Let Workers Move: Using Bilateral Labor Agreements to Increase Trade in Services

Let Workers Move: Using Bilateral Labor Agreements to Increase Trade in Services

by World Bank


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780821399156
Publisher: Bernan Distribution
Publication date: 07/01/2013
Series: Directions in Development
Pages: 190
Product dimensions: 6.80(w) x 9.90(h) x 0.30(d)

Table of Contents

Foreword xi

Acknowledgments xiii

Contributors xv

Abbreviations xvii

Chapter 1 Trade in Services and Bilateral Labor Agreements: Overview Sebastián Sáez 1

Why Do People Migrate? 3

Have Multilateral and Regional Agreements Increased Opportunities for Labor Migration? 4

Can BLAs Succeed Where Multilateral and Regional Agreements Have Not? 5

What Do the Case Studies Show? 6

Can BLAs Expand Exports of Services? 10

Conclusion 13

Notes 14

References 14

Chapter 2 How Well Have Trade Agreements Facilitated Temporary Mobility? Arti Grover Goswami Sebastián Sáez 17

Extent of Temporary Mobility 18

Barriers to Temporary Mobility 21

Contribution of the GATS 25

Problems Implementing Temporary Mobility through the GATS 27

Performance of PTAs 29

Conclusion 35

Notes 36

References 36

Chapter 3 When and Why Should Bilateral Labor Agreements Be Used? Arti Grover Goswami Manjula Luthria Mai Malaulau Sebastián Sáez 39

Potential Advantages of BLAs 40

Potential Disadvantages of BLAs 52

Best Practice in BLAs for the Poor 52

Conclusion 60

Notes 61

References 62

Chapter 4 Can Bilateral Labor Agreements Help Colombia and Ecuador Increase Their Service Exports to Spain? Antonio Bonet Sebastián Sáez 65

Spain's Immigration Policy Framework 65

Exporting Services to Spain through Mode 4 of the GATS 72

Spain's BLAs with Colombia and Ecuador 75

Conclusion 82

Notes 83

References 84

Chapter 5 To What Extent Do Bilateral Migration Agreements Contribute to Development in Source Countries? An Analysis of France's Migration Pacts Marion Panizzon 85

WTO/GATS Commitments versus Bilateral Labor Agreements 86

Goals and Policy Objectives of France's Migration Pacts 89

Implementing the European Union's GAM 91

Labor Migration: An Overrated Component of France's Migration Pacts 93

Conclusion 103

Annex 5A: France's Migration-Related Agreements 105

Notes 105

References 106

Chapter 6 Bilateral Labor Agreements and Trade in Services: The Experience of the Philippines John Paolo R. Rivera Denise Jannah D. Serrano Tereso S. Tullao Jr. 109

Substantive Provisions of the Philippines' BLAs 109

Regulatory Framework for Implementing BLAs 117

Safeguard Mechanisms 118

Development Impacts of Temporary Labor Migration 119

Addressing Issues Raised by the GATS and the AFAS 121

Linkages between BLAs and Agreements on Trade in Services 122

Best Practices of the Philippines in Implementing BLAs 123

Conclusion 123

Annex 6A: Overseas Filipino Workers in Selected Economies 124

References 125

Chapter 7 Bilateral Labor Agreements in the Pacific: A Development-Friendly Case Study Manjula Luthria Mai Malaulau 129

Types of BLAs 129

Drivers for Establishing Labor Migration Schemes in the Pacific 130

Scope and Structure of BLAs 134

Lessons on the Development Benefits of Labor Migration 143

Conclusion 145

Note 147

References 147

Chapter 8 Bilateral Labor Agreements: Experience from the Caribbean Yolanda Strachan 149

Caribbean Economies and Trade in Services 149

Trends in Temporary Migration, 1998-2011 151

BLAs in the Caribbean 156

Conclusions and Recommendations 165

Notes 166

References 167


2.1 Benefits of Mode 4 Liberalization 22

2.2 Temporary Worker Programs and Brain Drain 26

3.1 Historical Perspective: Old Wine in New Bottle 41

3.2 Are BLAs Compatible with the MFN Clause? 45

3.3 Downsides of the Philippines' Policy of Promoting the Export of Health Care Services Workers 53

3.4 Capacity-Building Measures for Labor-Exporting Countries 59

5.1 France's BLAs with Tunisia 93

5.2 France's BLA with Mauritius 96

6.1 Social Security Arrangements in BLAs 110

8.1 Other Managed Migration Programs in the Caribbean 162

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