content and learning experiences they offer, smart educational providers have a tremendous opportunity to find innovative ways to target and support one or both of these audiences.
Table of Contents
Introduction: Your Opportunity, Should You
Choose to Accept It 1
Are You a Revolutionary? 5
Chapter 1: The New Learning Landscape 9
The Learning Economy 10
From Remedial Education to Learning 14
Five Tech Transformations 16
Mind Matters 22
Generational Bookends 24
The Sum of the Parts 26
Chapter 2: Finding and Understanding Your
Lifelong Market 29
Who Are Your Potential Fans? 31
Broad Strokes with Search 35
Tune in and Listen 41
To Learn More, Ask 48
Test to Succeed 51
A Word of Caution 61
Chapter 3: Business Models for the New
Learning Landscape 63
The P2 Community Model 66
The Flipped Model 73
The Virtual Conference Model 76
The Massive Model 8
Chapter 4: Standing Out and Delivering Value 87
Positioning and Differentiation 87
The Value Continuum 98
Versions and Derivatives 101
Chapter 5: Learning by Design 105
Integrating Learning and Business Objectives 106
Seven Rules to Teach and Facilitate By 108
Everyone, Everywhere, Always Learning 116
The Social–Mobile Shift 118
Terms of Engagement 123
Chapter 6: Tools and Competencies 129
Manage a Home Base 130
Shoot and Edit Digital Video 132
Record a Screencast 133
Capture and Edit Audio 134
Do Basic Image Editing 136
Host a Webinar or Webcast 137
Create Nicely Formatted Documents 141
More Sophisticated Tools 142
Sourcing and Outsourcing 147
Chapter 7: Cultivating the Content-Context Habit 151
Staying Tuned In 152
Curating Value 154
Conducting Rapid Research 156
Writing It Together 164
Chapter 8: Promoting and Converting 169
From Attention to Action 170
Tools of the Trade 173
Social Tools 183
Converting with Landing Pages 187
Chapter 9: The Best Laid Plans: Executing,
Measuring, Innovating 193
The Beta Mentality 194
The Dabblers Downfall 196
Measuring—and Learning—As You Go 198
Evaluating Impact 200
From Impact to Innovation 203
Chapter 10: Taking It to the Next Level:
Leading Learning 207
From Catalog to Platform 207
Shifting Power to Learners 209
Leading Learning, Leading Change 214
Appendix: Creating an Action Plan 217
1. Fully Understand Your Market 217
2. Determine Your Business Model and Positioning 218
3. Design and Develop Learning Experiences 219
4. Stay Connected, Promote, and Convert 220
5. Execute for Impact and Change 221