This book is focused on new developments in lignocellulose research. In particular, lignocellulosic biomass has been the focus of considerable attention for the production of a wide range of valuable products in biorefineries which aim to utilize renewable starting material instead of fossil based products. The authors focus on the usage of hemicellulose to produce various bio-based products including platform chemicals that have considerable market potential in the coming years. Other chapters in the book review studies which have explored how the lignocellulose morphological structure affects the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction and the corresponding plant cell wall structural changes. Other chapters describe the state-of-the-art of pretreatment processes, fermentation processes, microbial lipid accumulation pathway and methanolysis of the microbial lipids to increase the yields of biodiesel as well as the challenges associated with the use of lignocellulosic biomass (LCB); the ways in which membrane technology has been gaining widespread recognition to substitute the existing separation and purification technologies, specifically, the applications of ionic liquid based membranes; and the quantitative composition of secretome of potent biomass hydrolyzing fungi along with their post translational modifications and also the role of PTMs.