Liberal ideas were very important in Argentina from the time of independence. The Argentine constitution (1853–60), in force for a long time, was based on liberal principles taken from both the North American and the European tradition.
The general structure of the collection is chronological, taking the reader through an analysis of different periods of liberal thought in Argentina: from liberalism as opposed to dictatorial rule, to liberalism as the framework of the National Constitution (1852–60). Importance is given to the development of liberalism in government and opposition (1857–1910) and to the last period (1912–40), the twilight of liberalism.
Chapter 1 addresses the dictatorship of Juan Manuel de Rosas (1837–50), during which time a set of liberal ideas was formed that would subsequently have a decisive influence on the second period, the formation of the National Constitution (1852–60). Chapters 3 and 4 consist of writings that chronicle the surge of liberalism in Argentina, first, during the period between 1857 and 1879, and, later, between 1880 and 1910. These chapters reflect the great political, economic, and social debates that exemplify the variety and richness of the body of liberal ideas during this time.
The writings in the final chapter review the gradual decline of liberalism. They rescue from obscurity those voices and writings that upheld and defended liberal ideals in several aspects, namely, those ideals concerning electoral and constitutional reforms and the resistance of the advance of different expressions of totalitarian dictatorship during the twentieth century.
This volume also includes a new introduction, editorial footnotes, a chronology, and brief biographies of the authors of the original texts.
Natalio R. Botana is Emeritus Professor at Universidad Torcuato Di Tella, Departamento de Ciencia Política y Relaciones Internacionales, in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Ezequiel Gallo is Emeritus Professor at Universidad Torcuato Di Tella, Departamento de Historia, in Buenos Aires, Argentina.Please note: This title is available as an ebook for purchase on Amazon, Barnes and Noble, and iTunes.
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Table of Contents
Introduction Natalia R. Botana Ezequiel Gallo ix
Chapter 1 Liberalism during the Dictatorship of Rosas (1837-1850) 1
1 Juan Bautista Alberdi: The Argentine Republic, Thirty-seven Years after the May Revolution (1847) 3
2 Esteban Echeverría: Symbolic Words (1837) (Excerpts) 27
3 Domingo Faustino Sarmiento: Civilization and Barbarism: The Life of Juan Facundo Quiroga: Introduction to the 1845 Edition 48
4 Domingo Faustino Sarmiento: The United States (1847) (Excerpt) 58
Chapter 2 The Framework of the National Constitution (1852-1860) 113
1 Juan Bautista Alberdi: Bases and Starting Points for the Political Organization of the Argentine Republic (1852) (Excerpts) 115
2 Juan Bautista Alberdi: The Economic and Revenue System of the Argentine Confederation According to Its Constitution of 1853 (Excerpts) 177
3 Part 1 of the Constitution of the Argentine Nation (1853-1860-1866) 216
Chapter 3 Liberalism in a New Nation (1857-1879) 223
1 Bartolomé Mitre: Protection of Agriculture (1857) 225
2 Bartolomé Mitre: On Trade (1869) 230
3 Bartolomé Mitre: Chivilcoy Speech (1868) (Excerpt) 236
4 Bartolomé Mitre: Governments as Business Managers (1869) 245
5 José Hernández: Governments as Business Managers (1869) 250
6 Bartolomé Mitre: Immigration (1870) 253
7 Nicolás Avellaneda: On Laws Concerning Public Lands: Conclusion (1865) 257
8 Leandro N. Alem: Investigation into the National Secondary School of Buenos Aires (Excerpt from Speech to Legislature of Buenos Aires Province, 22nd Ordinary Session, June 28, 1876) 264
9 Domingo Faustino Sarmiento: The Social Contract in the Argentine Republic (1879) 271
Chapter 4 Liberalism in Government and in Opposition (1880-1910) 277
1 Leandro N. Alem: Speech on the Federalization of Buenos Aires (1880) 279
2 Juan Bautista Alberdi: The Omnipotence of the State Is the Negation of Individual Liberty (1880) 284
3 Julio Argentino Roca: Presidential Messages (1881-1886) 290
4 Pedro Goyena: Speech on the Common Education Act (1883) 294
5 Delfín Gallo: Speech on the Common Education Act (1883) 301
6 Roque Sáenz Peña: Speech on the American "Zollverein" (1889) (Conference of the Pan-American Union) 308
7 Leandro N. Alem: Speech at the National Senate (1891) 314
8 Unión Cívica [Civic Union]: Declaration of Principles (1891) 319
9 Francisco Barroetaveña: Speech in the Debate on a Mandatory National Language for Schools (1896) 325
10 Francisco Barroetaveña: Speech on the Customs Act (1894) 333
11 Pedro Coronado: Speech on the Residence Act (1904) 336
12 Juan Bautista Justo: Signor Lorini's Monetary Theory (1904) 339
13 José Nicolás Matienzo: Representative Federal Government in the Argentine Republic (1910) 345
Chapter 5 Liberalism on the Defensive (1912-1940) 363
1 Roque Sáenz Peña: Message on the Electoral Reform (Buenos Aires, February 29, 1912) 365
2 Juan Bautista Justo: The Protectionist Fallacy (1916) 373
3 Antonio Bermejo: Dissenting Opinion in Ercolano, Agustín v. Lanteri Renshaw, Julieta (1922) 375
4 Marcelo Torcuato de Alvear and José Nicolás Matienzo: Message and Bill of the Executive Declaring the Need to Amend Articles 42, 46, 67, Section 7, and 75 and 87 of the National Constitution (1923) 387
5 Marcelo Torcuato de Alvear and Víctor Molina: Internal Taxation (1924) 392
6 José Nicolás Matienzo: Civilization Is the Work of the People, Not of the Rulers (1932) (Excerpts) 405
7 Emilio A. Coni: Letter to a Martian (1933) 411
8 Marcelo Torcuato de Alvear: Speech Delivered as Guest of Honor of the British Chamber of Commerce in the Argentine Republic at Lunch in the Plaza Hotel, July 11, 1940 416
Short Biographies 427