Legal Writing and Research for International Students

Legal Writing and Research for International Students

by Nadia E. Nedzel

Paperback(Older Edition)


Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780735535190
Publisher: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business
Publication date: 06/28/2004
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 353
Product dimensions: 6.96(w) x 10.00(h) x 0.81(d)

Table of Contents

Chapter 1United States Common Law1
I.The Nature of U.S. Common Law, as Compared to Other Legal Systems2
A.U.S. Common Law Contrasted with Civilian Jurisdictions2
B.Background Norms of United States Law5
1.United States Law as Compared to Islamic Law5
2.United States Law as Compared to Asian Legal Traditions7
3.United States Legal Philosophy as Compared to Marxist/Leninist Theories9
II.Comparative Development of Western Legal Systems11
A.The Civil Law Tradition11
B.The Anglo-American Development of Common Law12
1.The Founding of Circuit Courts, Separation of Law and Religion, and Stare Decisis12
2.The Role of Scholars14
3.The Jury System14
4.Common Law Civil Procedure: Writ Pleading, the Distinction between Law and Equity, and its Effect on the Jury System16
5.Legal Education17
III.The Study of Law in the United States: The Case Method18
IV.Briefing Cases21
A.Components of a Case Brief22
Discussion Notes30
Supplementary Exercise37
Chapter 2Introduction to American Legal Research and the Federal System39
I.United States Legal Resources39
A.Types of Legal Resources39
B.Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Research Media40
II.Research Techniques and Interpretive Skills41
III.The First Research Skill: Locating a Given Legal Authority41
A.Primary Authority and Citation Forms43
4.Case Law46
B.Secondary Sources52
IV.The First Interpretive Skill: Ranking or Weight of Authority54
A.Three-Tier Court System55
B.Mandatory versus Persuasive Authority56
C.Federalism, Subject Matter Jurisdiction, and the Preemption Doctrine56
Discussion Notes60
Exercise Hints for Various Media63
Chapter 3Legal Reasoning and Objective Legal Writing65
I.Deductive Reasoning and the Syllogism66
II.IRAC and CRAC Reasoning67
A.I: Identification of an Issue69
B.R: Analysis of a Legal Rule70
1.Types of Legal Rules70
2.Difficulties in Stating Common Law Rules72
3.Incorporating Case Law into the Rule Analysis74
4.Incorporating Policy Concerns74
5.Considering Relative Weight of Authority75
C.A and C: Application and Conclusion76
III.Example of IRAC Analysis: The Gun-in-the-Boot Problem76
A.Facts and Basic Rule Analysis77
B.Case Law77
C.Issue Identification78
D.Example of a Case Law Chart79
E.Factual Comparisons to the Harris Problem80
F.Policy Analysis80
IV.The Interoffice Memo81
A.The Assignment: Interviewing the Employer82
B.Interoffice Memo Form83
C.Discussion Section85
1.Two-Issue Discussion Sections85
2.Concluding Sentence87
D.Other Information about the Interoffice Memo87
1.Tone and Style87
V.Sample Interoffice Memo91
VI.The Open Research Memo93
A.Definition of an Open Research Memo93
B.Similarities and Differences between Closed and Open Memos93
C.Checklist: Researching and Writing the Open Memo94
Discussion Notes94
Chapter 4The Research Process99
I.Ethical and Practical Demands100
II.The Research Process101
III.Research Advice101
A.Media Choices101
1.Comparison of Fee-Based Computer Databases103
2.Noncommercial Computer Databases105
3.CD-ROM and Microforms105
B.Finding Tools106
C.Keeping on Track107
D.Preserving Research Results107
E.Reading for Research108
F.Planning Project Time108
G.Determining when Research Is Complete108
IV.Stage 1: Background Research and Preparation109
A.Facts: Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How110
B.Jurisdiction, Area of Law, and Issue or Search Terms111
C.Choice Research Media111
D.Initial Research Plan112
E.Secondary Sources112
1.Get an Overview of Area of Law and Underlying Policy Considerations112
2.Identify Probable Source or Sources of Law112
3.Revise List of Search Terms or Issue Statement112
4.Locate Applicable Legal Principles113
5.Scavenge Secondary Sources for Citations to Mandatory Authority113
F.Issue Statement Refinement113
G.Research Plan Refinement113
H.Sample Research Log113
V.The Purpose and Importance of Secondary Research119
A.Secondary Sources: Hard Copy or Online?120
B.Types of Secondary Sources120
2.Treatises and Hornbooks124
3.Legal Periodicals126
4.American Law Reports128
5.Legal Encyclopedias129
Discussion Notes130
Chapter 5Researching and Updating Case Law133
I.Finding and Verifying Case Law133
A.Scavenging from Secondary Sources134
B.Using Citators to Verify, Update, and Broaden Research134
1.Scavenging Cases from Citations Given in a Case135
3.Using Citators to Verify Case law136
4.Using Citators to Locate Case Law and Secondary Authority137
5.The Importance of Citators138
C.Locating Case Law Using Subject Indexes138
D.Term and Full-Sentence Searches on Internet Databases139
1.Choosing the Appropriate Database139
2.Choosing between Boolean and Full-Sentence Searches140
3.Avoid Boolean and Full-Sentence Searches Until You Have Used Other Methods140
4.Tailoring Boolean Searches for Accuracy141
II.Citing Cases141
A.The Case Name142
1.Short-Form Case Names142
B.Reporter Information, Volume and Page Numbers143
1.Parallel Citations143
2.Pinpoint Citations144
C.Court and Year144
D.Subsequent History145
E.Short Citation Forms145
Exercises: Finding and Citing Case Law146
Chapter 6Researching and Interpreting Constitutions, Statutes, and International Law149
I.Statute, Regulation, or Case Law: Which Is It?149
II.Researching Constitutions150
III.Researching Statutes151
A.Locating Statutes151
1.Scavenge from Secondary Sources151
2.Use Subject Indexes to Locate Controlling Statute152
3.Analyze Associated Statutes153
4.Locate and Analyze Noted Cases in Annotations153
5.Use Citators to Update and Broaden Case Research153
6.Use Term and Sentence-Form Searches154
7.Research Legislative History if Needed154
B.Congressional Powers and the Legislative Process154
1.Structure and Functions of Congress154
2.How a Bill Becomes Law155
3.Researching New Statutes157
IV.Researching and Updating Administrative Regulations158
V.Interpreting Statutes158
A.Plain Language159
B.Textualist Approach162
C.Purposive Interpretation164
1.Documents Generated During the Legislative Process164
2.Weight of Authority in Legislative History164
3.How to find Legislative History Documents165
4.Controversies Surrounding Legislative History165
5.Interpretations Based on Public Policy166
VI.International Law and Treaties167
A.Researching International Law Online167
B.U.S. Interpretations of International Law167
Chapter 7Rewriting and Style173
I.United States Legal Writing Rhetoric173
A.The Ideal173
B.The Reality174
A.The Macro-Organization of an Objective Memo175
B.Reorganization of the Discussion176
C.Small-Scale Organization of the Rule Section178
1.Use of Case Law and Avoidance of Laundry Lists178
2.More Than One Problematic Component179
3.Sequence of Cases179
4.Paragraphs Discussing Cases180
5.Incorporating Secondary Authority180
D.Small-Scale Organization of an Application Section181
1.Structure of the Application Section181
2.Fact-to-Fact Analogy183
E.Reorganization of the Facts184
F.Reorganization of the Conclusion184
G.Picturing How Sections of a Law Firm Memo Work Together185
1.Paragraph Structure185
2.Topic Sentences185
B.Editing Sentences190
1.Sentence Length190
2.Sentence Structure191
3.Paraphrasing and Using Language Consistently192
C.Editing Details193
1.Paragraph and Sentence Format193
2.Word Choice193
Chapter 8Advanced Objective Writing203
I.Types of Scholarly Articles204
A.Seminar Papers and Thesis Papers204
B.Law Review Articles204
II.Subject Choice and Development206
A.Identifying a Particular Issue or Narrow Area206
B.Approaches to Articles207
C.Unanticipated Research Problems209
III.The Contents of a Scholarly Article209
A.Thesis Statement209
B.Basic Organization of a Scholarly Paper211
1.String Citations211
2.Discursive Citations212
D.Plagiarism Warning214
IV.Time Management and Research Strategies215
A.Avoiding Procrastination215
B.Research Strategy216
C.Storing and Organizing Research for Larger Projects217
D.Reorganizing Research: Pre-prewriting217
V.The Writing Process218
A.The Natural Writing Process219
1.Notecards and Preliminary Notes220
3.Free-Form Outlining223
4.Dump Drafts225
5.Summary of the Optimal Prewriting Process225
1.Problematic Sections226
2.Translation Problems with Comparative Topics226
3.Keeping Track of Citations226
2.Content and Scope227
1.Signposts and Transitions227
2.Paragraph and Sentence Structure228
3.Style and Tone228
F.Introductions and Conclusions229
G.Polishing and Proofreading230
H.Final Thoughts231
Chapter 9Nonfee Internet Legal Research233
I.Research Strategies233
A.Stage 1 Research234
B.Stage 2 Research235
1.Researching Statutes235
2.Researching Regulations236
3.Researching Case Law237

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