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Literacy for the 21st Century: A Balanced Approach / Edition 7

Literacy for the 21st Century: A Balanced Approach / Edition 7

by Gail E. Tompkins


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780134813103
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 08/07/2018
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 528
Sales rank: 218,725
Product dimensions: 8.40(w) x 10.90(h) x 0.80(d)

About the Author

Gail E. Tompkins is Professor Emerita at California State University, Fresno. Currently, she works with teachers in their kindergarten through eighth-grade classrooms and leads staff-development programs on reading and writing. Dr. Tompkins was inducted into the California Reading Association’s Reading Hall of Fame in recognition of her accomplishments in the field of reading, and she’s received the prestigious Provost’s award for Excellence in Teaching at California State University, Fresno. Dr. Tompkins is the author of six other books published by Pearson: Language Arts: Patterns of Practice, Language Arts Essentials, Teaching Writing: Balancing Process and Product, 50 Literacy Strategies, and two grade-specific versions of this text: Literacy in the Early Grades: A Successful Start for PreK-4 Readers and Writers and Literacy in the Middle Grades: Teaching Reading and Writing to Fourth Through Eighth Graders. During the past three decades, Dr. Tompkins has also worked with kindergarten through college-level writing teachers at National Writing Project sites in California and Oklahoma.

Read an Excerpt

  • New reading methods texts pop up every year

    Hope Madden UBETTDA 2 16 2004-12-10T19:24:00Z 2005-01-25T17:08:00Z 2005-01-25T17:08:00Z 5 1865 10635 Pearson Education 88 21 13060 9.4402 1599415718 Tompkins online Madden, Hope

    {id: Tompkins preface}

    What makes Literacy for the 21st Century the most valuable and relevant literacy text on the market?

    As I revise each edition, working with teachers in the field and with pre-service teachers at the university level, I realize more and more that both new and experienced teachers need the best information about how students learn, ideas to create an environment that engages and addresses the needs of all students, and a deep understanding of the literacy methods that best address those needs. I also recognize that teachers need the specific tools to take into the classroom. My goal is to provide all this in a text that speaks directly to new and experienced teachers, modeling effective teaching, and helping you envision yourself using these methods in your classroom.

    I have found that the best approach to sharing this information with you is through an authentic vision of today's classroom, a balanced approach to literacy, and the best research-based and classroom-tested practice I can provide.


    I regularly visit and work in the classrooms of some very talented teachers, many of whom have been my students, and I am very pleased to profile them in this text. These teachers face the same opportunities and challenges that you will. They, too, have to find ways to be creative and motivating while being accountable tostate and federal requirements.

    The classrooms I visit reflect the diversity you'll find anywhere in America. Most of these students are English learners, and they bring background knowledge and cultural understandings that challenge teachers to ensure they prepare learning experiences that meet the literacy needs of all students.

    Good teachers, like those who generously share their experiences with me for this text, strive to help struggling readers develop solid literacy strategies and skills. They work with students who are eagerly learning to read and write and others who are unmotivated and resistant. They work to make sure all their students have the foundational literacy knowledge they need to succeed in life, and help them develop a love of reading as well.

    • Chapter opening vignettes and minilessons throughout chapters help you envision today's classrooms as these teachers share stories of successful literacy teaching with all their students, including English learners.

    • Student work samples that appear throughout chapters model assessment and evaluation, helping you recognize the ways students develop as readers and writers.

    •    Instructional Procedures: Scenes from the Compendium is a new DVD, free with each text, that shares video footage of talented teachers and their compelling classroom scenes. These clips take you right into their classrooms to watch them use grand conversations, guided reading, interactive writing, and other procedures discussed in the text.

    •    Classroom footage showcases masterful teachers using instructional procedures from the compendium.

    •    Notes throughout chapters connect DVD clips with chapter content and Compendium procedures.

    •    Activities on the Companion Website help new teachers deepen and apply their understanding of the DVD's instructional procedures.


    This new edition strengthens and clarifies the importance of balancing literacy instruction, integrating essential skill development, strategy instruction, literature study, and authentic reading and writing experiences.

    You will understand literacy instruction in terms of four foundational instructional approaches: basal reading programs, literature focus units, literature circles, and reading and writing workshop. Through these approaches, I provide you with strategies and skills within the context of authentic reading and writing experiences. You will find in these pages the principles, skills, strategies, and examples of literature that will empower you to get up to speed quickly.

    • Components of a Balanced Literacy Program features in every chapter show how the chapter's topic relates to the 10 components of a balanced literacy program. For example, how does teaching comprehension relate to strategy instruction, fluency, content-area reading, and writing? It's important that you understand how each chapter's topic impacts and supports the entire literacy program, and this feature gives you that information.


    The four parts of the text are organized to build your background knowledge piece by piece, always integrating what you've just learned with new information being covered. I want you to see how a solid literacy program incorporates theory and research into teaching and assessment methods, and how they drive your instructional decisions.


    • Part 1: What Is a Balanced and Comprehensive Approach to Literacy Instruction? sets the stage for the methods and application to follow. The 8 principles of effective reading instruction outlined in Chapter 1 provide a strong, easily understood foundation for the entire book. You'll learn about how children learn, how to create a community of learners, how to organize instruction, implement assessment, and how to balance literacy instruction. You will also learn four theories supporting a balanced literacy approach. Chapter 2 builds on this foundation, focusing on the reading and writing processes, and readying you to learn how to work with your students.


    • Part 2: How Do Children Learn to Read and Write? consists of seven chapters that will help you implement a truly balanced approach to working with young readers and writers, covering phonics instruction, developing fluency and comprehension, and addressing assessment in a developmentally appropriate way.

    • Part 3: How Do Teachers Organize Literacy Instruction? applies the foundational concepts you learned in Parts 1 and 2, focusing on day to day classroom instruction. What does balanced literacy instruction look like in terms of basals, literature focus units, literature circles, reading and writing workshop, and content area literacy?


    •    Part 4: Compendium of Instructional Procedures completes the text with a bank of classroom proven instructional procedures that will engage and motivate your students in reading and writing. The DVD that accompanies this text illustrates several of these procedures.

    Classroom Practice

    My primary goal in this text is to show you how to teach reading and writing effectively, how to create a classroom climate where literacy flourishes, and how to empower the diverse array of students that will populate your classrooms and help them function competently as literate adults in the twenty-first century.

    Although there are many other useful ideas and strategies that can accomplish the goal of producing literate students, I have deliberately and painstakingly chosen research based, classroom tested ideas - the best of the best - as the focus of this textbook. With these in hand, you will be prepared to hit the ground running as you confidently implement effective methods. If you know how to be effective from the first day, you will have the confidence necessary to add to your bag of tricks as your experience guides your practice.

    • Nurturing English Learners features demonstrate how literacy elements, including cueing systems, basals, background knowledge, assessment, and phonemic awareness, must be redirected and aligned to meet the needs of English learners.

    • Scaffolding Struggling Readers features provide pivotal information on topics such as fluency, revising, the difficulty of vowels, vocabulary in content area texts, and comprehension to help students who struggle make real progress in developing literacy competency.

    • Minilessons offer clear, concise skill and strategy instruction, ready for you to take right into your classrooms!

    • Assessment Resources model classroom assessment to help you integrate assessment before, during, and after literacy instruction.

    •    Part 4's Compendium of Instructional Procedures is composed of dozens of clearly articulated instructional methods will become an invaluable professional resource and ready classroom reference.

    Integrating Media and the Standards

    Today's school environment is one driven by state and federal mandates, and by standards. You will need a handy reference to the national IRA/NCTE Standards for Reading Professionals, as well as access to your own state's standards. You will also need to find ways to integrate these standards into your own teaching. On my Companion Website you will find the quick reference and teaching tools you need.

    • An NCTE/IRA Standards matrix will pinpoint chapter by chapter standards coverage.

    • A complete correlation of NCTE/IRA Standards and chapter content will help you conceptualize a standards-driven literacy classroom.

    • Online lessons keyed to the NCTE/IRA Standards will give you classroom tools. Link from these lessons to your own state's standards to adapt the lessons to meet both the national standards and the standards designed for your own state, and save your new lessons to your hard drive or on disk through the Online Portfolio. By the end of the class you will have compiled a wonderful bank of standards specific lessons to use with your own students.


    Companion Website: This robust online support system offers many rich and meaningful ways to deepen and expand the information presented to you in the text.

    • IRA/NCTE Standards Integration, delivered through chapter correlations as well as adaptable lessons that can be saved to your hard drive or disk through the online portfolio, providing students with lessons to take right into their own classroom that align with both national and state standards.

    • Praxis practice questions help prepare pre-service teachers for the Praxis 2 exam. Link to Literacy for the 21st Century's Ready for Rica website to cater your practice specifically to California's teacher examination and California's standards.

    • Self-Assessments help users gauge their understanding of text concepts.

    • Field Activities help contextualize chapter content in a classroom setting.

    • Web Links provide useful connections to all standards and many other invaluable online literacy sources.

    • Chapter Objectives provide a useful advanced organizer for each chapter's online companion.

    Electronic Instructor's Manual: This useful tool for instructors, available online at with an instructor's access code, provides rich instructional support, including:

    • A test bank including multiple choice and essay tests. Also available as a TestGen.

    • Power points specifically designed for each chapter

    • A Media Guide with suggestions for making the most of the text's accompanying DVD Instructional Procedures: Scenes from the Compendium

    • Chapter by chapter materials, including Chapter objectives, suggested readings, discussion questions, and in class activities.

    Videos: Free to adopters, these videos can add depth to classroom concept coverage and promote discussion and analysis in class.

    • A VHS version of Instructional Procedures: Scenes from the Compendium is available upon request to professors whose classroom environment makes viewing footage from a VHS more convenient than watching as a class from the DVD.

    • Guidelines for Reading Comprehension Instruction (ISBN 0-13-031405-6) contains footage of Gail Tompkins providing guidance for pre-service and in-service literacy teachers.

    • Literacy Library: Video A (ISBN 0-13-042087-5) provides a collection of classroom segments where teachers and students are engaged in developing literacy lessons. Individual lessons include: reciprocal circles, inquiry methods for language and literacy, retelling, higher order thinking skills, letters and sound relationships, and reading for word problems.

    • Literacy Library: Video B (ISBN 0-13-112395-5) provides clear guidance for practicing guided reading with students.

    CD ROM's: Several CD's are available to package with this new edition of Literacy for the 21st Century. Users can examine, re-examine, and manipulate genuine classroom footage to develop a deep and lasting understanding of highlighted instructional approaches and the ways they are effectively carried out in classrooms.

    •    Writing Workshop (ISBN 0-13-117590-4). Experience the effective instruction that takes place in classroom communities by analyzing video footage of master teachers who integrate minilessons and strategy and skill development in the use of writing workshops. 

    •    Literature Circles (ISBN 0-13-061167-0). Examine footage of a master teacher in an 8th grade literacy classroom. You will have the opportunity to observe the classroom footage, hear from the teachers and students involved, and consider the research behind the teachers' decisions.

    •    Primary Grades Literacy Study a master teacher's approach to a K-3 integrated unit on insects.

  • Table of Contents


    PART ONE Literacy in the 21st Century 1
    Chapter 1 Becoming an Effective Literacy Teacher

    Chapter 2 The Reading and Writing Processes

    Chapter 3 Assessing Literacy Development

    PART TWO Components of Literacy Development
    Chapter 4 The Youngest Readers and Writers

    Chapter 5 Cracking the Alphabetic Code

    Chapter 6 Developing Fluent Readers and Writers

    Chapter 7 Expanding Academic Vocabulary

    Chapter 8 Promoting Comprehension: Reader Factors

    Chapter 9 Promoting Comprehension: Text Factors

    PART THREE Organizing for Instruction

    Chapter 10 Organizing for Instruction

    Chapter 11 Differentiating for Success

    PART FOUR Compendium of Instructional Procedures

    Chapter 12 Reading and Writing Across the Curriculum


    PART ONE Literacy in the 21st Century 1

    Chapter 1 Becoming an Effective Literacy Teacher 4

    PLAN: Preview the Learning Outcomes 4

    Principle 1: Effective Teachers Understand How Students Learn 6

    Behaviorism 6

    Constructivism 6

    Sociolinguistics 8

    Information Processing 10

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 1.1 11

    Principle 2: Effective Teachers Support Students’ Use of the Cueing Systems 11

    The Phonological System 12

    The Syntactic System 13

    The Semantic System 13

    The Pragmatic System 14

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 1.2 14

    Principle 3: Effective Teachers Create a Community of Learners 14

    Characteristics of a Classroom Community 15

    How to Create the Classroom Culture 16

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 1.3 16

    Principle 4: Effective Teachers Adopt a Balanced Approach to Instruction 16

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 1.4 19

    Principle 5: Effective Teachers Address Standards 19

    The Common Core State Standards 19

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 1.5 20

    Principle 6: Effective Teachers Scaffold Students’ Reading and Writing 21

    Modeled Reading and Writing 22

    Shared Reading and Writing 23

    Interactive Reading and Writing 23

    Guided Reading and Writing 23

    Independent Reading and Writing 24

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 1.6 24

    Principle 7: Effective Teachers Organize for Instruction 24

    Guided Reading 25

    Basal Reading Programs 25

    Literature Focus Units 25

    Literature Circles 25

    Reading and Writing Workshop 25

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 1.7 28

    Principle 8: Effective Teachers Differentiate Instruction 28

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 1.8 29

    Principle 9: Effective Teachers Link Instruction and Assessment 29

    The Instruction—Assessment Cycle 30

    Classroom Assessment Tools 31

    High-Stakes Tests 31

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 1.9 31

    REVIEW: Teaching Reading and Writing 32

    Evaluate & Reflect 32

    References 33

    Chapter 2 The Reading and Writing Processes 36

    PLAN: Preview the Learning Outcomes 36

    VIGNETTE: The Reading Process in Action 36

    The Reading Process 39

    Stage 1: Prereading 41

    Stage 2: Reading 42

    Stage 3: Responding 44

    Stage 4: Exploring 46

    Stage 5: Applying 47

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 2.1 47

    The Writing Process 48

    Stage 1: Prewriting 48

    Stage 2: Drafting 50

    Stage 3: Revising 51

    Stage 4: Editing 52

    Stage 5: Publishing 55

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 2.2 58

    The Writer’s Craft 58

    Ideas 58

    Organization 58

    Voice 59

    Word Choice 59

    Sentence Fluency 59

    Conventions 59

    Presentation 60

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 2.3 61

    Reading and Writing Are Reciprocal Processes 61

    Comparing the Two Processes 61

    Classroom Connections 61

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 2.4 62

    Literacy Strategies 63

    Reading Strategies 63

    Digital Reading Strategies 63

    Writing Strategies 64

    Strategy Instruction 64

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 2.5 65

    REVIEW: Teaching the Reading and Writing Processes 66

    Evaluate & Reflect 66

    References 67

    Chapter 3 Assessing Literacy Development 70

    PLAN: Preview the Learning Outcomes 70

    VIGNETTE: Mrs. McNeal Does Second-Quarter Assessments 70

    Classroom Assessment 75

    Step 1: Planning for Assessment 75

    Step 2: Monitoring Students’ Progress 75

    Step 3: Evaluating Students’ Learning 78

    Step 4: Reflecting on Students’ Learning 79

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 3.1 80

    Diagnostic Tests 80

    Determining Students’ Reading Levels 81

    Diagnosing Students’ Strengths and Weaknesses 86

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 3.2 91

    High-Stakes Testing 91

    Problems With High-Stakes Testing 92

    Preparing for Standardized Tests 93

    The Politics of High-Stakes Testing 96

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 3.3 96

    Portfolio Assessment 96

    Collecting Work in Portfolios 97

    Involving Students in Self-Assessment 97

    Showcasing Students’ Portfolios 99

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 3.4 99

    REVIEW: Assessing Literacy Development 99

    Evaluate & Reflect 100

    References 101

    PART TWO Components of Literacy Development 103

    Chapter 4 The Youngest Readers and Writers 106

    PLAN: Preview the Learning Outcomes 106

    VIGNETTE: K—3 Students’ Literacy Development 106

    Nurturing Children’s Oral Language Development 111

    Oral Language Activities 111

    Learning a Second Language 112

    The Link Between Oral Language and Literacy 113

    Assessing Children’s Oral Language 114

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 4.1 114

    Fostering an Interest in Literacy 114

    Concepts About Print 114

    Concepts About Words 115

    Concepts About the Alphabet 116

    Assessing Children’s Concepts About Written Language 119

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 4.2 119

    How Children Develop as Readers and Writers 120

    Stage 1: Emergent Reading and Writing 120

    Stage 2: Beginning Reading and Writing 121

    Stage 3: Fluent Reading and Writing 123

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 4.3 125

    Instructional Practices 130

    Morning Message 130

    Shared Reading 133

    Language Experience Approach 134

    Interactive Writing 136

    Manuscript Handwriting 137

    Writing Centers 138

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 4.4 139

    REVIEW: Teaching the Youngest Readers and Writers 139

    Evaluate & Reflect 140

    References 140

    Chapter 5 Cracking the Alphabetic Code 142

    PLAN: Preview the Learning Outcomes 142

    VIGNETTE: First Grade Phonics Instruction 142

    Phonemic Awareness 146

    Phonemic Awareness Strategies 147

    Teaching Phonemic Awareness 147

    Assessing Children’s Phonemic Awareness 154

    Why Phonemic Awareness Is Important 155

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 5.1 155

    Phonics 155

    Phonics Concepts 156

    Teaching Phonics 160

    Assessing Students’ Phonics Knowledge 165

    The Role of Phonics in a Balanced Literacy Program 166

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 5.2 166

    Spelling 166

    Stages of Spelling Development 166

    Teaching Spelling 171

    Weekly Spelling Tests 175

    Assessing Students’ Spelling 177

    The Controversy About Spelling Instruction 178

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 5.3 179

    REVIEW: Assisting Students in Cracking the Alphabetic Code 179

    Evaluate & Reflect 180

    References 180

    Chapter 6 Developing Fluent Readers and Writers 182

    Plan: Preview the Learning Outcomes 182

    VIGNETTE: High-Frequency Words 182

    Reading Fluency 186

    Automatic Reading 186

    Reading Speed 193

    Prosody 194

    Assessing Reading Fluency 195

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 6.1 197

    Writing Fluency 198

    Automatic Writing 198

    Writing Speed 199

    Writer’s Voice 200

    Assessing Writing Fluency 201

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 202

    Dysfluent Students 202

    Older Dysfluent Readers 203

    Older Dysfluent Writers 204

    Obstacles to Fluency 206

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 6.3 212

    REVIEW: Developing Fluent Readers and Writers 212

    Evaluate & Reflect 212

    References 213

    Chapter 7 Expanding Academic Vocabulary 216

    PLAN: Preview the Learning Outcomes 216

    VIGNETTE: The Word Wizards Club 216

    Academic Vocabulary 220

    Three Tiers of Words 220

    Levels of Word Knowledge 222

    Word Consciousness 223

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 7.1 225

    Word-Study Concepts 225

    Multiple Meanings of Words 225

    Synonyms: Words With Similar Meanings 227

    Antonyms: Words That Mean the Opposite 227

    Homonyms: Words That Confuse 228

    Root Words and Affixes 229

    Etymologies: Word Histories 232

    Figurative Meanings 233

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 7.2 236

    Teaching Students to Unlock Word Meanings 236

    Word Walls 236

    Explicit Instruction 238

    Word-Study Activities 238

    Word-Learning Strategies 241

    Incidental Word Learning 243

    The Role of Oral Language 244

    Assessing Students’ Vocabulary Knowledge 245

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 7.3 247

    REVIEW: Expanding Students’ Academic Vocabulary 247

    Evaluate & Reflect 247

    References 248

    Chapter 8 Promoting Comprehension: Reader Factors 250

    PLAN: Preview the Learning Outcomes 250

    VIGNETTE: Ms. Ali Teaches Comprehension Strategies 250

    What Is Comprehension 255

    Reader and Text Factors 256

    Text Complexity 256

    Prerequisites for Comprehension 258

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 8.1 259

    Comprehension Strategies 259

    Activating Background Knowledge 260

    Connecting 261

    Determining Importance 261

    Drawing Inferences 262

    Evaluating 263

    Monitoring 264

    Predicting 265

    Questioning 265

    Repairing 266

    Setting a Purpose 266

    Summarizing 266

    Visualizing 266

    Comprehension Skills 267

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 8.2 268

    Teaching Students About Reader Factors 268

    Explicit Instruction 269

    Developing Comprehension Through Reading 273

    Assessing Reader Factors 278

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 8.3 280

    Motivation 281

    Teachers’ Role 281

    Students’ Role 282

    How to Engage Students 283

    Assessing Motivation 284

    Comparing Capable and Less Capable Students 285

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 8.4 286

    REVIEW: Teaching About Reader Factors 287

    Evaluate & Reflect 287

    References 288

    Chapter 9 Promoting Comprehension: Text Factors 290

    PLAN: Preview the Learning Outcomes 290

    VIGNETTE: Reading and Writing About Frogs 290

    Text Factors of Stories 294

    Formats of Stories 294

    Narrative Genres 295

    Elements of Story Structure 299

    Narrative Devices 304

    Looking at the Text Factors in a Story 306

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 9.1 306

    Text Factors of Nonfiction 306

    Nonfiction Genres 306

    Expository Text Structures 308

    Nonfiction Features 308

    Looking at the Text Factors in a Nonfiction Book 311

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 9.2 311

    Text Factors of Poetry 311

    Formats of Poetry Books 311

    Poetic Forms 313

    Poetic Devices 316

    Looking at the Text Factors in a Book of Poetry 317

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 9.3 317

    Teaching About Text Factors 317

    Mini-lessons 318

    Comprehension Strategies 318

    Reading and Writing Activities 319

    Assessing Text Factors 320

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 9.4 320

    REVIEW: Facilitating Students’ Comprehension of Text Factors 320

    Evaluate & Reflect 321

    References 321

    PART THREE Organizing for Instruction 325

    Chapter 10 Organizing for Instruction 328

    PLAN: Preview the Learning Outcomes 328

    VIGNETTE: A Yearlong Author Study 328

    Conducting Guided Reading Lessons 332

    Components 332

    Reading Strategies 333

    Instructional Materials 334

    Applying the Reading Process 334

    Managing Guided Reading 334

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 10.1 334

    Teaching With Basal Reading Programs 335

    Components 335

    Instructional Materials 337

    Applying the Reading Process 338

    Managing a Basal Reading Program 339

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 10.2 340

    Teaching With Literature Focus Units 340

    Steps in Developing a Unit 341

    Units Featuring a Picture Book 343

    Units Featuring a Novel 343

    Units Featuring a Genre 343

    Units Featuring an Author 345

    Managing Literature Focus Units 346

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 10.3 346

    Orchestrating Literature Circles 346

    Key Features of Literature Circles 346

    Implementing Literature Circles 350

    Using Literature Circles With Young Children 351

    Applying the Reading Process 351

    Managing Literature Circles 352

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 10.4 352

    Implementing Reading and Writing Workshop 353

    Reading Workshop 354

    Applying the Reading Process 358

    Writing Workshop 359

    Applying the Writing Process 361

    Managing a Workshop Classroom 362

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 10.5 363

    REVIEW: Organizing for Instruction 363

    Evaluate & Reflect 364

    References 364

    Chapter 11 Differentiating for Success 366

    PLAN: Preview the Learning Outcomes 366

    VIGNETTE: Classroom Interventions 366

    Ways to Differentiate Instruction 371

    Grouping for Instruction 372

    Tiered Activities 374

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 11.1 384

    Struggling Readers and Writers 384

    Struggling Readers 384

    Struggling Writers 385

    High-Quality Instruction 385

    Interventions 389

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 11.2 394

    REVIEW: Differentiating Literacy Instruction 394

    Evaluate & Reflect 394

    References 395

    PART FOUR Compendium of Instructional Procedures 435

    Anticipation Guides 436

    Book Talks 437

    Choral Reading 438

    Cloze Procedure 439

    Collaborative Books 440

    Double-Entry Journals 441

    Exclusion Brainstorming 442

    Grand Conversations 443

    Hot Seat 444

    Interactive Read-Alouds 445

    Interactive Writing 447

    KWL Charts 448

    Language Experience Approach 450

    Learning Logs 452

    Making Words 454

    Mini-lessons 455

    Open-Mind Portraits 456

    Possible Sentences 457

    Prereading Plan 458

    Question-Answer-Relationships 460

    Chapter 12 Reading and Writing Across the Curriculum 398

    PLAN: Preview the Learning Outcomes 398

    VIGNETTE: Third Graders’ Multigenre Projects 398

    Learning Tools 402

    Reading to Learn 403

    Writing to Learn 405

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 12.1 408

    Demonstrating Learning 408

    Reports 409

    Essays 411

    Poems 411

    Multigenre Projects 413

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 12.2 415

    Content Area Textbooks 415

    Textbook Features 415

    Making Textbooks More Comprehensible 416

    Learning How to Study 418

    Why Aren’t Content Area Textbooks Enough? 421

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 12.3 421

    Thematic Units 421

    How to Develop a Unit 422

    A First Grade Unit on Trees 425

    A Fourth Grade Unit on Desert Ecosystems 425

    A Sixth Grade Unit on Ancient Egypt 426

    MONITOR: Check Your Understanding 12.4 426

    REVIEW: Reading and Writing Across the Curriculum 433

    Evaluate & Reflect 433

    References 434

    Quickwriting 461

    RAFT 463

    Readers Theatre 464

    Reading Logs 465

    Revising Groups 466

    Rubrics 468

    Running Records 470

    Semantic Feature Analysis 471

    Shared Reading 472

    Sketch-to-Stretch 473

    Story Boards 474

    Story Retelling 476

    Sustained Silent Reading 478

    Tea Party 479

    Think-Alouds 480

    Word Sorts 481

    Word Walls 483

    Glossary 487

    Index 493




    Facing the Challenge: How Do Today's Teachers Chart a Course to Create Competent, Literate Citizens for Tomorrow?

    Helping children become literate is one of the greatest challenges facing teachers today. As some teachers and researchers tout and defend one approach after another, parents are frightened that the new instructional methods aren't getting the job done. The media fuels the controversy with reports lamenting failing test scores and criticism that many schools are failing to produce literate citizens who can function competently.

    I have written this textbook to blaze a pathway toward implementing a thoughtful, balanced approach to teaching reading and writing, a pathway that incorporates the most effective teaching approaches and strategies.

    The second edition of Literacy for the Twenty-First Century: A Balanced Approach builds on the research-based approaches to literacy instruction outlined in the first edition, the most popular new reading methods textbook in a decade.

    Why Is This Reader-Friendly Textbook a Best-Seller? Here's What Professors and Their Students Tell Us:

    • This comprehensive text presents several sound approaches to literacy instruction and guides teachers toward best practice in teaching skills as well as and strategies.
    • It functions equally well as a core text for traditional introduction to reading methods courses and for the newer literacy "block" courses.
    • The ten principles of effective reading instruction outlined in Chapter 1 provide a strong, easily understood foundation for the entire book.
    • The textiswritten with preservice teachers in mind; however, those teachers pressed into service in accelerated credential programs will find the book invaluable as a resource to get up and running quickly.
    • The easily accessible Compendium of Instructional Procedures at the back of the book offers 38 clearly articulated instructional methods, an invaluable resource and quick reference.
    • The text includes many lively descriptions of how real teachers teach reading and writing effectively, through vignettes opening each chapter and colorful part opening sections that present visual reinforcement of each major approach to teaching literacy.
    • The Review section at the end of each chapter includes a chart that contrasts effective and ineffective instructional practices related to the chapter topic.

    What Is New in the Second Edition?

    1. Increased coverage of comprehension: an entire chapter is devoted to the most recent research on facilitating students' comprehension. This chapter details how to help students understand and make meaning from text, once they have learned to decode it.
    2. Still more on comprehension: check out the video free to adopters of this text in which the author herself presents her analysis of field-tested ideas to improve students' comprehension.
    3. More ways to use technology effectively as a resource. Not only are there more Technology Links features, but there are many website addresses provided throughout the text. These addresses are accompanied by brief annotations so readers can assess their usefulness.
    4. More ways to use technology effectively as a teaching tool. The Companion Website for the second edition ( offers opportunities for self-assessment; analysis, synthesis, and application of concepts; updated web addresses; and special information for teachers required to pass state tests in teaching reading in order to obtain credentials.
    5. Much more on assessment tools, including ideas for alternative assessment.
    6. Suggestions for the creative use of traditional basal readers, including the "guided reading" approach.
    7. A new full-color opener for Part III, featuring a middle school content-area unit on medieval life.

    What Is the Purpose o f This Textbook?

    My goal in this text is to show beginning teachers how to teach reading and writing effectively, how to create a classroom climate where literacy flourishes, and how to empower the diverse array of students in today's classrooms to function competently as literate adults in the twenty-first century. To that end, I have based the text on four contemporary theories of literacy learning: constructivist, interactive, socio-linguistic, and reader response theories.

    Readers will learn how to implement a reading program with skills and strategies taught in context using a whole-part-whole organizational approach. The approach I take can, I believe, best be described as "balanced." Literature provides the major focus for reading instruction and for integrating the language arts. You will learn how to teach vital skills and useful strategies within the context of authentic reading and writing experiences. I have carefully selected the principles, skills, strategies, and examples of literature that will empower the beginning teacher to get up to speed quickly. In creating this textbook, I used knowledge I gleaned from a host of teachers who have been students in my beginning reading course over the years, and I also sifted through the array of practices and procedures proven effective in today's classrooms and with today's diverse student populations. Although there are many other useful ideas and strategies that can accomplish the goal of producing literate students, I have deliberately and painstakingly chosen research-based, classroom-tested ideas—the best of the best—as the focus of this textbook.

    It is widely recognized that today's teachers need as many approaches and strategies in their repertoire as possible. However, I have carefully culled out a critical path for beginning teachers to follow. Why? Because it is important for beginning teachers of reading and writing to learn a few things well at the outset so that they are prepared to hit the ground running as they confidently implement effective methods. If you know how to be effective from the first day, you will have the confidence necessary to add to your bag of tricks as your experience guides you.

    So, could it be argued that there are many more principles for effective teaching of reading and writing than the ten I outline in Chapter 1? Sure. But I am certain that the ten principles I present there will be memorable, useful, helpful, and effective. Does this textbook cover every permutation of every practice option? No. But I am sure that the 38 procedures outlined in detail in the Compendium at the back of the text constitute a memorable, useful, helpful, and effective critical mass of practice options on which you can build.

    This textbook is neither an encyclopedia of reading methods nor a comprehensive history of reading. Rather, it is intended as a practical application of knowledge obtained from these encyclopedias and histories and, more important, from the experiences of hundreds of teachers across the country. Not only is the focus on practical application—the reason professors will adopt this book—but that focus is also the reason beginning teachers will keep this book.

    How Is This Textbook Organized?

    This book is organized into four sections. The three chapters in the first section address the question "What is a balanced approach to literacy instruction?" Chapter 1 sets out ten basic instructional principles on which to build balanced literacy instruction. These ten principles describe how effective teachers teach reading and writing. Chapter 2 explains the reading and writing processes that teachers use to teach reading and writing, no matter whether teachers are teaching literature focus units, literature circles, reading and writing workshop, or content area units. Chapter 3 describes both traditional and authentic assessment procedures.

    Part II examines the question "How do children learn to read and write?" Chapter 4 is devoted to the special needs of emergent readers and writers (kindergartners and first graders). The basics of the alphabetic principle-phonemic awareness, phonics, and spelling—are explained in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 explains word recognition and word identification and how students become fluent readers.

    Answering the question "How do readers and writers construct meaning?" is the focus of Chapters 7 and through 9. Chapter 7 is devoted to vocabulary and how students refine their understanding of the meanings of words. Chapter 8 focuses on comprehension—the five comprehension processes, the metacognitive strategies that capable readers use, and comprehension activities during each stage of the reading process. Chapter 9 presents information about the structure of stories, informational books, and poetry. Students use their knowledge of the structure of texts in comprehending what they read.

    The five chapters in Part IV answer the question "How do teachers organize literacy instruction?" Chapters on literature focus units, literature circles, reading and writing workshop, basal reading textbooks, and content area units show teachers how to set up their instructional programs based on the reading and writing processes described in Chapter 2.

    What Are the Special Features?

    I have included nine special features to increase the effectiveness of the text and to address the most current resources in the field of literacy.

    Principles of Effective Reading Instruction. I set out a list of ten principles of effective reading instruction in Chapter 1, and these principles provide the foundation for the entire textbook. Near the end of each chapter (except Chapter 1), the Review section includes a feature in which I contrast effective and ineffective instructional practices related to the chapter topic. Instructors and students alike will find these features very interesting.

    Vignettes. Starting with Chapter 2, I begin each chapter with a vignette in which you will see how a real teacher teaches the topic addressed in the chapter. These vignettes are rich and detailed, with chapter-opener photos, dialogue, student writing samples, and illustrations. Readers will be drawn into the story of literacy instruction in a real classroom as they build background and activate prior knowledge about the chapter's topic. Throughout the chapter, I refer readers to the vignette so that they can apply the concepts they are reading about and make connections to the world of practice.

    Website Addresses. Annotated Internet website addresses are listed as margin notes in each chapter. These websites are suggested as resources that readers might use to extend their learning and read the most up-to-date information about guided reading, interactive writing, fluency, comprehension, literature circles, and other literacy topics. Instructors and students are also encouraged to visit Merrill/Prentice Hall's Companion Website at edition

    Technology Links. Readers will learn about innovative uses of technology in teaching reading and writing through the Technology Links. Among the topics I present in these special features are screen reading using captioned text on television to develop reading fluency, electronic dialoguing to write back and forth to a reading buddy to respond to literature, videotape portfolios to document student learning, and interactive electronic books on CD-ROM to teach high-frequency words and phonics skills.

    Chapter on the Reading and Writing Processes. In Chapter 2 I describe the reading and writing processes. These two processes provide the foundation for the chapters on how to organize the instructional programs, literature focus units (Chapter 10), literature circles (Chapter 11), reading and writing workshop (Chapter 12), basal reading textbooks (Chapter 13), and thematic units (Chapter 14).

    Chapter on Breaking the Code. Chapter 5 focuses on the phonological system: phonemic awareness, phonics, and spelling. Phonics is a controversial topic in reading, and the position I take in this chapter is that phonics and related topics are part of a balanced literacy program and are best taught in the context of real literature using a whole-part-whole approach.

    Chapter on Fluency. In Chapter 6 I explain that students in the primary grades need to develop strong word recognition skills so that they can automatically, read hundreds and hundreds of words in order to become fluent readers. That is, they can read quickly and with expression by the time they are third graders. Students also need to develop word identification tools, including phonemic and morphological analysis, so that they can decode unfamiliar words as they are reading.

    Chapter on Comprehension. Chapter 8 delves into five comprehension processes and how teachers teach and assess each process. I set out 12 strategies that readers and writers use and explain the difference between strategies and skills. To emphasize the importance of helping children become strategic readers, I compare more-capable readers will less-capable readers and writers and conclude that more capable students have both more skills and more strategies, but what really separates the two groups is that more-capable readers are more strategic.

    Compendium of Instructional Procedures. For your ready reference, the Compendium at the back of the book provides a comprehensive review of 38 instructional procedures used in literature-based reading classrooms, with step-by-step directions and student samples. The procedures are highlighted when they are mentioned in the text to cue readers to consult the Compendium for more detailed information.


    Many people helped and encouraged me during the development of this text. My heartfelt thanks go to each of them. First, I want to thank my students at California State University, Fresno, who taught me while I taught them, and the teacher-consultants in the San Joaquin Valley Writing Project, who shared their expertise with me. Their insightful questions challenged and broadened my thinking.

    Thanks, too, go to the teachers who welcomed me into their classrooms, showed me how they used literature in innovative ways, and allowed me to learn from them and their students. In particular, I want to express my appreciation to the teachers and students who appear in the vignettes: Eileen Boland, Tenaya Middle School, Fresno, CA; Jessica Bradshaw, Rocky Hill Elementary School, Exeter, CA: Roberta Dillon, Armona Elementary School, Armona, CA: Whitney Donnelly, Williams Ranch School, Penn Valley, CA; Laurie Goodman, Parkview Middle School, Armona, CA; Judy Hoddy, Hennessey School, Grass Valley, CA; Sally Mast, Thomas Elementary School, Fresno, CA; Kristi Ohashi, Terry Elementary School, Selma, CA; Jill Peterson, Mickey Cox Elementary School, Clovis, CA; Judy Roberts, Lincoln Elementary School, Madera, CA; Camilla Simmons, Charles Wright School, Merced, CA, and Darcy Williams, Aynesworth Elementary School, Fresno, CA. Thanks, too, to Sonja Wiens, Leavenworth Elementary School, Fresno, CA; Kimberly Clark, Aynesworth Elementary School, Fresno, CA; Lisa Coronado and Wendy Magill, Lincoln Elementary School, Madera, CA; Bob Dickinson, Williams Ranch School, Penn Valley, CA; Judith Salzberg and Mr. Lee, Charles Wright School, Merced, CA; Kim Ransdell, Armona Elementary School, Armona, CA, and their students also appeared in photos in the book. I also want to acknowledge Jenny Reno and the teachers and students at Western Hills Elementary School, Lawton, OK, and Carol Ochs, Jackson Elementary School, Norman, OK, who have been a part of each of the books I have written. I want also to thank the reviewers of my manuscript for their comments and insights: Judy A. Abbott, West Virginia University; Joanne E. Bernstein, Brooklyn College; Jean M. Casey, California State University, Long Beach; Carolyn L. Piazza, Florida State University; Thomas C. Potter, California State University, Northridge; Cheryl Rosaen, Michigan State University; and Sharyn Walker, Bowling Green State University.

    Finally, I am indebted to Jeff Johnston and his team at Merrill/Prentice Hall in Columbus, Ohio, who produce so many high-quality publications. I am honored to be a Merrill author. Linda Scharp McElhiney continues to be the guiding force behind my work. I want to express my appreciation to Mary Irvin, who supervised the production of this book, and to Jonathan Lawrence, who has again dealt so expertly with production details and copyediting.

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    Literacy for the 21st Century: A Balanced Approach (with MyEducationLab) 3.5 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 2 reviews.
    su_library_student on LibraryThing 8 hours ago
    This was an assigned textbook for an information literacy class. I am sure that the book is an excellent resource if you are studying to be a reading specialist or an elementary school teacher. As a student to become a library media specialist, I found this book to be irrelevant. So I am giving the book 3 stars because it is an excellent resource for someone out there but it didn't help me. If you are going to be a reading specialist, I highly recommend buying this book. The author provides great examples to help with teaching strategies. This book also includes a CD and the publisher has a companion website for the book which gives quizzes to test your comprehension of the chapter.
    Graduate_Student_Mom More than 1 year ago
    I used this textbook for a graduate course in Literacy. It did a great job of combining facts and anecdotal stories. The books one shortcoming was that I found it gave no specific help developing lesson plans for literacy.