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Literature and the Writing Process, Books a la Carte Edition / Edition 10

Literature and the Writing Process, Books a la Carte Edition / Edition 10

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780321945846
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 10/09/2013
Pages: 1168
Product dimensions: 8.40(w) x 11.10(h) x 1.50(d)

Table of Contents

PART ONE Composing: An Overview

Chapter 1 The Prewriting Process

Reading for Writing

James Joyce, “Eveline”

Who Are My Readers?

Analyze the Audience

Prewriting Exercise

Why Am I Writing?

Reasons for Writing

Prewriting Exercise

What Ideas Should I Use?

Reading and Thinking Critically

Discovering and Developing Ideas


Directed Freewriting

Problem Solving


Figure 1-1 Directed Freewriting

Figure 1-2 Clustering

What Point Should I Make?

Relate a Part to the Whole

How Do I Find the Theme?

Stating the Thesis

Chapter 2 The Writing Process

How Should I Organize My Ideas?

Arguing Your Interpretation

The Elements of Good Argument

Building an Effective Argument

Arranging the Ideas

Chart 2-1 Checklist for Arguing an Interpretation

Developing with Details

Questions for Consideration

Maintaining a Critical Focus

Distinguishing Critical Comments from Plot Details

How Should I Begin?

Postpone If Nothing Comes

Write an Appealing Opening

State the Thesis

How Should I End?

Relate the Discussion to Theme

Postpone or Write Ahead

Write an Emphatic Final Sentence

Composing the First Draft

Pausing to Rescan

Quoting from Your Sources

Sample Student Paper: First Draft

Chapter 3 Writing a Convincing Argument

Interpreting and Arguing

Identifying Issues

Making Claims

Using Evidence

Using Reasoning

Answering Opposing Views

Organizing Your Argument

Using the Inductive Approach

Making a Counterargument

Arguing Through Comparison

Sample Student Essay

Dagoberto Gilb, “Love in L. A.”

Chapter 4 The Rewriting Process

What Is Revision?

Getting Feedback: Peer Review

Revising in Peer Groups

Chart 4-1 Peer Evaluation Checklist for Revision

What Should I Add or Take Out?

Outlining After the First Draft

Making the Outline

Checking the Outline

Sample After-Writing Outline

Examining the Sample Outline

Outlining Exercise

What Should I Rearrange?

Does It Flow?

What Is Editing?

What Sentences Should I Combine?

Chart 4-2 Transitional Terms for All Occasions

Chart 4-3 Revising Checklist

Combining for Conciseness

Sentence Combining Exercise

Rearranging for Emphasis and Variety

Varying the Pattern

Exercise on Style

Which Words Should I Change?

Check Your Verbs

Use Active Voice Most of the Time

Use Passive If Appropriate

Exercise on Passive Voice

Feel the Words

Exercise on Word Choice

Attend to Tone

Use Formal Language

What Is Proofreading?

Try Reading It Backward

Look for Your Typical Errors

Read the Paper Aloud

Find a Friend to Help

Chart 4-4 Proofreading Checklist

Sample Student Paper: Final Draft

Chapter 5 Researched Writing

Using Library Source in Your Writing

Conducting Your Research

Locating Sources

Using the Online Catalog

Using Indexes and Databases

Using the Internet

Chart 5-1 Internet Sources for Literature

Evaluating Online Sources

Using Reference Works in Print

Working with Sources

Taking Notes

Using a Research Notebook

Using the Printout/Photocopy Option

Figure 5-1 Sample Entry from a Divided-Page Research Notebook

Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and Quoting

Devising a Working Outline

Writing a First Draft

Organizing Your Notes

Using Quotations and Paraphrases

Integrating Sources

Block Quotations

Quoting from Primary Sources

Avoiding Plagiarism

Rewriting and Editing

Documenting Your Sources

Revising the Draft

Formatting Your Paper

Chart 5-2 Checklist for Revising and Editing Researched Writing

Sample Documented Student Paper

Sample Published Article

Explanation of the MLA Documentation Style

In-Text Citations

Preparing the List of Works Cited

Sample Entries for a List of Works Cited

Citing Print Publications

Citing Online Publications

Citing Other Common Sources

PART TWO Writing About Short Fiction

Chapter 6 How Do I Read Short Fiction?

Notice the Structure

Consider Point of View and Setting

Study the Characters


Look for Specialized Literary Techniques

Examine the Title

Investigate the Author’s Life and Times

Continue Questioning to Discover Theme

Chart 6-1 Critical Questions for Reading the Short Story

Chapter 7 Writing About Structure

What Is Structure?

How Do I Discover Structure?

Looking at Structure

Tim O’Brien, “The Things They Carried”


Finding Patterns


Grouping Details

Relating Details to Theme

Ideas for Writing

Ideas for Responsive Writing

Ideas for Critical Writing

Ideas for Researched Writing


Integrating Quotations Gracefully

Exercise on Integrating Quotations

Chapter 8 Writing About Imagery and Symbolism

What Are Images?

What Are Symbols?

Archetypal Symbols

Phallic and Yonic Symbols

How Will I Recognize Symbols?

Reference Works on Symbols

Looking at Images and Symbols

Shirley Jackson, “The Lottery”


Interpreting Symbols


Producing a Workable Thesis

Exercise on Thesis Statements

Ideas for Writing

Ideas for Responsive Writing

Ideas for Critical Writing

Ideas for Researched Writing


Sharpening the Introduction

Sample Student Paper on Symbolism: Second and Final Drafts

Chapter 9 Writing About Point of View

What Is Point of View?

Describing Point of View

Looking at Point of View

Alice Walker, “Everyday Use”


Analyzing Point of View


Relating Point of View to Theme

Ideas for Writing

Ideas for Responsive Writing

Ideas for Critical Writing

Ideas for Researched Writing


Sharpening the Conclusion

Chapter 10 Writing About Setting and Atmosphere

What Are Setting and Atmosphere?

Looking at Setting and Atmosphere

Tobias Wolff, “Hunters in the Snow”


Examining the Elements of Setting


Discovering an Organization

Ideas for Writing

Ideas for Responsive Writing

Ideas for Critical Writing

Ideas for Researched Writing


Checking Your Organization

Improving the Style: Balanced Sentences

Sentence Modeling Exercise

Chapter 11 Writing About Theme

What Is Theme?

Looking at Theme

Flannery O'Connor, “A Good Man Is Hard to Find”


Figuring Out the Theme

Stating the Theme


Choosing Supporting Details

Ideas for Writing

Ideas for Responsive Writing

Ideas for Critical Writing

Ideas for Researched Writing


Achieving Coherence

Checking for Coherence


Repeat Words and Synonyms

Try Parallel Structure

Casebook: Joyce Carol Oates’s “Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?”

Joyce Carol Oates (1938- ) “Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?”

The Story’s Origins

Four Critical Interpretations

Topics for Discussion and Writing

Ideas for Researched Writing

Anthology of Short Fiction

Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864) “The Birthmark”

Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849) “The Cask of Amontillado”

Kate Chopin (1851-1904) “Désirée’s Baby”

“The Story of an Hour”

Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1860-1935) “The Yellow Wallpaper”

Sherwood Anderson (1876-1941) “Hands”

Katherine Anne Porter (1890-1980) “The Grave”

Zora Neale Hurston (1891-1960) “Spunk”

William Faulkner (1897-1962) “Barn Burning”

Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) “Hills Like White Elephants”

Langston Hughes (1902-1967) “Salvation”

John Steinbeck (1902-1968) “The Chrysanthemums”

Richard Wright (1908-1960) “The Man Who Was Almost a Man”

Tillie Olsen (1913-2007) “I Stand Here Ironing”

Hisaye Yamamoto (1921- ) “Seventeen Syllables”

Rosario Morales (1930- ) “The Day It Happened”

Chinua Achebe (1930- ) “Dead Men’s Path”

Alice Munro (1931- ) “An Ounce of Cure”

Andre Dubus (1956-1999) “The Fat Girl”

Raymond Carver (1938-1988) “What We Talk About When We Talk About Love”

Toni Cade Bambara (1939-1995) “The Lesson”

Bharati Mukherjee (1940- ) “A Father”

T. Coraghessan Boyle (1948- ) “The Love of My Life”

Sandra Cisneros (1954- ) “Geraldo No Last Name”

Louise Erdrich (1954- ) “The Red Convertible”

Ha Jin (1956- ) “The Bridegroom”

Katherine Min (1959- ) “Secondhand World”

Julie Otsuka (1962- ) “Evacuation Order No. 19”

Sherman Alexie (1966- ) “This Is What It Means to Say Phoenix, Arizona”

A Portfolio of Science Fiction Stories

Ray Bradbury (1920- ) “There Will Come Soft Rains”

Ursula K. Le Guin (1929- ) “The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas”

Octavia E. Butler (1947-2006) “Speech Sounds”

Kevin Brockmeier (1972- ) “The Year of Silence”

Sample Student Paper: Comparing Dystopias

A Portfolio of Humorous and Satirical Stories

Eudora Welty (1909-2001) “Why I Live at the P. O.”

John Updike (1932-2009) “A & P”

Margaret Atwood (1939- ) “Happy Endings”

Ron Hansen (1947- ) “My Kid’s Dog”

David Sedaris (1956- ) “Nuit of the Living Dead”

A Portfolio of Graphic Stories

Art Spiegelman (1948- ) “Time Flies” from Maus II

Alison Bechdel (1960- ) “Fun Home”

Marjane Satrapi (1969- ) “The Vegetable” from Persepolis 2

PART THREE Writing About Poetry

Chapter 12 How Do I Read Poetry?

Get the Literal Meaning First: Paraphrase

Make Associations for Meaning

Chart 12-1 Critical Questions for Reading Poetry

Chapter 13 Writing About Persona and Tone

Who Is Speaking?

What Is Tone?

Recognizing Verbal Irony

Describing Tone

Looking at Persona and Tone

Theodore Roethke, “My Papa’s Waltz”

W. D. Ehrhart, “The Sins of the Father”

Thomas Hardy, “The Ruined Maid”

W. H. Auden, “The Unknown Citizen”

Edmund Waller, “Go, Lovely Rose”

Dorothy Parker, “One Perfect Rose”


Asking Questions About the Speaker in “My Papa's Waltz”

Devising a Thesis

Considering the Speaker in “The Sins of the Father”

Describing the Tone in “The Ruined Maid”

Developing a Thesis

Describing the Tone in “The Unknown Citizen”

Formulating a Thesis

Determining Tone in “Go, Lovely Rose”

Discovering Tone in “One Perfect Rose”


Explicating and Analyzing

Ideas for Writing

Ideas for Responsive Writing

Ideas for Critical Writing

Ideas for Researched Writing


Quoting Poetry in Essays

Sample Student Response on Persona and Tone

Analyzing the Student Response

Chapter 14 Writing About Poetic Language

What Do the Words Suggest?

Connotation and Denotation

Figures of Speech

Metaphor and Simile






Looking at Poetic Language

Mary Oliver, “August”

Walt Whitman, “A Noiseless Patient Spider”

William Shakespeare, “Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer’s Day?”

Kay Ryan, “Turtle”

Hayden Carruth, “In the Long Hall”

Donald Hall, “My Son My Executioner”


Examining Poetic Language


Comparing and Contrasting

Ideas for Writing

Ideas for Responsive Writing

Ideas for Critical Writing

Ideas for Researched Writing


Choosing Vivid, Descriptive Terms

Finding Lively Words

Exercise on Diction

Sample Student Paper on Poetic Language: Second and Final Drafts

Comparison Exercise

Chapter 15 Writing About Poetic Form

What Are the Forms of Poetry?

Rhythm and Rhyme

Chart 15-1 Rhythm and Meter in Poetry

Alliteration, Assonance, and Consonance

Exercise on Poetic Form

Stanzas: Closed and Open Form

Poetic Syntax

Visual Poetry

Looking at the Forms of Poetry

Gwendolyn Brooks, “We Real Cool”

A. E. Housman, “Eight O’Clock”

E. E. Cummings, “anyone lived in a pretty how town”

Wole Soyinka, “Telephone Conversation”

Robert Frost, “The Silken Tent”

Billy Collins, “Sonnet”

Roger McGough, “40-----Love”


Experimenting with Poetic Forms


Relating Form to Meaning

Ideas for Writing

Ideas for Expressive Writing

Ideas for Critical Writing

Ideas for Researched Writing


Finding the Exact Wor

Sample Student Paper on Poetic Form

Sample Published Essay on Poetic Form:

David Huddle, “The ‘Banked Fire’ of Robert Hayden’s ‘Those Winter Sundays’”

Casebook: The Poetry of Langston Hughes

Langston Hughes: A Brief Biography

“The Negro Speaks of Rivers”

“Mother to Son”

“The Weary Blues”

“Saturday Night”

“Trumpet Player”

“Harlem (A Dream Deferred)”

“Theme for English B”

Considering the Poems

Critical Commentaries

Onwuchekwa Jemie, “Hughes and the Black Controversy”

Margaret Larkin, “A Poet for the People”

Richard Wright, “Forerunner and Ambassador”

Karen Jackson Ford, “Do Right to Write Right: Langston Hughes’s Aesthetics of Simplicity”

Peter Townsend, “Jazz and Langston Hughes’s Poetry”

Langston Hughes, “Harlem Rent Parties”

Ideas for Writing About Langston Hughes

Ideas for Researched Writing

The Art of Poetry

The Art of Poetry

Lisel Mueller (1924- ) “American Literature”

Edward Hopper (1882-1967), Nighthawks, 1942

Samuel Yellen (1906-1983) “Nighthawks”

Susan Ludvigson (1942- ) “Inventing My Parents”

Peter Brueghel the Elder (c. 1525-1569), Landscape with the Fall of Icarus, c. 1554-55

W. H. Auden (1907-1973) “Musée des Beaux Arts”

Paolo Uccello (139-1475), St. George and the Dragon, 1470

U. A. Fanthorpe (1929-2009) “Not My Best Side”

Vincent Van Gogh (1853-1890), The Starry Night, 1889

Anne Sexton (1928-1974) “The Starry Night”

Henri Matisse (1869-1954), The Red Studio, 1911

W. D. Snodgrass (1926-2009) “Matisse: ‘The Red Studio’ ”

Kitagawa Utamaro (1754-1806), Two Women Dressing Their Hair, 1794-1795

Cathy Song (1952- ) “Beauty and Sadness”

The Art of Poetry: Questions for Discussion

Poetry and Art: Ideas for Writing

Sample Student Response: Poetry and Art

Anthology of Poetry

Thomas Wyatt (1503-1542) “They Flee from Me”

William Shakespeare (1564-1616) “When in Disgrace with Fortune and Men’s Eyes”

“Let Me Not to the Marriage of True Minds”

“That Time of Year Thou Mayst in Me Behold”

“My Mistress’ Eyes Are Nothing Like the Sun”

John Donne (1572-1631) “Death, Be Not Proud”

“The Flea”

“A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning”

Andrew Marvell (1621-1678) “To His Coy Mistress”

William Blake (1757-1827) “The Lamb”

“The Tyger”

“The Sick Rose”


William Wordsworth (1770-1850) “The World Is Too Much with Us”

George Gordon, Lord Byron (1788-1824) “She Walks in Beauty”

Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822) “Ozymandias”

John Keats (1795-1821) “Ode on a Grecian Urn”

Walt Whitman (1819-1892) “When I Heard the Learn’d Astronomer”

Matthew Arnold (1822-1888) “Dover Beach”

Emily Dickinson (1830-1886) “Faith Is a Fine Invention”

“I’m Nobody! Who Are You?”

“He Put the Belt Around My Life”

“Much Madness Is Divinest Sense”

“Because I Could Not Stop for Death”

“Some Keep the Sabbath Going to Church”

“Wild Nights—Wild Nights!”

Gerard Manley Hopkins (1844-1889) “Pied Beauty”

“Spring and Fall”

A. E. Housman (1859-1936) “To an Athlete Dying Young”

“Loveliest of Trees”

William Butler Yeats (1865-1939) “The Second Coming”

“Sailing to Byzantium”

Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872-1906) “We Wear the Mask”

Robert Frost (1874-1963) “Mending Wall”


“ ‘Out, Out—’”

“Fire and Ice”


Carl Sandburg (1878-1967) “Fog”


William Carlos Williams (1883-1963) “Danse Russe”

“The Red Wheelbarrow”

D. H. Lawrence (1885-1930) “Piano”

T. S. Eliot (1888-1965) “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”

Claude McKay (1890-1948) “America”

Edna St. Vincent Millay (1892-1950) “Oh, Oh, You Will Be Sorry for That Word”

“First Fig”

E. E. Cummings (1894-1962) “in Just- ”

“pity this busy monster,manunkind”

Stevie Smith (1902-1971) “Not Waving but Drowning”

Countee Cullen (1903-1946) “Incident”

Pablo Neruda (1904-1973) “Sweetness, Always”

W. H. Auden (1907-1973) “Funeral Blues”


Theodore Roethke (1908-1963) “I Knew a Woman”

Elizabeth Bishop (1911-1979) “One Art”

May Sarton (1912-1995) “AIDS”

Karl Shapiro (1913-2000) “Auto Wreck”

Octavio Paz (1914-1998) “The Street”

Dudley Randall (1914-2000) “Ballad of Birmingham”

“To the Mercy Killers”

Dylan Thomas (1914-1953) “The Force That Through the Green Fuse Drives the Flower”

“Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night”

Gwendolyn Brooks (1917- 2000)

“Sadie and Maud”

Richard Wilbur (1921- ) “Love Calls Us to the Things of This World”

Philip Larkin (1922-1985) “Home Is So Sad”

James Dickey (1923-1997) “The Leap”

Maxine Kumin (1925- ) “Woodchucks”

Anne Sexton (1928-1974) “You All Know the Story of the Other Woman”

Adrienne Rich (1929- ) “Aunt Jennifer's Tigers”

“Living in Sin”

Ruth Fainlight (1931- ) “Flower Feet”

Sylvia Plath (1932-1963) “Mirror”

Imamu Amiri Baraka (1934- ) “Biography”

Audre Lorde (1934-1992) “Hanging Fire”

Marge Piercy (1936- ) “Barbie Doll”

Seamus Heaney (1939- ) “Digging”

John Lennon (1940-1980) and Paul McCartney (1942- ) “Eleanor Rigby”

Sharon Olds (1942- ) “Sex Without Love”

“The Death of Marilyn Monroe”

Nikki Giovanni (1943- ) “Dreams”

Gina Valdes (1943- ) “My Mother Sews Blouses”

Edward Hirsch (1950- ) “Execution”

Jimmy Santiago Baca (1952- ) “There Are Black”

Judith Ortiz Cofer (1952- ) “Latin Women Pray”

Cornelius Eady (1954- ) “The Supremes”

Louise Erdrich (1954- ) “Indian Boarding School: The Runaways”

Martín Espada (1957- ) “Bully”

Essex Hemphill (1957-1995) “Commitments”

Paired Poems for Comparison

Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593) “The Passionate Shepherd to His Love”

Sir Walter Raleigh (1552?-1618) “The Nymph’s Reply to the Shepherd”

Robert Browning (1812-1889) “My Last Duchess”

Gabriel Spera (1966- ) “My Ex-Husband”

Walt Whitman (1819-1892) “Of the Terrible Doubt of Appearances”

Tony Hoagland (1953- ) “Romantic Moment”

Edwin Arlington Robinson (1869-1935) “Richard Cory”

Paul Simon (1942- ) “Richard Cory”

William Stafford (1914-1993) “Traveling Through the Dark”

Mary Oliver (1935- ) “The Black Snake”

Robert Hayden (1913-1980) “Those Winter Sundays”

George Bilgere (1951- ) “Like Riding a Bicycle”

Gwendolyn Brooks (1917-2000) “The Bean Eaters”

Katha Pollitt (1949- ) “The Old Neighbors”

A Portfolio of Poems about Work

Jean Toomer (1894-1967) “Reapers”

John Updike (1932-2009) “Ex-Basketball Player”

Marge Piercy (1936- ) “To Be of Use”

Rita Dove (1952- ) “Daystar”

Dorianne Laux (1952- ) “What I Wouldn’t Do”

Alberto Ríos (1952- ) “In Second Grade Miss Lee I Promised Never to Forget You and I Never Did”

Lynn Powell (1955- ) “Acceptance Speech”

Stephen Cushman (1956- ) “Beside the Point”

A Portfolio of War Poetry

Richard Lovelace (1618-1657) “To Lucasta, on Going to the Wars”

Stephen Crane (1871-1900) “War Is Kind”

Wilfred Owen (1893-1918) “Dulce et Decorum Est”

E. E. Cummings (1894-1962) “next to of course god america i”

Wislawa Szymborska (1923-2012) “End and Beginning”

Peg Lauber (1938- ) “Six National Guardsmen Blown Up Together”

Yusef Komunyakaa (1947- ) “Facing It”

Dwight Okita (1958- ) “In Response to Executive Order 9066”

A Portfolio of Humorous and Satirical Poetry

Don Marquis (1878-1937) “the lesson of the moth”

Linda Pastan (1932- ) “Marks”

Lucille Clifton (1936-2010) “homage to my hips”

Ron Koertge (1940- ) “Cinderella’s Diary”

Billy Collins (1941- ) “Introduction to Poetry”

Andrea Carlisle (1944- ) “Emily Dickinson’s To-Do List”

Craig Raine (1944- ) “A Martian Sends a Postcard Home”

Jan Beatty (1952- ) “A Waitress’s Instructions on Tipping”

Jeanne Marie Beaumont (1954- ) “Afraid So”

Peter Pereira (1959- ) “Reconsidering the Seven”

PART FOUR Writing About Drama

Chapter 16 How Do I Read a Play?

Listen to the Lines

Visualize the Scene

Envision the Action

Drama on Film

Chart 16-1 Critical Questions for Reading Plays

Chapter 17 Writing About Dramatic Structure

What Is Dramatic Structure?

Looking at Dramatic Structure

Sophocles, Antigone


Analyzing Dramatic Structure


Discovering a Workable Argumentative Thesis

Quoting from a Play

Ideas for Writing

Ideas for Responsive Writing

Ideas for Critical Writing

Ideas for Researched Writing


Avoiding Unclear Language

Sample Student Paper

Questions for Discussion

Chapter 18 Writing About Character

What Is the Modern Hero?

The Classical Tragic Hero

The Modern Tragic Hero

Looking at the Modern Hero

Tennessee Williams, The Glass Menagerie


Analyzing the Characters


Choosing a Structure

Ideas for Writing

Ideas for Responsive Writing

Ideas for Critical Writing

Ideas for Researched Writing


Developing Paragraphs Specifically

Exercise on Providing Quotations

Casebook The Glass Menagerie: Interpreting Amanda

Six Critical Interpretations

Burton Rasco, Review of The Glass Menagerie

Howard Taubman, “Diverse, Unique Amanda”

Durant Da Ponte, “Tennessee Williams’ Gallery of Feminine Characters”

Joseph K. Davis, “Landscapes of the Dislocated Mind”

Marc Robinson, “Amanda”

Charles Isherwood, “Gritty Polish for a Tennessee Williams Jewel”

Responding to the Critics

Ideas for Researched Writing

Chapter 19 Writing About Culture

What Is Cultural Analysis?

Looking at Cultural Issues

David Henry Hwang, M. Butterfly


Figure 19-1 Reading Notes

Exploring Cultural Themes

Posing Yourself a Problem


Refining Your Thesis

Ideas for Writing

Ideas for Responsive Writing

Ideas for Critical Writing

Ideas for Researched Writing


Coordinating Your Introduction and Conclusions

Sample Student Paper on Cultural Issues

Anthology of Drama

William Shakespeare (1564-1616) Othello, the Moor of Venice

Susan Glaspell (1882-1948) Trifles

Lorraine Hansberry (1930-1965) A Raisin in the Sun

A Portfolio of Humorous and Satirical Plays

Fernando Arrabal (1933- ) Picnic on the Battlefield

Jane Martin (1938?- ) Beauty

Luis Valdez (1940- ) Los Vendidos

David Ives (1950- ) Sure Thing

Handbook for Correcting Errors


Correcting Sentence Boundary Errors

Phrases and Clauses

Chart A Examples of Phrases and Clauses


Chart B Kinds of Phrases

Chart C Kinds of Clauses

Comma Splices

Run-On Sentences

Clearing Up Confused Sentences

Solving Faulty Predication Problems

Fixing Subject-Verb Agreement Errors

Fixing Pronoun Errors

Correcting Shifts in Person

Correcting Shifts in Tense

Finding Modifier Mistakes

Coping with Irregular Verbs

Getting Verbs Right

Writing in Active Voice

Solving Punctuation Problems

Using Necessary Commas Only

Using Apostrophes

Distinguishing Hyphens from Dashes

Integrating Quotations Gracefully

Punctuating Quoted Material

Writing Smooth Transitions

Critical Approaches for Interpreting Literature


Historical Approaches




Psychological Approaches

Mythological and Archetypal Approaches

Gender Focus

Reader Response


Intertextual Approaches

Where Do You Stand?

Glossary of Literary and Rhetorical Terms


Index of Authors, Titles, and First Lines of Poetry

Subject Index

Customer Reviews

Most Helpful Customer Reviews

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