Legal Instruments for Combating Racism on the Internet (2009)

Legal Instruments for Combating Racism on the Internet (2009)

by Council of Europe (Other)

Paperback

$50.00

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9789287165404
Publisher: Council of Europe
Publication date: 05/28/2009
Pages: 175
Product dimensions: 6.30(w) x 9.45(h) x 0.39(d)

Table of Contents

Introduction 7

Preliminary remarks 39

Terms of reference 39

Scope of the study 39

Our approach 42

Cautionary note 42

I Internet: the technical and legal environment 45

1.1 The "network of networks": polycentric, ubiquitous, clandestine and ephemeral 45

1.2 Services offered 47

1.3 Operators involved 49

1.3.1 Service providers 49

1.3.2 Content providers 50

1.3.3 Relayers of information 50

II Legal issues raised in the work of law-enforcement and investigative authorities 51

2.1 Jurisdiction: a vast territory to cover 51

2.1.1 Jurisdiction in criminal matters 51

2.1.2 Jurisdiction in civil matters 54

2.2 Data havens and freedom of expression in the USA 56

2.2.1 Federal legislation 58

2.2.2 States' legislation 59

2.3 Legal bases for investigations and seizures 62

2.4 Obstacles in media law to establishing personal liability for racist content 68

2.5 Obstacles raised by data protection law 72

2.6 Problems of international police co-operation 75

III Responsibility of the various parties involved in the Internet 77

Introduction: the problem so far 77

3.1 Author's liability 77

3.1.1 Limits to criminal liability: the difficulty of identifying an author 77

3.1.2 Civil liability of the "author" 81

3.2 Different parties have different degrees of liability 82

3.2.1 Relayers' liability 82

3.2.2 Hosts' liability 93

3.2.3 Access providers' liability 105

3.3 Legislative solutions and measures in the pipeline 112

3.3.1 Existing law 112

3.3.2 Measures in the pipeline 113

3.3.3 The particular case of the European Union and the USA 115

3.4 Press laws/criminal liability 117

IV The position in public international law 123

4.1 Texts setting out legal duties 123

4.2 States' practice in respect of Article 4 of the International Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) 128

4.3 Opinions of specialized bodies and legal experts 129

4.4 Overview of the Convention on Cybercrime 132

4.5 Overview of the additional protocol to the Convention of Cybercrime 133

4.6 Conclusion 134

V "Soft law" 137

5.1 Soft-law instruments 137

5.1.1 Netiquette 137

5.1.2 Codes of conduct - machinery for self - regulation 139

5.1.3 Providers' general terms and conditions 139

5.1.4 Government registration bodies and hotlines 141

5.1.5 Tools for tracing illegal content: filtering, rating and labelling systems 141

5.2 European approach 143

5.2.1 Action plan on the safer use of the Internet 143

5.2.2 EuroISPA 146

5.3 Implementation of soft-law instruments by Internet providers and NGOs 47

5.3.1 Austria 147

5.3.2 The Netherlands 147

5.3.3 Germany 148

5.3.4 France 151

5.3.5 Belgium 154

5.3.6 The United Kingdom 154

5.3.7 Italy 156

5.4 Implementation of soft-law instruments by government bodies 157

5.4.1 Switzerland 157

5.4.2 Sweden 159

Conclusion 161

Appendices 165

Appendix 1 ECRI general policy recommendation No. 6: Combating the dissemination of racist, xenophobic and anti-Semitic materiel via the Internet 165

Appendix 2 Additional Protocol to the convention on Cybercrime, concerning the criminalisation of acts of a racist and xenophobic nature committed through computer systems 168

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