LEP - The Lord of the Collider Rings at CERN 1980-2000: The Making, Operation and Legacy of the World's Largest Scientific Instrument

LEP - The Lord of the Collider Rings at CERN 1980-2000: The Making, Operation and Legacy of the World's Largest Scientific Instrument

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2009)

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Overview

Housed in a tunnel 4 m in diameter and 27 km in circumference-built to a precision of 0.1 mm per km - and integrated within a complex including huge underground labs and numerous surface facilities, the Large Electron-Position Collider (LEP) in its time was not only the largest but also one of the most sophisticated scientific research instrument ever created by mankind. Located at CERN near Geneva, LEP was built in 1983-1989, was operational until 2000, and successfully corroborated the standard model of particle physics through continous high-precision measurements.

The author, director-general of CERN in the crucial period of the making of LEP, recounts vividly the convoluted decision making and technical implementation process-the tunnel alone constituted a most challenging geological and civil engineering project-and the extremely fruitful period of scientific research right up to the difficult decision to close down LEP, even at a time where the discovery of the Higgs seemed within reach.

LEP was then dismantled in 2000 and its tunnel reused for the building of the next generation machine, the much more powerful Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which is becoming operational in the fall of 2008, during the final preparation of this book.

Written by the main actor in charge of making LEP a reality, this is the definitive account of the great story of a machine and the many thousands of scientists and engineers involved.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783662501450
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 08/23/2016
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2009
Pages: 211
Sales rank: 916,161
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.02(d)

Table of Contents

1 Why LEP and Why at CERN? 1

1.1 Is Curiosity-Driven Research Justified? 1

1.2 Colliders Surpass Accelerators 3

1.3 The Stage for a World Facility 6

1.4 The Birth of LEP 8

Referemces 10

2 The Difficult Decision of LEP's Size and Energy 11

2.1 The Optimization of Construction Cost 11

2.2 The LEP Studies 14

Referemces 17

3 The Approval, or How To Persuade Governments 19

3.1 The Unification of CERN 19

3.2 Adapting to the Austere Conditions 22

3.3 The Final Proposal-with the LHC in Mind 23

3.4 The Painful Approval Procedure 26

3.5 The Thorny Consequences of a Limited Budget 28

Referemces 30

4 The Tunnelling Adventure 31

4.1 The Different Elements of Civil Engineering 31

4.2 The Geology and Hydrology 34

4.3 The Choice of the Final Position 35

4.4 The Tunnelling Strategy 38

4.5 The Civil Engineering - Expectations and Reality 42

4.6 Geodesy 49

4.7 The Arbitration 50

4.8 What Else? 51

Referemces 52

5 The Environment-People and Nature 53

5.1 Dialogue with the Population 53

5.2 Radiation Safety-Hazards for the Population? 54

5.3 Legal Problems 55

5.4 The Environmental Study - Étude d'Impact 57

5.5 Energy Consumption 58

5.6 Additional Measures 59

Referemces 60

6 LEP-The Technical Challenge 61

6.1 How Does a Collider Work? 62

6.2 The 'Concrete' Magnets 65

6.3 The Vacuum System 69

6.4 The Radio-Frequency Accelerating System 71

6.4.1 Copper Cavities 71

6.4.2 Superconducting Cavities 75

6.5 Other Components 78

6.5.1 Transport in Tunnel 78

6.5.2 Control System 80

6.5.3 Conventional Equipment and Safety 81

6.6 Injection System 82

6.7 The Final Steps 84

6.7.1 Installation and Dismantling 84

6.7.2Dismantling 85

6.8 The First Collisions 86

Referemces 89

7 The LEP Experiments-Institutions in Themselves 91

7.1 The Approval of the LEP Detectors 91

7.1.1 A Meeting in the Swiss Alps and Letters of Intent 92

7.1.2 The LEP Experiments Committee 94

7.1.3 The Conditional Approval 95

7.1.4 A Typical Detector and Detection Methods 98

7.2 The Four LEP Detectors 102

7.3 Data Acquisition and Evaluation 108

7.4 Organization and Management of the Collaborations 110

Referemces 112

8 What Have We Learned from LEP? - Physics Results 113

8.1 What Is the Standard Model? 115

8.2 Building Blocks of Matter 115

8.3 The Forces of Nature 118

8.4 Symmetries-the New Paradigms 121

8.5 The Symmetries of the Standard Model 122

8.6 The Z Factory-Results from LEP 1 124

8.6.1 Results for the Weak Interaction 127

8.6.2 Results for the Strong Nuclear Force 130

8.7 Results from LEP 2 132

8.7.1 W Particle Production 132

8.7.2 Looking for the Invisible-the Top Quark 135

8.7.3 The Higgs Particle-Disappointment but! 137

8.7.4 Hints Beyond the Standard Model 138

8.8 Summary of LEP Results 140

Referemces 141

9 Creating New Technologies 143

9.1 Basic Research Leads to Quantum Jumps in New Technologies 143

9.2 The Technological 'Spin-Off' 145

9.2.1 Transfer Through Patents and the World Wide Web 145

9.2.2 Joint-Development Contracts 146

9.2.3 Technology Transfer by Procurement 148

9.2.4 Technology Transfer by People 150

Referemces 152

10 Unloved but Necessary-Management and Finances 153

10.1 The Kendrew Committee 153

10.2 The Abragam Committee 155

10.3 Personnel Policy 158

10.4 The LEP Management and Budget 161

10.5 The Total CERN Budget 163

Referemces 166

11 How to Invite the Pope? -VIP Visits 167

Referemces 178

12 CERN-Bringing Nations Together 179

Referemces 183

13 The Complicated Transition from LEP to the LHC 185

Referemces 191

14 The Dramatic Last Period of LEP 193

Referemces 197

Acknowledgments 199

Appendix: CERN Organigram 1984 201

Appendix: Leading CERN Staff During the LEP Project 203

Glossary 205

Index 209

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