ISBN-10:
0195066111
ISBN-13:
9780195066111
Pub. Date:
03/19/1991
Publisher:
Oxford University Press, USA
Liberalism, Fascism, or Social Democracy: Social Classes and the Political Origins of Regimes in Interwar Europe

Liberalism, Fascism, or Social Democracy: Social Classes and the Political Origins of Regimes in Interwar Europe

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Overview

In this comprehensive analysis of the political development of Western Europe from the late nineteenth-century to the eve of World War II, Gregory M. Luebbert asserts that the evolution of most Western European nations into liberal democracies, social democracies, or fascist regimes was attributable to a discrete set of social class alliances within individual nations. Luebbert maintains that liberal forces in countries such as Britain, France, and Switzerland kept their political hegemony thanks to the presence of a unified middle class. In countries where the liberal middle class could not rely on unified hegemony the alternatives of fascism or social democracy rested strictly on the pattern of urban-rural political alliances. Where urban socialism attracted the support of the family peasantry, as in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Czechoslovakia, social democracy emerged; where it failed to do so, as in Italy, Spain, and Germany, the door to fascism was opened. Unprecedented in historical and comparative scope, this work will be invaluable to those interested in comparative and Western European politics.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780195066111
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Publication date: 03/19/1991
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 432
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 9.25(h) x 1.09(d)

Table of Contents

1.Introduction1
IThe Origins
2.Ties That Would Divide: Liberal--Labor Alliances in Britain, France, and Switzerland before the War15
Britain15
France27
Weakness of the Labor Movement in Britain and France37
Switzerland48
Epilogue52
3.Cleavage Structures and the Failure of Liberal Movements in Late Nineteenth-Century Europe55
Liberal Weakness: A Survey56
Some Explanations of Liberal Weakness59
Cleavage Structures and the Failure of Liberal Movements63
Modernization, Cleavages, and Political Struggles97
Where Backwardness Mattered98
Epilogue107
4.The Break with Liberalism and the Formation of Working-Class Movements110
Abortive Lib--Labism and the Rise of Working-Class Movements110
Germany115
Norway121
Sweden125
Denmark133
Belgium and the Netherlands139
Italy144
Spain151
Imperialism, Nationalism, and Class Integration153
A Note on Leadership and Choice156
Epilogue157
5.The Organization of Workers: Liberal and Aliberal Societies Compared159
Parties159
Trade Unions: Membership and Organizational Coherence169
A Note on Industrial Concentration180
A Note on the Role of the State181
Epilogue: Toward the Great War184
IIThe Outcomes
6.War, Crisis, and the Stabilization of the Liberal Order191
Postwar Crises and Liberal Responses194
The Defeat of the Working-Class Movement199
Stabilization of the Liberal Order226
Epilogue232
7.Narrowing the Aliberal Outcomes: Liberalism's Final Failure and the Irrelevance of Traditional Dictatorship234
Neither Liberalism Nor Lib--Labism236
Politics against Markets249
Irrelevance of Traditional Dictatorship258
8.Social Democracy and Fascism267
Social Democracy: The Scandinavian Solution267
Fascism: The Solution of Germany, Italy, and Spain272
Family Peasantry: A Pivotal Force277
Red-Green Alliance and Social Democratic Hegemony285
Rural Class Conflicts and Fascist Hegemony295
Epilogue303
9.Conclusion: Class Alliances and Transition to Mass Politics306
A Structuralist Argument306
Structuralism and Other Arguments Compared307
Drawing Lessons from Europe310
Notes317
Bibliography377
Index403

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