Libyan Independence and the United Nations: A Case of Planned Decolonization

Libyan Independence and the United Nations: A Case of Planned Decolonization

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Overview

Libyan Independence and the United Nations: A Case of Planned Decolonization by Adrian Pelt

As Libya navigates its rocky transition, understanding Libya’s historical experience of the constitutional drafting process is imperative. Chronicling the events that took place leading to the creation of an independent Libyan state, Adrian Pelt’s Libyan Independence and the United Nations: A Case of Planned Decolonization narrates the process of decolonization, and offers the most detailed analysis available of the constitutional drafting process that occurred. This exhaustive volume highlights the extensive process undertaken by Pelt to seek the input of Libya’s towns, regions, and tribes into what would become the country’s foundational constitution.

The author, Adrian Pelt, was appointed High Commissioner for Libya by the UN in 1949. Pelt initiated the discussions which brought together representatives from all parts of Libya to contribute to the drafting of the Libyan Constitution through the National Constituent Assembly.

This seminal work was originally published in 1970 by Yale University Press and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. This new edition, published by Kalam Research and Media (KRM) in association with the Centre for Libyan Studies at the Libya Institute for Advanced Studies (LIAS), and with permission from the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, was completely re-typeset in order to make it more accessible for legal experts, policymakers, and historians of Libyan affairs.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9789948134916
Publisher: Kalam Research & Media
Publication date: 11/09/2016
Pages: 1046
Sales rank: 1,098,977
Product dimensions: 5.98(w) x 9.02(h) x 2.34(d)

About the Author

The author, Adrian Pelt (1892-1981), a Dutch journalist, joined the Dutch Government in Exile in London during WWII, following the German invasion in May 1940. He was a member of the Dutch Delegation at the UN Formation Conference in San Francisco during the Summer of 1945, and became one of the three direct reports to the first Secretary General of the UN, the Norwegian Trygve Lie in 1946. On 10 December 1949 Adrian Pelt was nominated High Commissioner for Libya and charged with crafting an independent nation-state from English-governed Cyrenaica and Tripolitania and French-governed Fezzan no later than 1 January, 1952. From his appointment until Libyan independence he was responsible for governing Libya and assisting with the drafting of the Libyan constitution. On 24 December, 1951, Adrian Pelt transferred his powers to King Idris. Upon the completion of his Libyan assignment, and until his retirement in 1957, he remained with the UN in New York and Geneva.

U Thant was a Burmese diplomat and the third Secretary-General of the United Nations from 1961 to 1971, the first non-European to hold the position.

Table of Contents

Foreword by U Thant xi

Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xxv

Note on Transliteration xxviii

Historical Background 3
The Italo-Turkish War, 1911-12 9
The Italian Occupation, 1912-23 10
The Tripolitanian Republic, 1918-23 13
The Italian Occupation, 1923-43 27
Foreign Military and Civil Administration, 1943-51 33
Chapter 1: In Search of Unity 36
Part 1: Internal Efforts to Achieve Unity 37
Part 2: Foreign Attempts to Promote or Discourage Unity and
Independence 58
Part 3: Libya in the Hands of the United Nations 74
Chapter 2: Into Action 110
Part 1: Clearing the Decks 110
Part 2: What the Administering Powers Were Planning 127
British Plans for Political and Administrative Development in Tripolitania 131
French Plans for Political and Administrative Development in the Fezzan 139
British Plans for Political and Administrative Development in Cyrenaica 157
Part 3: What the Libyans Wanted (Mission Interviews) 172
A. Mission Interviews in Tripolitania 179
1. Opinions on the Form of Government 180
2. Selection of the Tripolitanian Representative on the Council for Libya 182
3. Selection of the Representative of the Minorities 183
B. Mission Interviews in Cyrenaica 186
1. Opinions on the Form of Government 186
2. Selection of the Cyrenaican Representative on the Council for Libya 188
3. Selection of the Representative of the Minorities 188
C. Mission Interviews in the Fezzan 189
1. Opinions on the Form of Government 190
2. Selection of the Fezzanese Representative on the Council for Libya 194
3. Selection of the Representative of the Minorities 196
Part 4: The End of the Reconnaissance: General Impressions 199
Chapter 3: Launching the Council for Libya 202
Part 1: The Constitution of the Council 202
Part 2: First Steps 215
Part 3: The Commissioner's First Request for Advice on Constitutional
Development 220
General 220
The Question of the Representation of Minorities 222
Terms of Reference of the Preparatory Committee 222
The Council's Travels Through the Three Territories 225
A. Tripolitania 227
B. The Fezzan 228
C. Cyrenaica 236
Resumption of the Discussions in the Council on the Commissioner's
First Request for Advice on Constitutional Development: Intervening
Events 242
Resumption of the Discussions in the Council on the Commissioner's
First Request for Advice on Constitutional Development: Formal
Debate 251
Consideration of the Commissioner's Supplementary Request for
Advice 255
Part 4: The Committee of Twenty-One: Consultations on
Membership 258
Consultations with Cyrenaican and Fezzanese Leaders 260
Consultations in Tripolitania 276
Part 5: Under Way, 27 July-31 October 1950 283
The Selection of the Tripolitanian Members of the National
Assembly 296
Chapter 4: The Vital Machinery of Resolution 289
A (IV) 303
Part 1: Theory 303
The Commissioner and the Council 306
The Commissioner and the Administering Powers 311
Status of the National Assembly 313
Checks and Balances 313
Part 2: Practice 314
Part 3: Minorities and Inhabitants 335
Chapter 5: The Libyan Question at the Fifth Session of the
General Assembly 351
Part 1: The Political Issues 351
Part 2: Economic and Financial Matters 369
The Discussions in the Ad Hoc Political Committee 373
The Discussions in Sub-Committee 1 375
The Discussions on the Report of Sub-Committee 1 in the Ad Hoc
Political Committee and in the General Assembly 381
The United Nations Tribunal in Libya 384
Part 3: Initiation of Technical Assistance for Libya 392
Part 4: Mission Finances 414
Part 5: Libya's Boundaries 417
Chapter 6: The National Assembly Takes Over 429
Part 1: The Form of State and Government 429
Part 2: Politics and the Constitution 460
Part 3: Divided Councils-Reluctant Advice 473
Part 4: The National Assembly and the Arab League 487

Chapter seven...

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