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Literature for Composition, Interactive Edition / Edition 8

Literature for Composition, Interactive Edition / Edition 8


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780205563838
Publisher: Longman
Publication date: 10/23/2007
Series: MyLiteratureLab Series
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 1448
Product dimensions: 6.32(w) x 9.20(h) x 1.23(d)

Table of Contents

Contents by Genre

List of Illustrations

Preface to Instructors

Letter to Students


Getting Started: From Response to Argument

CHAPTER 1 The Writer as Reader

Reading and Responding

Kate Chopin, Ripe Figs

Reading as Re-creation

Collecting Evidence, Making Reasonable Inferences

Reading with Pen in Hand

Recording Your First Responses

Identifying Your Audience and Purpose

Your Turn: Arguing a Thesis in an Essay

A Sample Essay by a Student: "Images of Ripening in Kate Chopin’s ‘Ripe Figs’”

The Argument Analyzed

*Behind the Scenes: Tenori’s Essay, from Early Responses to Final Version

Other Possibilities for Writing

*A Second Story about a Young Woman: Michele Serros, Senior Picture Day

Two Stories about a Bitter Argument

Raymond Carver, Mine

Raymond Carver, Little Things

Your Turn: Writing an Argument about Carver’s Two Stories

CHAPTER 2 The Reader as Writer

Developing a Thesis, Drafting, and Writing an Argument

Pre-writing: Getting Ideas

Annotating a Text

More about Getting Ideas: A Second Story by Kate Chopin

Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour

Brainstorming for Ideas for Writing

Focused Free Writing


Asking Questions

Keeping a Journal

Arguing with Yourself: Critical Thinking

Arguing a Thesis

Drafting Your Argument

√ Checklist: Thesis Sentence

A Sample Draft: "Ironies in an Hour"

Revising an Argument

Outlining an Argument

Soliciting Peer Review, Thinking about Counterarguments

Final Version of the Sample Essay: "Ironies of Life in Kate Chopin's 'The Story of an


A Brief Overview of the Final Version

Writing on Your Computer

√ Checklist: Writing with a Computer

Your Turn: Two Additional Stories

Kate Chopin, The Storm

Kate Chopin, Désirée’s Baby

*John Steinbeck, The Chrysanthemums

A Note about Literary Evaluations

* CHAPTER 3 Literature and Argument

Beginning with Proverbs: Proverbs as Arguments

Arguments in Lyric Poems

*A. E. Housman, Loveliest of Trees

*John Donne, The Flea

Fables and Arguments

*Aesop Three Fables: The Pine-tree and the Bramble, The Snake and the Farmer, The

City Mouse and the Country Mouse

*William March, Aesop’s Last Fable

Thinking Further about Messages in Literature

*Emily Wu, The Lesson of the Master

*Linda Pastan, Ethics

CHAPTER 4 Reading Literature Closely: Explication

What is Literature?

Literature and Form

Form and Meaning

Robert Frost, The Span of Life

Reading in Slow Motion


A Sample Explication

Langston Hughes, Harlem

Working Toward an Explication

Some Journal Entries

A Sample Essay by a Student (Final Version): "Langston Hughes' 'Harlem"'

Explication as Argument

√ Checklist: Drafting an Explication

Why Write? Purpose and Audience

Your Turn: Poems for Explication

William Shakespeare, Sonnet 73 (That time of year thou mayst in me behold)

John Donne, Holy Sonnet XIV (Batter my heart, three-personed God )

Emily Brontë, Spellbound

Li-Young Lee, I Ask My Mother to Sing

Randall Jarrell, The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner

*Elizabeth Bishop, One Art

CHAPTER 5 Reading Literature Closely: Analysis


Analyzing a Story from the Hebrew Bible: The Judgment of Solomon

The Judgment of Solomon

Analyzing the Story

Other Possible Topics for Analysis

Analyzing a Story from the *Testament: The Parable of the Prodigal Son

The Parable of the Prodigal Son



Comparison: An Analytic Tool

A Sample Essay by a Student: "Two *Women"

Looking at the Essay

√ Checklist: Revising a Comparison

Evaluation in Explication and Analysis

Choosing a Topic and Developing a Thesis in an Analytic Paper

Analyzing a Story

James Thurber, The Secret Life of Walter Mitty

Working Toward a Thesis: Journal Entries

Developing the Thesis: List Notes

Sample Draft by a Student: "Walter Mitty Is No Joke”

Developing an Argument

Introductory Paragraph

Middle Paragraphs

Concluding Paragraphs

Coherence in Paragraphs: Using Transitions

√ Checklist: Revising Paragraphs

Review: Writing an Analysis

A Note on Technical Terminology

A Lyric Poem and a Student's Argument

Aphra Behn, Song Love Armed

Journal Entries

A Sample Essay by a Student: "The Double Nature of Love"

√ Checklist: Editing a Draft

Your Turn: Short Stories and Poems for Analysis

Edgar Allan Poe, The Cask of Amontillado

Guy de Maupassant, The Necklace

Katherine Anne Porter, The Jilting of Granny Weatherall

José Armas, El Tonto del Barrio

Leslie Marmon Silko, The Man to Send Rain Clouds

*Billy Collins, Introduction to Poetry

Robert Frost, Come In

*Robert Frost, The Road Not Taken

Robert Herrick, To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time

Lyn Lifshin, My Mother and the Bed

Martín Espada, Bully

CHAPTER 6 Arguing an Interpretation

Interpretation and Meaning

Is the Author's Intention a Guide to Meaning?

What Characterizes a Sound Interpretation?

An Example: Interpreting Pat Mora's "Immigrants"

Pat Mora, Immigrants

Thinking Critically about Responses to Literature

Two Interpretations by Students

Robert Frost, Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening

Sample Essay by a Student: "Stopping by Woods—and Going On"

Sample Essay by a Student: “’Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening' as a

Short Story”

Your Turn: Poems for Interpretation

John Milton, When I Consider How My Light Is Spent

Robert Frost, Mending Wall

William Wordsworth, A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal

T. S. Eliot, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock

John Keats, Ode on a Grecian Urn

*Thomas Hardy, The Man He Killed

*Gwendolyn Brooks, The Mother

CHAPTER 7 Arguing an Evaluation

Criticism and Evaluation

Are There Critical Standards?

Morality and Truth as Standards

Other Ways of Thinking about Truth and Realism

Your Turn: Poems and Stories for Evaluation

*Sarah N. Cleghorn, The Golf Link

Matthew Arnold, Dover Beach

Anthony Hecht, The Dover Bitch

*Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum Est

*Wilfred Owen, Anthem for Doomed Youth

*Henry Reed, Naming of Parts

Robert Frost, Design

Ira Gershwin, The Man That Got Away

Katherine Mansfield, Miss Brill

*W. Somerset Maugham, The Appointment in Samarra

*O. Henry, The Ransom of Red Chief

Tobias Wolff, Powder

A Note about Literary Evaluations

CHAPTER 8 Research: Writing with Sources

What Research Is Not, and What Research Is

Primary and Secondary Materials

Locating Materials: First Steps

Other Bibliographic Aids

Electronic Sources

Encyclopedias: Electronic Versions

The Internet/World Wide Web

Evaluating Sources on the World Wide Web

What Does Your Own Institution Offer?

Using the World Wide Web

Taking Notes

Two Mechanical Aids: The Photocopier and the Computer

A Guide to Note-Taking

Drafting the Paper

Focus on Primary Sources

Avoiding Plagiarism

Literature, History, and the World Wide Web

Case Study on Literature and History: Writing Arguments about the Internment of

Japanese Americans

Literary Texts

Mitsuye Yamada, The Question of Loyalty

David Mura, An Argument: On 1942

Historical Sources

Basic Reference Books (Short Paper)

Getting Deeper (Medium Paper)

√ Checklist: Researching a Literary Historical Paper

A Review of Researching a Literary History Paper

Other Reference Sources (Long Paper)

Too Much Information?

CHAPTER 9 Reading and Writing about Visual Culture

The Language of Pictures

*Beginning with Advertisements

*√ A Checklist for Analyzing the Arguments Offered in Advertisements

Writing abut Pictures

Analyzing a Picture: Navajo Dancers Entertaining a Tourist Train

Notes and a Sample Essay by a Student

The Analysis Analyzed

Thinking about Dorothea Lange's Migrant Mother, Nipomo, California

A Sample Documented Essay by a Student

Photographers on Photography

Lou Jacobs Jr., What Qualities Does a Good Photograph Have?

√ Checklist for Analyzing Pictures

An American Picture Album: Ten Images


Up Close: Thinking Critically about Literary Works and Literary Forms

CHAPTER 10 Critical Thinking: Arguing with Oneself, Asking Questions and Making Comparisons

What Is Critical Thinking?

Asking and Answering Questions

Comparing and Contrasting

Analyzing and Evaluating Evidence

Thinking Critically: Arguing with Oneself, Asking Questions and Comparing—E. E. Cummings's "Buffalo Bill 's"

E. E. Cummings, Buffalo Bill's

Rewriting a Poem

William Butler Yeats, Annunication

William Butler Yeats, Leda and the Swan (1924)

William Butler Yeats, Leda and the Swan (1925/1933)

Emily Dickinson: Three Versions of a Poem, and More

Emily Dickinson, I felt a Funeral, in my Brain

Emily Dickinson, I felt a Cleaving in my Mind-

Emily Dickinson, The Dust behind I strove to join

Imaginative Play: Thinking about Four Poems

William Butler Yeats, The Wild Swans at Coole

Gwendolyn Brooks, We Real Cool

Andrew Hudgins, The Wild Swans Skip School

Anonymous, The Silver Swan

CHAPTER 11 Reading and Writing about Essays

Types of Essays

The Essayist's Persona



Pre-writing: Identifying the Topic and Thesis

Brent Staples, Black Men and Public Space

Stating the Thesis of an Essay

Drafting a Summary

√ Checklist: Getting Ideas for Writing about Essays

Your Turn: Essays for Analysis

Langston Hughes, Salvation

Laura Vanderkam, Hookups Starve the Soul

CHAPTER 12 Reading and Writing about Stories

Stories True and False

Grace Paley, Samuel

Elements of Fiction

Plot and Character


Setting and Atmosphere


Narrative Point of View

Style and Point of View


√ Checklist: Getting Ideas for Writing about Stories

Your Turn: Stories for Analysis

Anton Chekhov, Misery

* Louise Erdrich, The Red Convertible

Oscar Casares, Yolanda

CHAPTER 13 Writing Arguments about Short Stories: Two Case Studies

Case Study: Writing Arguments about Flannery O'Connor

Flannery O'Connor, A Good Man Is Hard to Find

Flannery O'Connor, Revelation

Remarks from Essays and Letters

From "The Fiction Writer and His Country"

From "Some Aspects of the Grotesque in Southern Fiction

From "The Nature and Aim of Fiction"

From "Writing Short Stories"

On Interpreting "A Good Man Is Hard to Find"

"A Reasonable Use of the Unreasonable

Case Study: Writing Arguments about John Updike

John Updike, A&P (with manuscript pages)

John Updike, Pygmalion (with manuscript pages)

* John Updike, Separating

John Updike, Oliver’s Evolution

John Updike on the Art of Fiction

Thinking about an Author’s Manuscripts

What a Short Story Is

What Updike as a Reader Wants from a Short Story

On His Own Early Stories

On a Writer’s Early Years

On the Importance of Fiction

CHAPTER 14 Fiction into Film

Asking Questions, Thinking Critically, and Making Comparisons

Film as a Medium

Film Techniques





Comparing Filmed and Printed Stories

Getting Ready to Write

Drafting an Essay

√ Checklist: Getting Ideas for Writing Arguments about Film

Suggestions for Further Reading

Joyce Carol Oates, Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?

Joyce Carol Oates, Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? and Smooth Talk: Short Story into Film

Your Turn: Thinking about Filming Fiction

CHAPTER 15 Reading and Writing about Plays

Types of Plays



Elements of Drama





Characterization and Motivation

Organizing an Analysis of a Character

First Draft

Revised Draft

√ Checklist: Getting Ideas for Writing Arguments about Plays

Reviewing a dramatic Production

A Sample Review by a Student: “An Effective Macbeth”

The Review Reviewed

Thinking about a Filmed Version of Play

Getting Ready to Write

√ Checklist: Writing about a Filmed Play

Your Turn: Plays for Analysis

A Note on Greek Tragedy

Sophocles, Antigone

*David Ives, Sure Thing

CHAPTER 16 Thinking Critically about Plays

Tennessee Williams, The Glass Menagerie

Tennessee Williams's Production Notes

The Screen Device

The Music

The Lighting

A Sample Essay by a Student

Preliminary Notes

Final Version of the Student's Essay: "The Solid Structure of The Glass Menagerie"

CHAPTER 17 Reading and Writing about Poems

Elements of Poetry

The Speaker and the Poet

Emily Dickinson, I'm Nobody! Who are you?

Emily Dickinson, Wild Nights—Wild Nights

The Language of Poetry: Diction and Tone

William Shakespeare, Sonnet 146 ( Poor soul, the center of my sinful earth )

Writing about the Speaker

Robert Frost, The Telephone

Journal Entries

Figurative Language

William Shakespeare, Sonnet 130 ( My mistress’ eyes are nothing like the sun )

Dana Gioia, Money

Robert Frost, The Hardship of Accounting

Anonymous, Thirty Days Hath September

Imagery and Symbolism.

Edmund Waller, Song (Go, Lovely Rose)

William Blake, The Sick Rose

Linda Pastan, Jump Cabling

Verbal Irony and Paradox


Robert Herrick, Upon Julia's Clothes

A Sample Essay by a Student: "Herrick's Julia, Julia's Herrick"

The Argument Analyzed

Christina Rossetti, In an Artist’s Studio


An Example

William Butler Yeats, The Balloon of the Mind

Annotations and Journal Entries

A Sample Essay by a Student: "Explication of W. B. Yeats's 'The Balloon of the


√ Checklist: Explication

Rhythm and Versification: A Glossary for Reference


Patterns of Sound

Stanzaic Patterns

Billy Collins, Sonnet

Blank Verse and Free Verse

√ Checklist: Getting Ideas for Writing Arguments about Poems

Your Turn: Poems about People, Places, and Things


Robert Browning, My Last Duchess

E. E. Cummings, anyone lived in a pretty how town

Sylvia Plath, Daddy

Louise Erdrich, Indian Boarding School: The Runaways

Etheridge Knight, For Malcolm, a Year After

* Anne Sexton, Her Kind


Basho, An Old Pond

Thomas Hardy, Neutral Tones

William Butler Yeats, Sailing to Byzantium

James Wright, Lying in a Hammock at William Duffy's Farm in Pine Island,


Anonymous, Deep River


William Carlos Williams, The Red Wheelbarrow

Walt Whitman, A Noiseless Patient Spider

Thomas Hardy, The Photograph

CHAPTER 18 Writing Arguments about Poems: Three Case Studies

Case Study: Writing Arguments about Emily Dickinson

Emily Dickinson, I heard a Fly buzz—when I died—

Emily Dickinson, The Soul selects her own Society

Emily Dickinson , These are the days when Birds come back

Emily Dickinson, Papa above!

Emily Dickinson, There's a certain Slant of light

Emily Dickinson, This World is not Conclusion

Emily Dickinson, I got so I could bear his name—

Emily Dickinson, Those—dying, then

Emily Dickinson, Apparently with no surprise

Emily Dickinson, Tell all the Truth but tell it slant

A Sample Argument by a Student: "Religion and Religious Imagery in Emily Dickinson"

Case Study: Writing Arguments about Songs and Poems: America Sings the Blues

Short Views

W. C. Handy, St. Louis Blues

Bessie Smith, Thinking Blues

Robert Johnson, Walkin’ Blues

Paul Laurence Dunbar, Blue

W. H. Auden, Funeral Blues

Langston Hughes, Too Blue

Johnny Cash, Folsom Prison Blues

Merle Haggard, Working Man Blues

Linda Pastan, Mini Blues

Allen Ginsberg, Father Death Blues

Charles Wright, Laguna Blues

Sherman Alexie, Reservation Blues

Case Study: Writing Arguments Comparing Poems and Pictures

A Sample Argument by a Student

Word and Image

Jane Flanders, Van Gogh’s Bed

William Carlos Williams, The Great Figure

Adrienne Rich, Mourning Picture

Cathy Song, Beauty and Sadness

Mary Jo Salter, The Rebirth of Venus

Anne Sexton, The Starry Night

W. H. Auden, Musée des Beaux Arts

X. J. Kennedy, Nude Descending a Staircase

Greg Pape, American Flamingo

Carl Phillips, Luncheon on the Grass

John Updike, Before the Mirror

Wislawa Szymborska, Brueghel’s Two Monkeys


Standing Back: A Thematic Anthology


Short Views


Joan Didion, On Going Home

Montesquieu (Charles de Secondat, Baron de la Brède et de Montesquieu), Persian Letters


Eudora Welty, A Worn Path

Toni Cade Bambara, The Lesson

Bobbie Ann Mason, Shiloh


John Keats, On first looking into Chapman’s Homer

Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ozymandias

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Ulysses

Carl Sandburg, Limited

Countee Cullen, Incident

William Stafford, Traveling Through the Dark

Robert Frost, The Pasture

Wendell Berry, Stay Home

Adrienne Rich, Diving into the Wreck

Derek Walcott, A Far Cry from Africa

Sherman Alexie, On the Amtrak from Boston to New York City

Christina Rossetti, Uphill

Emily Dickinson, Because I could not stop for Death

CHAPTER 20 Love and Hate

Short Views


Judith Ortiz Cofer, I Fell in Love, or My Hormones Awakened


Ernest Hemingway, Cat in the Rain

A Student's Notes and Journal Entries on "Cat in the Rain"

Asking Questions about a Story

Sample Essay by a Student: "Hemingway's American Wife"

Second Example: An Essay Drawing on Related Material in the Chapter

Sample Essay by a Student: "Hemingway's Unhappy Lovers"

William Faulkner, A Rose for Emily

Zora Neale Hurston, Sweat

Bel Kaufman, Sunday in the Park

Raymond Carver, Cathedral


Anonymous, Western Wind

Christopher Marlowe, Come Live with Me and Be My Love

Sir Walter Raleigh, The Nymph’s Reply to the Shepherd

John Donne, The Bait

William Shakespeare, Sonnet 29 (When, in disgrace with Fortune and men’s eyes)

William Shakespeare, Sonnet 116 (Let me not to the marriage of true minds)

John Donne, A Valediction: Forbidding Morning

Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress

William Blake, The Garden of Love

William Blake, A Poison Tree

Walt Whitman, When I Heard at the Close of the Day

Edna St. Vincent Millay, Love Is Not All: It Is Not Meat nor Drink

Robert Frost, The Silken Tent

Adrienne Rich, Novella

Adrienne Rich, XI (from Twenty-One Love Poems)

Robert Pack, The Frog Prince

Joseph Brodsky, Love Song

Nikki Giovanni, Love in Place

Carol Muske, Chivalry

Kitty Tsui, A Chinese Banquet


Terrence McNally, Andre’s Mother

CHAPTER 21 Making Men and Women

Short Views


Steven Doloff, The Opposite Sex

Gretel Ehrlich, About Men


Charlotte Perkins Gilman, The Yellow Wallpaper

Richard Wright, The Man Who Was Almost a Man

Gloria Naylor, The Two

Alice Munro, Boys and Girls


Anonymous Nursery Rhyme, What Are Little Boys Made Of

Anonymous, Higamus, Hogamus

*William Shakespeare, Sigh No More, Ladies

Dorothy Parker, General Review of the Sex Situation

* Louise Bogan, Women

Rita Dove, Daystar

Robert Hayden, Those Winter Sundays

Theodore Roethke, My Papa's Waltz

Sharon Olds, Rites of Passage

Frank O'Hara, Homosexuality

Julia Alvarez, Woman's Work

Marge Piercy, Barbie Doll


Henrik Ibsen, A Doll's House

CHAPTER 22 Innocence and Experience

Short Views


Maya Angelou, Graduation


Nathaniel Hawthorne, Young Goodman Brown

James Joyce, Araby

Isaac Bashevis Singer, The Son from America


William Blake, Infant Joy

William Blake, Infant Sorrow

William Blake, The Echoing Green

William Blake, The Lamb

William Blake, the Tyger

Gerard Manley Hopkins, Spring and Fall

A. E. Housman, When I Was One-and-Twenty (A Shropshire Lad #13)

E. E. Cummings, in Just-

Louise Glück, The School Children

Louise Glück, Gretel in Darkness


Case Study: Writing Arguments about Shakespeare's Hamlet

A Note on the Elizabethan Theater

A Note on Hamlet on the Stage

A Note on the Text of Hamlet

William Shakespeare, The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark

Ernest Jones, Hamlet and the Oedipus Complex

Anne Barton, The Promulgation of Confusion

Stanley Wells, On the First Soliloquy

Elaine Showalter, Representing Ophelia

Claire Bloom, Playing Gertrude on Television

Bernice W. Kliman, The BBC Hamlet: A Television Production

Will Saretta, Branagh’s Film of Hamlet

CHAPTER 23 Identity in America

Short Views


Anna Lisa Raya, It's Hard Enough Being Me

Andrew Lam, Who Will Light Incense When Mother’s Gone?


Amy Tan, Two Kinds

Alice Walker, Everyday Use

Katherine Min, Courting a Monk


*Emma Lazarus, The Colossus

Thomas Bailey Aldrich, The Unguarded Gates

Joseph Bruchac III, Ellis Island

Aurora Levins Morales, Child of the Americas

Gloria Anzaldúa, To Live in the Borderlands Means You

Jimmy Santiago Baca, So Mexicans Are Taking Jobs from Americans

Langston Hughes, Theme for English B

Pat Parker, For the white person who wants to know how to be my friend

Mitsuye Yamada, To the Lady


Luis Valdez, Los Vendidos

Case Study: Writing Arguments about American Indian Identity

Lydia Howard Huntley Sigourney, The Indian's Welcome to the Pilgrim Fathers

Robert Frost, The Vanishing Red

Wendy Rose, Three Thousand Dollar Death Song

Nila northSun, Moving Camp Too Far

*CHAPTER 24 American Dreams and Nightmares

Short Views


*Chief Seattle, My People

* Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions

*Martin Luther King, Jr., I Have a Dream

*Studs Terkel, Arnold Schwarzenegger’s Dream


*Edward Everett Hale, The Man Without a Country

Langston Hughes, One Friday Morning

*William Carlos Williams, The Use of Force

*Shirley Jackson, The Lottery

*Grace Paley, A Man Told Me the Story of His Life

Tim O’Brien, The Things They Carried


*Ralph Waldo Emerson, Concord Hymn

*Anonymous, Go Down, Moses

*Anonymous, Didn’t My Lord Deliver Daniel

*Robert Hayden, Frederick Douglass

Walt Whitman, Reconciliation

*Rudyard Kipling, The White Man’s Burden

*Lorna Dee Cervantes, Refugee Ship

Edwin Arlington Robinson, Richard Cory

*Edgar Lee Masters, Minerva Jones

*Edgar Lee Masters, Doctor Meyers

*Edgar Lee Masters, MRs. Meyers

*Edgar Lee Masters, Lucinda Matlock

*Allen Ginsberg, A Supermarket in California

*Marge Piercy, To be of use

*Marge Piercy, What’s that Smell in the Kitchen?

Yusef Komunyakaa, Facing It

Billy Collins, The Names

*Gwendolyn Brooks, The Bean Eaters

*Dorothy Parker, Résumé

Case Study: Writing Arguments about the National Anthem

*Photographs: “Marines Raising the Flag on Mount Suribachi, Iwo Jima, February 23, 1945” and “What Is the Proper Way to Display a U.S, Flag”

*Caldwell Titcomb, Star-Spangled Earache; What So Loudly We Wail

*Hendrik Hertzberg, Star-Spangled Banter

*Francis Scott Key, The Star-Spangled Banner

*Samuel Francis Smith, America

*Katharine Lee Bates, America the Beautiful

*James Weldon Johnson, Lift Ev’ry Voice and Sing


*Lorraine Hansberry, A Raisin in the Sun

*Janet Martin, Rodeo

CHAPTER 25 Law and Disorder

Short Views


Zora Neale Hurston, A Conflict of Interest

Martin Luther King Jr., Letter from Birmingham Jail


Seven Very Short Stories

Aesop, A Lion and Other Animals Go Hunting

John (?), The Woman Taken in Adultery

Anonymous, Three Hasidic Tales

Franz Kafka, Before the Law

Elizabeth Bishop, The Hanging of the Mouse

Four Longer Stories

Ursula K. Le Guin, The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas

William Faulkner, Barn Burning

James Alan McPherson, An Act of Prostitution

Ralph Ellison, Battle Royal


Anonymous, Birmingham Jail

A. E. Housman, The Carpenter's Son

A. E. Housman, Eight O'Clock

A. E. Housman, Oh who is that young sinner

A. E. Housman, The laws of God, the laws of man

Edgar Lee Masters, Judge Selah Lively

*Edna St. Vincent Millay, Justice Denied in Massachusetts

*Countee Cullen, Not Sacco and Vanzetti

Claude McKay, If We Must Die

Jimmy Santiago Baca, Cloudy Day


Susan Glaspell, Trifles

Appendix A Remarks about Manuscript Form

Basic Manuscript Form

Corrections in the Final Copy

Quotations and Quotation Marks

Quotation Marks or Underlining?

A Note on the Possessive

Documentation: Footnotes, Internal Parenthetical Citations, and a List of Works Cited (MLA Format)


Internal Parenthetic Citations

Parenthetical Citations and List of works Cited

Forms of Citation in Works Cited

Citing Sources on the World Wide Web

√ Checklist: Citing Sources on the World Wide Web

MLA General Conventions

Appendix B Writing about Literature: An Overview of Critical Strategies

The Nature of Critical Writing

Criticism as Argument: Assumptions and Evidence

Some Critical Strategies

Formalist Criticism (*Criticism)


Reader-Response Criticism

Archetypal Criticism (Myth Criticism)

Historical Criticism

Psychological or Psychoanalytic Criticism

Gender Criticism (Feminist, and Lesbian and Gay Criticism

Your Turn: Putting Critical Strategies to Work

Suggestions for Further Reading

*Appendix C Writing Essay Examinations

Why Do Instructors Give Examinations?

Getting Ready

Writing Arguments Under Pressure

Literary Credits

Photo Credits

Index of Authors, Titles, and First Lines of Poems

Index of Terms

Short Retail Description

Customer Reviews

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