Segregation is deepening in American schools as courts terminate desegregation plans, residential segregation spreads, the proportion of whites in the population falls, and successful efforts to use choice for desegregation, such as magnet schools, are replaced by choice plans with no civil rights requirements. Based on the fruits of a collaboration between the Civil Rights Project at Harvard University and the Southern Poverty Law Center, the essays presented in Lessons in Integration: Realizing the Promise of Racial Diversity in American Schools analyze five decades of experience with desegregation efforts in order to discover the factors accounting for successful educational experiences in an integrated setting. Starting where much political activity and litigation, as well as most previous scholarship, leaves off, this collection addresses the question of what to doand to avoid doingonce classrooms are integrated, in order to maximize the educational benefits of diversity for students from a wide array of backgrounds.
Rooted in substantive evidence that desegregation is a positive educational and social force, that there were many successes as well as some failures in the desegregation movement, and that students in segregated schools, whether overwhelmingly minority or almost completely white, are disadvantaged on some important educational and social dimensions when compared to their peers in well-designed racially diverse schools, this collection builds on but also goes beyond previous research in taking account of increasing racial and ethnic diversity that distinguishes present-day American society from the one addressed by the Brown decision a half-century ago. In a society with more than 40 percent nonwhite students and thousands of suburban communities facing racial change, it is critical to learn the lessons of experience and research regarding the effective operation of racially diverse and inclusive schools. Lessons in Integration will make a significant contribution to knowledge about how to make integration work, and as such, it will have a positive effect on educational practice while providing much-needed assistance to increasingly beleaguered proponents of integrated public education.
About the Author
Erica Frankenberg served as the Study Director at the Civil Rights Project and is a doctoral candidate at the Harvard University Graduate School of Education. Gary Orfield is Professor of Education and Social Policy at the Harvard University Graduate School of Education.
Table of Contents
Prologue: Lessons Forgotten Gary Orfield 1
Introduction: School Integration-The Time Is Now Erica Frankenberg 7
The Benefits of Integration and Potential Harms of Segregation
Designing Schools That Use Student Diversity to Enhance Learning of All Students Willis D. Hawley 31
The Social Developmental Benefits of Intergroup Contact among Children and Adolescents Melanie Killen David S. Crystal Martin Ruck 57
Can Reducing School Segregation Close the Achievement Gap? Jaekyung Lee 74
New Dimensions of Integration: The Growth of Non-Black Minority Groups
Adolescent Immigrant Students in U.S. Schools: Issues of Cultural Pluralism, Successful School Settings, and Intergroup Relations M. Beatriz Arias Christian Faltis James Cohen 101
"Desperate to Learn": The Schooling Experience of Latinas in North Carolina Maria Teresa Unger Palmer 120
Interracial Status as a Double-Edged Sword: The Educational Experiences of Interracial Children Simon Cheng 145
Toward an Integrated Future of Schooling: Possible Solutions
Preparing Teachers for Multiracial and Historically Underserved Schools Christine E. Sleeter 171
Addressing Race and Racism in the Classroom Julie Milligan Hughes Rebecca S. Bigler 190
Classroom Integration and Accelerated Learning through Detracking Carol Corbett Burris Kevin G. Welner 207
Fostering an Inclusive, Multiracial Democracy: How Attorneys, Social Scientists, and Educators Made the Case for School Integration in Lynn, Massachusetts Richard W. Cole 228
The Common Schools Democracy Requires: Expanding Membership through Inclusive Education John A. Powell Rebecca High 265
Conclusion: Challenges for This Generation: Integration and Social Transformation Gary Orfield 291
Notes on Contributors 341
What People are Saying About This
""This book provides a valuable contribution to our understanding of the potential academic and social benefits of diversity in schools as well as of the policies and practices needed to realize them." -- Janet Ward Schofield, University of Pittsburgh
"A terribly important book, skillfully presented, and urgently essential at this dangerous and uncertain moment in our nation's racial history.
"This book provides a valuable contribution to our understanding of the potential academic and social benefits of diversity in schools as well as of the policies and practices needed to realize them.