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Lessons from the Virtual Classroom: The Realities of Online Teaching / Edition 2

Lessons from the Virtual Classroom: The Realities of Online Teaching / Edition 2

by Rena M. Palloff, Keith Pratt


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Lessons from the Virtual Classroom: The Realities of Online Teaching / Edition 2

Lessons from the Virtual Classroom, Second Edition

The second edition of the classic resource Lessons from theCyberspace Classroom offers a comprehensive reference forfaculty to hone their skills in becoming more effective onlineinstructors. Thoroughly revised and updated to reflect recentchanges and challenges that face online teachers, Lessons fromthe Virtual Classroom is filled with illustrative examples fromactual online courses as well as helpful insights from teachers andstudents. This essential guide offers targeted suggestions fordealing with such critical issues as evaluating effectivecourseware, working with online classroom dynamics, addressing theneeds of the online student, making the transition to onlineteaching, and promoting the development of the learningcommunity.

Praise for Lessons from the Virtual Classroom,Second Edition

"Palloff and Pratt demonstrate their exceptional practicalexperience and insight into the online classroom. This is aninvaluable resource for those tasked with creating an onlinecourse."

— D. Randy Garrison, professor, University of Calgary, andauthor, Blended Learning in Higher Education: Framework,Principles, and Guidelines

"Faculty will deeply appreciate and make use of the manyexplicit examples of how to design, prepare, and teach both blendedand fully online courses."

— Judith V. Boettcher, faculty coach and author, TheOnline Teaching Survival Guide: Simple and Practical PedagogicalTips

"Lessons from the Virtual Classroom is filled withinsightful caveats and recommendations, pointed examples to enhanceyour practice, succinct summaries of the research, and engagingvisual overviews. Each page brings the reader a renewed sense ofconfidence to teach online as well as personal joy that there isfinally a resource to find the answers one is seeking."

— Curtis J. Bonk, professor of education, IndianaUniversity-Bloomington, and author, Empowering Online Learning:100+ Activities for Reading, Reflecting, Displaying, andDoing

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781118123737
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 06/24/2013
Pages: 272
Product dimensions: 7.00(w) x 9.10(h) x 0.80(d)

About the Author

Rena M. Palloff and Keith Pratt have consulted to universities in the development and delivery of online learning since 1994. In conjunction with Fielding Graduate University, they developed the Online Teaching and Learning academic certificate program. They are the authors of Lessons from the Cyberspace Classroom, The Virtual Student, Collaborating Online, Building Online Learning Communities, Assessing Online Learning, and The Excellent Online Instructor all from Jossey-Bass.

Table of Contents

Figures, Table, and Exhibits xi

Preface to the Second Edition: The Face of Online Learning Todayxiii

The Authors xix

Acknowledgments xxi

Part One: Rethinking Education for an Online World 1

1 Online Learning in the Twenty-First Century 3

Online Learning Today 6

Current and Emerging Technologies 8

Emerging Issues for Both Faculty and Administrators 9

Technology for Online Teaching Is Chosen Without Faculty Input• Governance Issues Have Emerged • IntellectualProperty, Course Design, and Course Ownership Issues • JustLike Faculty, Students Need to Be Trained to Learn Online •Instructor Workload

Recent Developments in K–12 Online Learning 16

The Effectiveness of Distance Delivery 18

2 The Art of Online Teaching 21

Lack of Preparation 22

Who Should Teach Online? 23

Training, Training, and More Training 24

Using Mobile Technology in Faculty Training 27

New Processes, New Relationships 28

Online Pedagogy 30

Keys to Success 30

Ensuring Access to and Familiarity with Technology •Establishing Guidelines and Procedures • Achieving MaximumParticipation • Promoting Collaboration • PromotingReflection

The Final Transition: Assessing and Evaluating Students andOurselves 41

Supporting Instructors to Make the Transition 43

3 Administrative Issues and Concerns 45

Faculty Time, Compensation, and Questions of Tenure 47

Program Planning and Development 49

Another Look at Faculty and Student Support, Training, andDevelopment 52

Governance and Intellectual Property 54

Student Retention 56

Some Last Thoughts on Administrative Issues and Concerns 58

4 The Tools of Online Teaching 61

Technology in the Twenty-First Century 62

Matching the Technology to the Course 64

What Are Web 2.0 Technologies? 70

Common Forms of Web 2.0 Technologies • Using Web 2.0 Toolsin Online Courses Choosing Technology Wisely 75

When the Technology Is a Problem • Evaluating Technology• Use of Technology • Infrastructure •Instructional Strategy

When Money Is an Issue 81

Accessibility Is a Major Concern 82

Part Two: Teaching and Learning Online 85

5 Transforming Courses for the Online Classroom 87

Starting Over: Considerations in the Development of an OnlineCourse 89

Who Are My Students? • Is This a Course That WillSuccessfully Transfer to the Online Environment? • How Do IDefine Learning in This Content Area, and What Do I Want to See asthe Learning Outcomes? • What Do I Want to Accomplish ThroughThis Course? • What Guidelines, Rules, Roles, and Norms Needto Be Established for Course Completion? • How Do I Plan toDeliver Course Material? • How Comfortable Am I in ReleasingControl to the Learners? • How Do I Want to Organize theCourse Site? • How Will I Assess Student Performance in ThisCourse? • How Will I Address Attendance Requirements?

The Process of the Course 106

Beginnings • Once the Course Has Started •Endings

6 Teaching Courses Developed by Others 119

A Focus on Content 121

Ability to Adjust the Course 122

Examples of Customization 123

When Customizing Is Not Possible 124

Building Community into the Process 125

Evaluating a Course Developed by Another 126

Issues of Intellectual Property 129

Courses with Rolling Admission 130

Final Thoughts on Teaching a Course Developed by Another 132

7 Working with the Virtual Student 135

If We Build It, They Will Come 136

The Successful Learner in the Online Classroom 137

Addressing Different Learning Styles 140

Recognizing and Working with Those Who Do Not Succeed 141

The Role of the Learner in the Online Learning Process 142

Knowledge Generation • Collaboration • ProcessManagement Maximizing the Potential of the Virtual Student 148

Use Best Practices from the Face-to-Face Classroom to PromoteParticipation Online • If a Student Is Absent for a Week,Contact Him or Her to Determine the Reason • If Students HaveTechnical Difficulties, Offer Support or Connect Them with TechSupport • If Conflict Hurts Participation, Intercede with theStudents Involved • If Security Breaches CauseNonparticipation, Report Them Quickly to Reestablish a Sense ofPrivacy • Log On to the Online Classroom Three or More Timesa Week (Daily If Possible!) to Keep the Discussion Moving •Learn How to Ask Broad Questions That Stimulate Thinking to PromoteParticipation • Include Humor in Your Posts to Help StudentsFeel Welcome and Safe • Post a Welcoming Response to StudentIntroductions to Help All Join More Successfully

Teaching Students to Learn in the Online Environment 154

Respecting Student Intellectual Property 156

8 Online Classroom Dynamics 159

Group Dynamics and Online Classroom Dynamics 160

Applying What We Understand About Groups to Online Classes163

Preforming • Unity • Disunity •Conflict-Confrontation • Disharmony • Harmony •Performing • Concluding Thoughts About the Soul and SpiritGroup Other Ways of Looking at Online Groups 171 The Student• The Group • The Instructor/Facilitator • TheTask • The Technology Conflict Revisited 175

Working with Difficult Students 179

When It Simply Isn’t Working 181

9 Lessons Learned in the Virtual Classroom 187

A Look Back 187

The Myths 188

Lessons for Faculty 189

Instructors Need Not Fear Online Learning • CourseDevelopment Needs to Focus on Interactivity, Not Content •Instructor and Student Roles Need to Change Lessons forInstructional Designers and Faculty Developers 191

Both Faculty and Students Need Training • Faculty WhoTeach Online Need to Feel Supported Lessons for Administrators192

Support Online Faculty Through Fair Compensation •Institutions Should Develop a Strategic Plan • InstitutionsShould Develop an Infrastructure First • Technology Should BeChosen by an Inclusive Committee • Pay Attention to the NewRegulatory Environment

A Look into the Near Future 195

Technology • Course and Program Quality and Design •Professional Development • How Faculty and Students Interact• Research into Online Education

Appendix A: Sample Training for Faculty 203

Introduction to and Best Practices in Online Teaching 203

LEARNING UNITS • Week 1 • Week 2 • Week 3• Week 4 Intensive Training Focused on Collaboration andBuilding Online Learning Communities 212

Day 1: Defining and Recontextualizing Community • Day 2:Human and Practical Considerations in Online Learning • Day3: Moving Teaching and Learning Online • Day 4: PromotingCollaborative Learning • Day 5: Transformative Learning

Appendix B: Additional Resources 219

Communities of Practice 219

Mobile Applications and Web 2.0 Applications 220

Certificate Programs in Online Teaching 221

Online Conferences 222

Online Journals About Online Teaching 223

Professional Organizations 223

Course Evaluation Rubrics 224

References 225

Index 235

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