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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781597140867
Publisher: Heyday Books
Publication date: 05/01/2008
Pages: 22
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 8.90(h) x 0.40(d)

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments     xiii
Introduction     1
The Distant Past     7
Dating Archaeological Sites     8
Radiocarbon Dating     8
Obsidian Hydration     9
Cross-dating Artifact Styles     9
Ancient Cultures of the Upper Sacramento Valley as Seen through the Archaeological Record     11
Borax Lake Pattern (8000-5000 BP)     13
Squaw Creek Pattern (5000-3000 BP)     14
Whiskeytown Pattern (4000-1500 BP)     15
Shasta Pattern (post 1500 BP)     17
Changes in Prehistoric Land Use     18
Linguistics and the Arrival of the Wintu     18
Historical Linguistics     22
Wintu Linguistics     22
Wintu Culture as Known through the Ethnographic Record     27
Wintu Foods     28
Deer Hunting     31
Bear Hunting     32
Fishing     33
Plant Gathering and Processing     36
Wintu Social Organization     38
Wintu Chiefs     38
Shamans     40
Marriage     41
Gambling     41
Warfare     42
Village Architecture: Implications for the ArchaeologicalRecord     42
Discussion     43
Archaeology of a Wintu Village, "Kum Bay Xerel" (CA-SHA-1043)     45
Field Methods     46
Site Structure and Chronology     50
Stratigraphic Profiles     50
Cultural Features     52
Radiocarbon Dates     60
Projectile Points     61
Beads     61
Prehistoric Tools     64
Flaked-stone Tools     64
Bone Tools     68
Food Remains     70
Plant Foods     70
Filaree: European Plants Outpacing the Explorers?     73
Animal Foods     74
Discussion     78
End of an Era: First Contacts with Europeans     79
John Work and the 1833 Malaria Epidemic     80
Archaeology of the Primary Cemetery Area: Evidence for the Malaria Epidemic?     84
Dating the Primary Cemetery Area     86
Treatment of the Dead     90
Age of the Dead     94
Males, Females, and Interpersonal Violence     96
Rich People, Poor People     100
Other Historic-period Artifacts     102
Other Sites in the Area     102
Discussion      103
Summary and Conclusions     107
Photo Credits     115
Recommended Readings     117
About the Authors: Dr. William R. Hildebrandt and Michael J. Darcangelo, Far Western     119
List of Tables
Projectile Point Frequencies from the Village at CA-SHA-1043     62
Artifacts from the Village Deposits at CA-SHA-1043     65
A Comparison of Artifacts from the Village and the Cemetery at CA-SHA-1043     86
List of Figures
Location Map     2
Some of the Excavation Team at CA-SHA-1043     3
Measuring an Obsidian Hydration Rim     10
Medicine Lake Obsidian Hydration Curve Based on Radiocarbon-Hydration Pairs     11
Chronologically Diagnostic Projectile Point Types     12
Atlatl and Dart     15
Squaw Creek Pattern (5000-3000 BP) Incised Stone from the Sacramento River Canyon     16
Prehistoric Settlement Zones along the Upper Sacramento River     19
Distribution of Time-sensitive Projectile Points Across Key Environmental Settings     20
Medicine Lake Obsidian Hydration Data from Key Environmental Settings     21
Linguistic Map of Northern California     21
Important Speakers of the Wintu Language     23
Wintu Subareas from Cora Du Bois      29
Wintu People from Birth to Middle Age     30
Wintu Elders     31
Location of CA-SHA-1043 in Relation to the Sacramento River     32
Salmon Harpoon after Du Bois     34
Wintu Salmon House     35
Wintu Fish Weir     36
Salmon Drying on the River Bar     37
Burden Basket and Hopper Mortar     39
Clamshell Disk Money     40
Backhoe Trenches and Hand Excavation Units within the Village Portions of CA-SHA-1043     47
Field Workers Excavating at CA-SHA-1043     48
Wintu Trainees Screening, Ester Stevenson and Veronica Graybel     48
Wintu Representatives Observing Materials at Field Lab, Kelli Hayward, Linda Malone, and Lori Light     49
Stratigraphic Profile of the S7/W23 Exposure     51
Feature 3, Burned House Remains     53
Traditional Wintu House Similar to Feature 3     55
Stratigraphic Profile of Feature 21, Earthen Lodge     56
Plan View of Timber Zone (Stratum I; 70 cm) at Feature 21, Earthen Lodge     57
Plan View of Fill and Floor Zones (Stratum III; 135 cm) at Feature 21, Earthen Lodge     58
An Earthen Lodge from Wintoon Territory     59
Close-up of Burned Timbers from Feature 21, Earthen Lodge      59
Projectile Points from the Village at CA-SHA-1043     63
Key Obsidian Source Areas in Northern California     66
Alternative Flaked-stone Tool Production Strategies     67
Bone Tools from CA-SHA-1043     69
Charred Plant Remains from CA-SHA-1043     72
Filaree Seed and Foliage     73
Animal Foods from CA-SHA-1043     75-76
Fish Caught and Eaten at CA-SHA-1043     77
Route of John Work's Expedition to California, 1832-1833     81
Primary Cemetery Area at CA-SHA-1043     85
Hudson Bay Company Covered Copper Kettle     87
Glass Trade Beads from CA-SHA-1043 (full scale)     89
Relative Percentage of Glass, Clam, and Olivella Shell Beads by Burial     91
Structural Characteristics of the Cemetery Area     93
Percentage of Each Age Class within the Primary Cemetery at CA-SHA-1043     95
Probability of Death by Age Class at CA-SHA-1043     96
Percentage of Adult Males and Females by Age Class at CA-SHA-1043     97
Percentage of Population (Historic Period and Prehistoric) with Traumatic Injuries According to Sex     98
Percentage of Population (Historic Period and Prehistoric) Buried with Beads and Ornaments     101
United States 1842 Military Pistol Compared to the Gun Discovered at CA-SHA-1043     103
Copper Black Powder Flask Discovered at CA-SHA-1043     104

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