Liquid Crystalline and Mesomorphic Polymers

Liquid Crystalline and Mesomorphic Polymers

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1994)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781461383352
Publisher: Springer New York
Publication date: 11/06/2011
Series: Partially Ordered Systems
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1994
Pages: 361
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.03(d)

Table of Contents

1 Molecular Theory of Cholesteric Polymers.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Elementary Models for Chiral Molecules.- 1.3 Chiral Anisotropic Interaction Between Macromolecules in the Solvent.- 1.3.1 Model Potentials.- 1.3.2 Solvent Effect on the Chiral Intermolecular Interaction.- 1.4 Statistical Theory of Cholesteric Ordering.- 1.4.1 General Theory.- 1.4.2 Temperature and Solvent Effect on the Cholesteric Pitch in Polypeptide Solutions.- 1.4.3 Cholesteric Ordering in Biopolymer Solutions.- 1.4.4 Influence of Solvent Chirality on the Cholesteric Ordering.- 1.5 Influence of Molecular Flexibility on the Cholesteric Ordering in Polymer Solutions.- References.- 2 Structure of Thermotropic Main-Chain Polymers.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.1.1 Scope.- 2.1.2 Main-Chain Mesogenic Systems.- 2.2 Molecular Architecture.- 2.2.1 Theoretical Background.- 2.2.2 Architecture of Isolated Polymer Molecules.- 2.2.3 Persistence Length as a Critical Parameter.- 2.2.4 Kuhn Chains.- 2.2.5 Change in Chain Parameters in the Nematic Phase.- 2.2.6 Microstructural Considerations Involving Nematic Polymers.- 2.3 Levels of Order in Mesophases of Main-Chain Liquid Polymers.- 2.3.1 Classification for Polymers.- 2.3.2 Aspects of Chain Structure.- 2.3.3 Basis for Classification.- 2.3.4 Mesophases Formed by Successive Shear Disorder of the Crystal.- 2.3.5 Mesophases Formed by Paracrystalline Disorder in One Lateral Dimension.- 2.3.6 Mesophases Resulting from Paracrystalline Disorder in the Two (Lateral) Dimensions, and Translational Melting in Two Dimensions.- 2.3.7 Audit of Possible Combinations.- 2.3.8 Occurrence of Mesophase Structures.- 2.3.9 Disruption of Order along the Chain Axis.- References.- 3 Molecular Architecture and Structure of Thermotropic Liquid Crystal Polymers with Mesogenic Side Groups.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Molecular Architecture of Liquid Crystal Polymers.- 3.3 Specific Features of Comb-Shaped Polymers Associated with Their Macromolecular Nature.- 3.4 Mesophase Types of Comb-Shaped Liquid Crystal Polymers. Problems of Classification.- 3.5 Effect of Mesophase Type on the Structure of Polymers Oriented by Uniaxial Drawing.- 3.5.1 Nematic Polymers.- 3.5.2 Smectic Polymers.- 3.6 Placement of the Main-Chain in Smectic and Nematic Phases of Comb-Shaped Liquid Crystal Polymers.- 3.7 Structure of Cholesteric Polymers.- 3.7.1 Structure of Cholesterol-Containing Homopolymers.- 3.7.2 Structure of Cholesterol-Containing Copolymers.- References.- 4 Phase Behavior of High- and Low-Molar-Mass Liquid Crystal Mixtures.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Binary Mixtures of Low-Molar-Mass Mesogens.- 4.3 Mixtures of a Liquid Crystalline Polymer with a Low-Molar-Mass Liquid Crystal.- 4.3.1 Miscibility Properties.- 4.3.2 Other Nonideal Behaviors.- 4.4 Conclusions.- References.- 5 Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal Films.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Film Structure and Operation.- 5.3 Film Formation: General Aspects.- 5.3.1 Emulsification—NCAP Films.- 5.3.2 Phase Separation—Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal Films.- 5.4 Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal Formation: Polymer-Induced Phase Separation Systems.- 5.4.1 Formation Model.- 5.4.2 Experimental Studies of Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal Formation.- 5.4.3 Concluding Remarks Regarding Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal Formation.- 5.5 Materials Selection.- 5.5.1 Refractive Indices.- 5.5.2 Solubility of Liquid Crystal in Matrix.- 5.5.3 Operating Temperature Range.- 5.5.4 Environmental Stability.- 5.6 Film Fabrication and Morphology.- 5.6.1 Ultraviolet-Curing Conditions.- 5.6.2 Droplet Size Distribution.- 5.6.3 Color.- 5.7 Electrooptic Properties.- 5.7.1 Refractive Indices and Film Transmittance.- 5.7.2 Transmittance versus Voltage.- 5.7.3 Response Times.- 5.7.4 Spectral Transmittance Characteristics.- 5.8 Light Scattering.- 5.8.1 Theoretical Treatments.- 5.8.2 Angle-Dependent Light Scattering Measurements.- 5.8.3 Transmittance Measurements.- 5.8.4 Droplet Size Effects.- 5.8.5 Concluding Remarks Regarding Light Scattering.- 5.9 Final Comments.- References.- 6 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Thermotropic Liquid Crystalline Polymers.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Thermotropic Liquid Crystalline Polymers with Mesogenic Groups in the Main Chain.- 6.2.1 1H and 2H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in Fast Motion Limit.- 6.2.2 Multipulse Dynamic Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.- 6.2.3 Molecular Dynamics.- 6.2.4 Orientational Ordering.- 6.2.5 Biphase Region.- 6.2.6 Macroscopic Ordering.- 6.3 Liquid Crystalline Polymers with Mesogenic Groups in the Side Chains.- 6.3.1 Molecular Dynamics and Ordering in the Glassy State.- 6.3.2 Ordering and Dynamics in Liquid Crystalline Phases above the Glass Transition Temperature.- 6.3.3 Biphase Region.- 6.3.4 Macroscopic Ordering.- References.- 7 Mesophase of Graphitizable Carbons.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Discotic Nematic Liquid Crystals.- 7.3 Formation of the Mesophase.- 7.4 Structure in the Mesophase.- 7.5 Growth and Coalescence.- 7.6 Formation of Anisotropic Carbons.- 7.7 Factors Influencing the Formation of Anisotropic Carbons.- 7.7.1 Chemical Factors.- 7.7.2 Physical Factors.- 7.8 Graphitization.- 7.9 Industrial Relevance of Mesophase: Discotic, Aromatic, and Nematic Liquid Crystals.- 7.9.1 Delayed Coking.- 7.9.2 Metallurgical Coke.- 7.9.3 Carbon Fibers.- 7.9.4 Graphite Production.- 7.9.5 Carbon Blacks.- References.- 8 Mesophase State of Polyorganophosphazenes.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Thermodynamics and Structure of Polyorganophosphazenes.- 8.3 Relaxation Transitions of Poly-bis-Trifluoroethoxyphosphazenes.- 8.4 Properties of Diluted Solutions of Poly-bis-Fluoroalkoxyphosphazenes.- 8.5 Rheological Properties of Concentrated Poly-bis-Trifluoroethoxyphosphazene Solutions.- 8.6 Rheological Properties of Poly-bis-Fluoroalkoxyphosphazenes in the Mesophase State.- 8.7 Polymer Blends on a Base of Poly-bis-Trifluoroethoxyphosphazene.- 8.8 Conclusions.- References.- 9 Chiral Nematic Mesophases of Lyotropic and Thermotropic Cellulose Derivatives.- 9.1 Mesophase Formation.- 9.2 Mesophases of Cellulose Derivatives.- 9.3 Chiral Nematic Properties.- 9.3.1 Theories of the Chiral Nematic State.- 9.3.2 Chiral Nematic Properties of Cellulose Derivatives.- 9.3.3 Reversal of Handedness of Chiral Nematic Cellulosics.- 9.4 Circular Dichroism and Induced Circular Dichroism.- 9.5 Chiroptical Properties of Specifically Substituted Cellulose Derivatives.- 9.6 Concluding Remarks.- References.- 10 Bowlics.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 The First Paper.- 10.3 Bowlic Monomers.- 10.3.1 The Molecules.- 10.3.2 Mesophases and Phase Transitions.- 10.3.3 Physical Properties.- 10.3.4 Bowlic Nematics in Electric Fields.- 10.3.5 Bowlic Langmuir Films.- 10.4 Bowlic Polymers.- 10.4.1 The Discrete Model for Dilute Solutions.- 10.4.2 The Worm-Like Model for Bowlic Nematic Polymers.- 10.4.3 Ultrahigh Tc Bowlic Superconductors.- 10.5 Conclusions.- References.

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