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Cengage Learning
Learning and Behavior / Edition 5

Learning and Behavior / Edition 5

by Paul Chance


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780534598686
Publisher: Cengage Learning
Publication date: 07/01/2002
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 528
Product dimensions: 6.58(w) x 9.48(h) x 0.98(d)

About the Author

Paul Chance received his Ph.D. in Psychology from Utah State University. He started his career as a school teacher (grades 7-9), and has been an Adjunct Instructor at the California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo and at Salisbury University (Maryland). Formerly, he was Book Review Editor of PSYCHOLOGY TODAY magazine, a senior fellow of the Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies, and a member of the Association for Science in Autism Treatment advisory board.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1Introduction: Learning to Change1
Natural Selection2
Box: The Face of Change3
Fixed Action Patterns12
General Behavior Traits17
The Limits of Natural Selection22
Learning: Evolved Modifiability24
Nature and Nature26
Box: The Superior Animal27
Chapter 2The Study of Learning and Behavior34
Learning Defined36
Learning Means Change36
What Changes Is Behavior37
Box: Defining Operations38
What Changes Behavior Is Experience40
Measuring Learning41
Research Designs47
Anecdotal Evidence47
Case Studies48
Descriptive Studies49
Experimental Studies50
Limitations of Experimental Research54
Animal Research and Human Learning56
Reasons for Animal Research56
Objections to Animal Research56
Questions About Learning61
Chapter 3Pavlovian Conditioning66
Box: Ivan Pavlov: An Experimenter from Head to Foot69
Basic Procedures70
Box: What's What in Pavlovian Conditioning?73
Higher-Order Conditioning74
Measuring Pavlovian Learning76
Variables Affecting Pavlovian Conditioning78
Pairing CS and US78
Box: Pavlovian Flowchart81
CS-US Contingency81
CS-US Contiguity82
Stimulus Features83
Prior Experience with CS and US86
Number of CS-US Pairings88
Intertrial Interval89
Other Variables89
Extinction of Conditional Responses91
Box: Edwin B. Twitmyer and What Might Have Been94
Theories of Conditioning95
Stimulus Substitution Theory96
Preparatory Response Theory97
Box: Conditioning and Awareness98
Chapter 4Pavlovian Applications105
Box: Thank You, Albert108
Box: What Rats Can Teach Us About Fear111
Box: Bite Your Tongue!117
The Paraphilias118
Taste Aversions122
Box: Changing the Coyote's Menu125
Immune Function126
Chapter 5Operant Reinforcement133
Box: E. L. Thorndike: What the Occasion Demanded140
Basic Procedures141
Box: B. F. Skinner: The Darwin of Behavior Science144
Discrete Trial and Free Operant Procedures144
Operant and Pavlovian Learning Compared147
Primary and Secondary Reinforcers149
Shaping and Chaining151
Box: Tips for Shapers154
Variables Affecting Reinforcement159
Reinforcer Characteristics163
Task Characteristics164
Deprivation Level165
Box: Octopi Individuality166
Other Variables166
Extinction of Reinforced Behavior167
Theories of Reinforcement172
Hull's Drive-Reduction Theory172
Relative Value Theory and the Premack Principle174
Response Deprivation Theory176
Theories of Avoidance178
Two-Process Theory179
One-Process Theory182
Chapter 6Operant Punishment188
Basic Procedures190
Box: Aversive Confusion: Positive Punishment and Negative Reinforcement Compared192
Variables Affecting Punishment193
Punisher Intensity197
Introductory Level of Punishment198
Reinforcement of the Punished Behavior199
Alternative Sources of Reinforcement200
Deprivation Level200
Other Variables202
Theories of Punishment202
Two-Process Theory203
One-Process Theory204
Problems with Punishment205
Imitation of the Punisher208
Alternatives to Punishment209
Response Prevention209
Differential Reinforcement211
Noncontingent Reinforcement213
Chapter 7Operant Applications218
Animal Care and Training219
Box: Reinforcement Goes to the Dogs221
Box: The Shaping of Awareness225
Verbal Behavior229
Box: Rewarding Lies234
Insightful Problem Solving235
Box: Quick! Get Some Mud!248
Learned Helplessness249
Delusions and Hallucinations252
Self-Injurious Behavior255
Chapter 8Vicarious Learning264
Basic Procedures266
Vicarious Pavlovian Conditioning267
Vicarious Operant Learning271
Vicarious Learning Versus Imitation279
Generalized Imitation279
Variables Affecting Vicarious Learning281
Consequences of the Model's Behavior282
Consequences of the Observer's Behavior282
Characteristics of the Model283
Box: Vicarious Learning and Human Nature284
Observer's Age285
Observer's Learning History285
Box: The Venus Effect or, How Can I Learn Anything When You Look at Me with Those Big Brown Eyes?286
Other Variables287
Theories of Vicarious Learning287
Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory287
Miller-Dollard Reinforcement Theory289
Applications of Vicarious Learning292
Crime and Television293
Therapy for Phobia295
Chapter 9Generalization, Discrimination, and Stimulus Control302
Generalization Gradients306
Semantic Generalization308
Box: Generalized Therapy309
Generalization Following Extinction and Punishment312
Discrimination Training313
Box: Worlds Apart: Punks and Skinheads315
Box: Lessons from Lepers317
Successive, Simultaneous, and MTS Procedures318
Errorless Discrimination Training319
Differential Outcomes Effect320
Stimulus Control322
Box: Stimulus Control and Adaptation324
Theories of Generalization and Discrimination326
Pavlov's Theory326
Spence's Theory326
The Lashley-Wade Theory329
Applications of Generalization and Discrimination332
Concept Formation332
Mental Rotation335
Smoking Relapse337
Experimental Neuroses339
Chapter 10Schedules of Reinforcement346
Simple Schedules349
Continuous Reinforcement349
Fixed Ratio Schedules349
Variable Ratio Schedules351
Box: VR Harassment352
Fixed Interval Schedules353
Variable Interval Schedules354
Other Simple Schedules355
Stretching the Ratio359
Intermittent Reinforcement and the PRE361
Discrimination Hypothesis362
Frustration Hypothesis363
Sequential Hypothesis364
Response Unit Hypothesis365
Complex Schedules367
Choice and the Matching Law370
Box: Ghetto Choice374
Applications of Schedules375
Compulsive Gambling375
Experimental Economics377
The Importance of Schedules Research380
Chapter 11Forgetting388
Defining Forgetting390
Measuring Forgetting392
Box: The Myth of Permanent Memory394
Variables in Forgetting396
Degree of Learning398
Prior Learning400
Subsequent Learning403
Box: Reminiscence and the State of Learning406
Applied Research on Forgetting408
Eyewitness Testimony409
Learning to Remember412
Box: Say All Fast Minute Each Day Shuffle413
Use Mnemonics414
Try a Mnemonic System415
Use Context Cues416
Use Prompts417
Box: The Man Who Couldn't Forget419
A Final Word on Forgetting420
Chapter 12The Limits of Learning425
Physical Characteristics426
Nonheritability of Learned Behavior428
Heredity and Learning Ability430
Neurological Damage and Learning432
Box: Recipe for Genius433
Critical Periods434
Preparedness and Learning436
Box: Learning and Humanity441
Author Index489
Subject Index498

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