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Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama, Portable Edition / Edition 9

Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama, Portable Edition / Edition 9

by X. Kennedy, Dana Gioia


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780321355096
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 07/06/2005
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 2352
Product dimensions: 6.50(w) x 9.50(h) x 2.20(d)

Table of Contents

Most chapters conclude with "Writing Assignment" and "Further Suggestions for Writing."


1. Reading a Story.

Fable, Parable, and Tales.

W. Somerset Maugham, The Appointment in Samarra.

Aesop, The Fox and the Grapes.

Bidpai, The Camel and His Friends.

Chuang Tzu, Independence.

Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm, Godfather Death.


The Short Story.

John Updike A & P.

Writer's Perspective.

John Updike on Writing, Why Write?

Writing Critically.

What's The Plot?

2. Point of View.

William Faulkner, A Rose for Emily.

Jhumpa Lahiri, Interpreter of Maladies.

James Baldwin, Sonny's Blues.

Eudora Welty, Why I Live at the P.O.

Writer's Perspective.

James Baldwin on Writing, Race and the African-American Writer.

Writing Critically.

How Point of View Shapes a Story.

3. Character.

Katherine Anne Porter, The Jilting of Granny Weatherall.

Alice Walker, Everyday Use.

Raymond Carver, Cathedral.

Writer's Perspective.

Raymond Carver on Writing, Commonplace but Precise Language.

Writing Critically.

How Character Creates Action.

4. Setting.

Kate Chopin, The Storm.

Jack London, To Build a Fire.

T. Coraghessan Boyle, Greasy Lake.

Amy Tan, A Pair of Tickets.

Writer's Perspective.

Amy Tan on Writing, Setting the Voice.

Writing Critically.

How Time and Place Set a Story.

5. Tone and Style.

Ernest Hemingway, A Clean, Well-Lighted Place.

William Faulkner, Barn Burning.


Guy de Maupassant, The Necklace.

Ha Jin, Saboteur.

Writer's Perspective.

Ernest Hemingway on Writing, The Direct Style.


Be Style Conscious.

6. Theme.

Stephen Crane, The Open Boat.

Alice Munro, Day of the Butterfly.

Luke 15: 11-32, The Parable of the Prodigal Son.

Kurt Vonnegut, Jr., Harrison Bergeron.

Writer's Perspective.

Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. on Writing, The Themes of Science Fiction.

Writing Critically.

Stating the Theme.

7. Symbol.

John Steinbeck, The Chrysanthemums.

Shirley Jackson, The Lottery.

Elizabeth Tallent, No One's a Mystery.

Ursula K. Le Guin, The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas.

Writer's Perspective.

Ursula K. Le Guin on Writing, On "The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas."

Writing Critically.

Recognizing Symbols.

Writing Assignment.

Student Essay, An Analysis of the Symbolism In Steinbeck's "The Chrysanthemums."

8. Evaluating a Story.

Writing Critically.

Know What You're Judging.

9. Reading Long Stories and Novels.

Leo Tolstoy, The Death of Ivan Ilych.

Franz Kafka, The Metamorphosis.

Writer's Perspective.

Franz Kafka on Writing, Discussing The Metamorphosis.

Writing Critically.

Leaving Things Out.

Writing Assignment: Student Essay, Kafka's Greatness.

10. Two Critical Casebooks: Edgar Allan Poe and Flannery O'Connor.

Edgar Allan Poe.

Edgar Allan Poe, The Tell-Tale Heart.

Edgar Allan Poe, The Fall of the House of Usher.

Edgar Allan Poe, The Masque of the Red Death.

Edgar Allan Poe on Edgar Allan Poe.

Edgar Allan Poe, The Tale and Its Effect.

Edgar Allan Poe, The Philosophy of Composition.

Edgar Allan Poe, On Imagination.

Critics on Edgar Allan Poe.

Daniel Hoffman, The Father-Figure in "The Tell-Tale Heart."

Marie Bonaparte, A Psychoanalytic Reading of "The Masque of the Red. Death."

Charles Baudelaire, On Poe's Genius.

James W. Tuttleton, Poe's Quest for Supernal Beauty.

Flannery O'Connor.

Flannery O'Connor, Good Country People.

Flannery O'Connor, A Good Man Is Hard to Find.

Flannery O'Connor, Revelation.

Flannery O'Connor on Flannery O'Connor.

Flannery O'Connor, Excerpt from "On Her Own Work": The Element of Suspense in "A Good Man Is Hard to Find."

Flannery O'Connor, On Her Catholic Faith.

Flannery O'Connor, Excerpt from "The Grotesque in Southern Fiction": The Serious Writer and the Tired Reader.

Flannery O'Connor, Yearbook Cartoons.

Critics on Flannery O'Connor.

Robert Brinkmeyer Jr., Flannery O'Connor and Her Readers.

J. O. Tate, A Good Source Is Not So Hard to Find: The Real Life Misfit.

Mary Jane Schenck, Deconstructing "A Good Man Is Hard to Find."

Kathleen Feeley, Comic Perversion in "Good Country People."

Writing Critically.

How One Story Illuminates Another.

11. Stories for Further Reading.

Chinua Achebe, Dead Men's Path.

Isabel Allende, The Judge's Wife.

Anjana Appachana, The Prophecy.

Margaret Atwood, Happy Endings.

Ambrose Bierce, An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge.

Jorge Luis Borges, The Gospel According to Mark.

Willa Cather, Paul's Case.

John Cheever, The Five-Forty-Eight.

Anton Chekhov, The Lady with the Pet Dog.

Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour.

Sandra Cisneros, House on Mango Street.

Ralph Ellison, Battle Royal.

Gabriel García Márquez, The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World.

Charlotte Perkins Gilman, The Yellow Wallpaper.

Nathaniel Hawthorne, Young Goodman Brown.

Zora Neale Hurston, Sweat.

Kazuo Ishiguro, A Family Supper.

James Joyce, Araby.

Jamaica Kincaid, Girl.

D. H. Lawrence, The Rocking-Horse Winner.

Bernard Malamud, Angel Levine.

Katherine Mansfield, Miss Brill.

Bobbie Ann Mason, Shiloh.

Joyce Carol Oates, Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?

Tim O'Brien, The Things They Carried.

Frank O'Connor, First Confession.

Tillie Olsen, I Stand Here Ironing.

Leslie Marmon Silko, The Man to Send Rain Clouds.


12. Reading a Poem.

William Butler Yeats, The Lake Isle of Innisfree.

Lyric Poetry.

D. H. Lawrence, Piano.

Adrienne Rich, Aunt Jennifer's Tigers.

Narrative Poetry.

Anonymous, Sir Patrick Spence.

Robert Frost, "Out, Out-."

Dramatic Poetry.

Robert Browning, My Last Duchess.

Writer's Perspective.

Adrienne Rich on Writing, Recalling "Aunt Jennifer's Tigers."

Writing Critically.

Can a Poem be Paraphrased?

William Stafford, Ask Me.

William Stafford, A Paraphrase of "Ask Me."

13. Listening to a Voice.


Theodore Roethke, My Papa's Waltz.

Countee Cullen, For a Lady I Know.

Anne Bradstreet, The Author to Her Book.

Walt Whitman, To a Locomotive in Winter.

Emily Dickinson, I like to see it lap the Miles.

Benjamin Alire Sáenz, To the Desert.

Weldon Kees, For My Daughter.

The Person in the Poem.

Natasha Trethewey, White Lies.

Edwin Arlington Robinson, Luke Havergal.

Ted Hughes, Hawk Roosting.

William Wordsworth, I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud.

Dorothy Wordsworth, Journal Entry.

James Stephens, A Glass of Beer.

Anne Sexton, Her Kind.

William Carlos Williams, The Red Wheelbarrow.


Robert Creeley, Oh No.

W. H. Auden, The Unknown Citizen.

Sharon Olds, Rites of Passage.

John Betjeman, In Westminster Abbey.

Sarah N. Cleghorn, The Golf Links.

Josephine Miles, Civilian.

Connie Bensley, The Covetous Cat.

Thomas Hardy, The Workbox.

For Review and Further Study.

William Blake, The Chimney Sweeper.

Robert McDowell, At Home with Dollface.

William Stafford, At the Un-National Monument Along the Canadian Border.

H. L. Hix, I Love the World, As Does Any Dancer.

Richard Lovelace, To Lucasta.

Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum Est.

Writer's Perspective.

Wilfred Owen on Writing, War Poetry.

Writing Critically.

Paying Attention to the Obvious.

Writing Assignment: Student Essay, Word Choice, Tone, and Point of View in Roethke's "My Papa's Waltz."

14. Words.

Literal Meaning: What a Poem Says First.

William Carlos Williams, This Is Just to Say.

Marianne Moore, Silence.

Robert Graves, Down, Wanton, Down!

John Donne, Batter my heart, three-personed God, for You.

The Value of a Dictionary.

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Aftermath.

John Clare, Mouse's Nest.

J. V. Cunningham, Friend, on this scaffold Thomas More lies dead.

Kelly Cherry, Advice to a Friend Who Paints.

Carl Sandburg, Grass.

Word Choice and Word Order.

Robert Herrick, Upon Julia's Clothes.

Kay Ryan, Blandeur.

Thomas Hardy, The Ruined Maid.

Richard Eberhart, The Fury of Aerial Bombardment.

Wendy Cope, Lonely Hearts.

For Review and Further Study.

E. E. Cummings, anyone lived in a pretty how town.

Billy Collins, The Names.

Anonymous, Carnation Milk.

William Wordsworth, My heart leaps up when I behold.

William Wordsworth, Mutability.

Anonymous, Scottsboro.

Lewis Carroll, Jabberwocky.

Writer's Perspective.

Lewis Carroll on Writing, Humpty Dumpty Explicates "Jabberwocky."

Writing Critically.

How Much Difference Does a Word Make?

15. Saying and Suggesting.

John Masefield, Cargoes.

William Blake, London.

Wallace Stevens, Disillusionment of Ten O'Clock.

Gwendolyn Brooks, The Independent Man.

Timothy Steele, Epitaph.

Geoffrey Hill, Merlin.

Walter de la Mare, The Listeners.

Robert Frost, Fire and Ice.

Clare Rossini, Final Love Note.

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Tears, Idle Tears.

Richard Wilbur, Love Calls Us to the Things of This World.

Writer's Perspective.

Richard Wilbur on Writing, Concerning "Love Calls Us to the Things of This World."

Writing Critically.

The Ways a Poem Suggests.

16. Imagery.

Ezra Pound, In a Station of the Metro.

Taniguchi Buson, The piercing chill I feel.

T. S. Eliot, The winter evening settles down.

Theodore Roethke, Root Cellar.

Elizabeth Bishop, The Fish.

Anne Stevenson, The Victory.

Charles Simic, Fork.

Emily Dickinson, A Route of Evanescence.

Jean Toomer, Reapers.

Gerard Manley Hopkins, Pied Beauty.

About Haiku.

Arakida Moritake, The falling flower.

Matsuo Basho, Heat-lightning streak.

Matsuo Basho, In the old stone pool.

Taniguchi Buson, On the one-ton temple bell.

Taniguchi Buson, I go.

Kobayashi Issa, only one guy.

Kobayashi Issa, Cricket.

Suiko Matsushita, Rain shower from mountain.

Suiko Matsushita, Cosmos in bloom.

Neiji Ozawa, War forced us from California.

Neiji Ozawa, The war.

Hakuro Wada, Even the croaking of frogs.

Etheridge Knight, Lee Gurga, Penny Harter, John Ridland, Adelle Foley, Jennifer Brutschy, Connie Bensley, A Selection of Haiku.

For Review and Further Study.

John Keats, Bright star! would I were steadfast as thou art.

Walt Whitman, The Runner.

T. E. Hulme, Image.

Chana Bloch, Tired Sex.

Robert Bly, Driving to Town Late to Mail a Letter.

Gary Snyder, Piute Creek.

H. D. , Heat.

Louise Glück, Mock Orange.

Billy Collins, Embrace.

John Haines, Winter News.

Stevie Smith, Not Waving but Drowning.

Writer's Perspective.

Ezra Pound on Writing, The Image.

Writing Critically.

Analyzing Images.

Writing Assignment: Student Essay, Elizabeth Bishop's Use of Imagery in "The Fish."

17. Figures of Speech.

Why Speak Figuratively?

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The Eagle.

William Shakespeare, Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?

Howard Moss, Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day?

Metaphor and Simile.

Emily Dickinson, My Life had stood - a Loaded Gun.

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Flower in the Crannied Wall.

William Blake, To see a world in a grain of sand.

Sylvia Plath, Metaphors.

N. Scott Momaday, Simile.

Emily Dickinson, It dropped so low - in my Regard.

Craig Raine, A Martian Sends a Postcard Home.

Other Figures.

James Stephens, The Wind.

Chidiock Tichborne, Elegy, Written with His Own Hand in the Tower Before His Execution.

Margaret Atwood, You fit into me.

John Ashbery, The Cathedral Is.

George Herbert, The Pulley.

Louis MacNiece, Plain Speaking.

For Review and Further Study.

Robert Frost, The Silken Tent.

Denise Levertov, Leaving Forever.

Jane Kenyon, The Suitor.

Robert Frost, The Secret Sits.

H. D., Love That I Bear.

A. R. Ammons, Coward.

Kay Ryan, Turtle.

Robinson Jeffers, Hands.

Robert Burns, Oh, my love is like a red, red rose.

Writer's Perspective.

Robert Frost on Writing, The Importance of Poetic Metaphor.

Writing Critically.

How Metaphors Enlarge a Poem's Meaning.

18. Song.

Singing and Saying.

Ben Jonson, To Celia.

Anonymous, The Cruel Mother.

William Shakespeare, Take, O, take those lips away.

Edwin Arlington Robinson, Richard Cory.

Paul Simon, Richard Cory.


Anonymous, Bonny Barbara Allan.

Dudley Randall, Ballad of Birmingham.


Bessie Smith with Clarence Williams, Jailhouse Blues.

W. H. Auden, Funeral Blues.


Run D.M.C., from Peter Piper.

For Review and Further Study.

John Lennon and Paul McCartney, Eleanor Rigby.

Bob Dylan, The Times They Are a-Changin'.

Gwendolyn Brooks, Queen of the Blues.

Writer's Perspective.

Paul McCartney on Writing, Creating "Eleanor Rigby."

Writing Critically.

Is There a Difference Between Poetry and Song?

19. Sound.

Sound as Meaning.

Alexander Pope, True Ease in Writing comes from Art, not Chance.

William Butler Yeats, Who Goes with Fergus?

John Updike, Recital.

William Wordsworth, A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal.

Emanuel di Pasquale, Rain.

Aphra Behn, When Maidens Are Young.

Alliteration and Assonance.

A. E. Housman, Eight O'Clock.

Robert Herrick, Upon Julia's Voice.

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The splendor falls on castle walls.


William Cole, On my boat on Lake Cayuga.

James Reeves, Rough Weather.

Hilaire Belloc, The Hippopotamus.

William Butler Yeats, Leda and the Swan.

Gerard Manley Hopkins, God's Grandeur.

Fred Chappell, Narcissus and Echo.

Robert Frost, Desert Places.

Reading and Hearing Poems Aloud.

Michael Stillman, In Memoriam John Coltrane.

William Shakespeare, Full fathom five thy father lies.

Chryss Yost, Lai with Sounds of Skin.

T. S. Eliot, Virginia.

Writer's Perspective.

T. S. Eliot on Writing, The Music of Poetry.

Writing Critically.

Is it Possible to Write about Sound?

20. Rhythm.

Stresses and Pauses.

Gwendolyn Brooks, We Real Cool.

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Break, Break, Break.

Ben Jonson, Slow, slow, fresh fount, keep time with my salt tears.

Alexander Pope, Atticus.

Sir Thomas Wyatt, With serving still.

Dorothy Parker, Résumé.


Max Beerbohm, On the imprint of the first English edition of The Works of Max Beerbohm.

Thomas Campion, Rose-cheeked Laura, come.

Vachel Lindsay, Factory Windows Are Always Broken.

Edna St. Vincent Millay, Counting-out Rhyme.

A. E. Housman, When I was one-and-twenty.

William Carlos Williams, Heel & Toe to the End.

Walt Whitman, Beat! Beat! Drums!

David Mason, Song of the Powers.

Langston Hughes, Dream Boogie.

Writer's Perspective.

Gwendolyn Brooks on Writing, Hearing "We Real Cool."

Writing Critically.

Freeze-Framing the Sound.

21. Closed Form.

Formal Patterns.

John Keats, This living hand, now warm and capable.

Robert Graves, Counting the Beats.

John Donne, Song ("Go and catch a falling star.")

Phillis Levin, Brief Bio.

Ronald Gross, Yield.

The Sonnet.

William Shakespeare, Let me not to the marriage of true minds.

Michael Drayton, Since there's no help, come let us kiss and part.

Edna St. Vincent Millay, What lips my lips have kissed, and where, and why.

Robert Frost, Acquainted with the Night.

Kim Addonizio, First Poem for You.

Mark Jarman, Unholy Sonnet: After the Praying.

R. S. Gwynn, Scenes from the Playroom.

Timothy Steele, Summer.

A. E. Stallings, Sine Qua Non.

The Epigram.

Alexander Pope, Sir John Harrington, Robert Herrick, William Blake, E. E. Cummings, Langston Hughes, J. V. Cunningham, John Frederick Nims, Stevie Smith, Brad Leithauser, Dick Davis, Anonymous, Hilaire Belloc, Wendy Cope, A selection of epigrams.

W. H. Auden, Edmund Clerihew Bentley, Cornelius Ter Maat, Clerihews.

Other Forms

Robert Pinsky, ABC.

Dylan Thomas, Do not go gentle into that good night.

Robert Bridges, Triolet.

Elizabeth Bishop, Sestina.

Writer's Perspective.

Robert Graves on Writing, Poetic Inspiration and Poetic Form.

Writing Critically.

Turning Points.

22. Open Form.

Denise Levertov, Ancient Stairway.

E. E. Cummings, Buffalo Bill 's.

W. S. Merwin, For the Anniversary of My Death.

William Carlos Williams, The Dance.

Stephen Crane, The Heart.

Walt Whitman, Cavalry Crossing a Ford.

Ezra Pound, The Garret.

Wallace Stevens, Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird.

Carolyn Forché, The Colonel.

Visual Poetry.

George Herbert, Easter Wings.

John Hollander, Swan and Shadow.

Terry Ehret, from Papyrus.

Dorthi Charles, Concrete Cat.

Seeing the Logic of Open Form Verse.

E. E. Cummings, in Just-.

Lucille Clifton, Homage to my hips.

Carole Satyamurti, I Shall Paint My Nails Red.

Alice Fulton, What I Like.

Writer's Perspective.

Walt Whitman on Writing, The Poetry of the Future.

Writing Critically.

Lining Up for Free Verse.

23. Symbol.

T. S. Eliot, The Boston Evening Transcript.

Emily Dickinson, The Lightning is a yellow Fork.

Thomas Hardy, Neutral Tones.

Matthew 13:24-30, The Parable of the Good Seed.

George Herbert, The World.

John Ciardi, Most Like an Arch This Marriage.

Robert Frost, The Road Not Taken.

Christina Rossetti, Uphill.

Gjertrud Schnackenberg, Supernatural Love.

For Review and Further Study.

Robinson Jeffers, The Beaks of Eagles.

Sara Teasdale, The Flight.

William Carlos Williams, The Term.

Ted Kooser, Carrie.

Rafael Campo, What the Body Told.

Jon Stallworthy, An Evening Walk.

Lorine Niedecker, Popcorn-can cover.

Wallace Stevens, Anecdote of the Jar.

Writer's Perspective.

William Butler Yeats On Writing, Poetic Symbols.

Writing Critically.

How to Read a Symbol.

24. Myth and Narrative.

Robert Frost, Nothing Gold Can Stay.

D. H. Lawrence, Bavarian Gentians.

Thomas Hardy, The Oxen.

William Wordsworth, The World Is Too Much with Us.

H. D., Helen.


Louise Bogan, Medusa.

Personal Myth.

William Butler Yeats, The Second Coming.

Jonathan Holden, The Names of the Rapids.

James Dickey, The Heaven of Animals.

Diane Thiel, Memento Mori in Middle School.

Myth and Popular Culture.

Charles Martin, Taken Up.

A. D. Hope, Imperial Adam.

Anne Sexton, Cinderella.

Writer's Perspective.

Anne Sexton On Writing, Transforming Fairy Tales.

Writing Critically.

Demystifying Myth.

Writing Assignment: Student Essay, The Bonds Between Love and Hatred in H. D.'s "Helen."

25. Poetry and Personal Identity.

Sylvia Plath, Lady Lazarus.

Julia Alvare, The women on my mother's side were known.

Culture, Race, and Ethnicity.

Claude McKay, America.

Rhina P. Espaillat, Bilingual / Bilingüe.

Samuel Menashe, The Shrine Whose Shape I Am.

Francisco X. Alarcòn, The X in My Name.

Wendy Rose, For the White Poets Who Would Be Indian.

Sherman Alexie, Indian Boy Love Song (#1).

Yusef Komunyakaa, Facing It.


Anne Stevenson, Sous-Entendu.

Emily Grosholz, Listening.

Donald Justice, Men at Forty.

Adrienne Rich, Women.

For Review and Further Study.

Shirley Geok-lin Lim, Learning to Love America.

Andrew Hudgins, Elegy for My Father, Who Is Not Dead.

Judith Ortiz Cofer, Quinceañera.

Alastair Reid, Speaking a Foreign Language.

Philip Larkin, Aubade.

Writer's Perspective.

Rhina P. Espaillat on Writing.

Writing Critically.

Poetic Voice and Personal Identity.

26. Translation.

Is Poetic Translation Possible?

Rainer Maria Rilke, Eingang.

Rainer Maria Rilke, translated by Dana Gioia, Entrance.

World Poetry.

Li Po, Drinking Alone Beneath the Moon (Chinese text).

Li Po, Moon-beneath Alone Drink (literal translation).

Li Po, translated by Arthur Waley, Drinking Alone by Moonlight.

Horace, Carpe Diem Odes I (11).

Horace, translated by Edwin Arlington Robinson, James.

Michie,A. E. Stallings, Odes I.

Omar Khayyam, Rubai.

Omar Khayyam, translated by Edward FitzGerald, Robert Graves and Omar Ali-Shah, Dick Davis, Rubai.


Anonymous, We four lads from Liverpool are.

Wendy Cope, A Nursery Rhyme (as it might have been written by William Wordsworth).

Hugh Kingsmill, What, still alive at twenty-two?

Bruce Bennett, The Lady Speaks Again.

Gene Fehler, If Richard Lovelace Became a Free Agent.

Aaron Abeyta, thirteen ways of looking at a tortilla.

Writer's Perspective.

Arthur Waley on Writing, The Art of Translation.

Writing Critically.

Parody Is the Sincerest Form of Flattery.

27. Critical Casebook: Latin American Poetry.

Sor Juana.

Asegura la Confianza de que Oculturà de Todo un Secreto. Translated by Diane Thiel, She Promises to Hold a Secret in Confidence.

Presente en que el Cariño Hace Regalo la Llaneza. Translated by Diane Thiel, A Simple Gift Made Rich by Affection.

Pablo Neruda.

Muchos Somos. Translated by Alastair Reid, We Are Many.

Cien Sonetos de Amor (V). Translated by Stephen Tapscott, One Hundred Love Sonnets (V).

Jorge Luis Borges.

Amorosa Anticipaciòn. Translated by Robert Fitzgerald, Anticipation of Love.

Los Engimas. Translated by John Updike, The Enigmas.

Octavio Paz.

Con Los Ojos Cerrados. Translated by John Felstiner, With Our Eyes Shut.

Certeza. Translated by Charles Tomlinson, Certainty.

Surrealism in Latin American Poetry.

Frida Kahlo, Two Friedas.

Cesar Vallejo, La Còlera que Quiebra al Hombre en Niños.

Cesar Vallejo, translated by Thomas Merton, Anger.

Olga Orozco, La Realidad y el Deseo.

Olga Orozco, translated by Stephen Tapscott, Reality and Desire.

For Review and Further Study.

Alfonsina Storni, Peso Ancestral.

Alfonsina Storni, translated by Diane Thiel, Ancestral Burden.

Josè Emilio Pacheco, Alta Traiciòn.

Josè Emilio Pacheco, translated by Alastair Reid, High Treason.

Latin American Poets on Poetry.

Sor Juana, Respuesta.

Pablo Neruda, Towards the Splendid City.

Jorge Luis Borges, The Riddle of Poetry.

Octavio Paz, European Languages and the Literature of the Americas.

Critics on Latin American Poetry.

Stephanie Merrim, Endgames: Sor Juana Inès de la Cruz.

Alastair Reid, Translating Neruda.

Emir Rodrìguez Monegal, Borges and Paz.

Suggestions for Writing.

28. Recognizing Excellence.

Anonymous, O Moon, when I gaze on thy beautiful face.

Grace Treasone, Life.

Emily Dickinson, A Dying Tiger - moaned for Drink.

Rod McKuen, Thoughts on Capital Punishment.

William Stafford, Traveling Through the Dark.

Wallace McRae, Reincarnation.

Recognizing Excellence.

William Butler Yeats, Sailing to Byzantium.

Arthur Guiterman, On the Vanity of Earthly Greatness.

Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ozymandias.

Robert Hayden, The Whipping.

Elizabeth Bishop, One Art.

W. H. Auden, September 1, 1939.

Walt Whitman, O Captain! My Captain!

Carl Sandburg, Fog.

Emma Lazarus, The New Colossus.

Edgar Allan Poe, Annabel Lee.

Writer's Perspective.

Edgar Allan Poe on Writing, A Long Poem Does Not Exist.

Writing Critically.

How to Begin Evaluating a Poem.

29. What is Poetry?

Archibald MacLeish, Ars Poetica.

Dante, Samuel Johnson, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, William Wordsworth, Thomas Carlyle, Thomas Hardy, Emily Dickinson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, Robert Frost, Wallace Stevens, Mina Loy, T. S. Eliot, W. H. Auden, J. V. Cunningham, Elizabeth Bishop, Jorge Luis Borges, Octavio Paz, William Stafford, Gwendolyn Brooks, Robert Bly, Some Definitions of Poetry.

Ha Jin, Missed Time.

30. Two Critical Casebooks: Emily Dickinson and Langston Hughes.

Emily Dickinson.

Success is counted sweetest.

Wild Nights-Wild Nights!

There's a certain Slant of light.

I Felt a Funeral, in my Brain.

I'm Nobody! Who are you?

The Soul selects her own Society.

Some keep the Sabbath going to Church.

After great pain, a formal feeling comes.

Much Madness is divinest Sense.

This is my letter to the World.

I heard a Fly buzz-when I died.

I started Early-Took my Dog.

Because I could not stop for Death.

The Bustle in a House.

Tell all the Truth but tell it slant.

Emily Dickinson on Emily Dickinson.

Emily Dickinson, Recognizing Poetry.

Emily Dickinson, Self-Description.

Critics on Emily Dickinson.

Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Meeting Emily Dickinson.

Thomas H. Johnson, The Discovery of Emily Dickinson's Manuscripts.

Richard Wilbur, The Three Privations of Emily Dickinson.

Cynthia Griffin Wolff, Dickinson and Death (A Reading of "Because I could not stop for Death.")

Judith Farr, A Reading of "My Life had stood-a Loaded Gun."

Langston Hughes.

The Negro Speaks of Rivers.

Mother to Son.

Dream Variations.

I, Too.

The Weary Blues.

Song for a Dark Girl.



Battle of the Landlord.



Ballad of the Landlord.

Theme for English B.

Subway Rush Hour.


Harlem [Dream Deferred].

Langston Hughes on Langston Hughes.

Langston Hughes, The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain.

Langston Hughesm, The Harlem Renaissance.

Critics on Langston Hughes.

Arnold Rampersad, Hughes as an Experimentalist.

Rita Dove and Marilyn Nelson, Langston Hughes and Harlem.

Darryl Pinckney, Black Identity in Langston Hughes.

Peter Townsend, Langston Hughes and Jazz.

Onwuchekwa Jemie, A Reading of "Dream Deferred."

Suggestions for Writing.

31. Poems for Further Reading.

Anonymous, Lord Randall.

Anonymous, The Three Ravens.

Anonymous, The Twa Corbies.

Anonymous, Western Wind.

Anonymous, Last Words of the Prophet (Navajo Mountain Chant).

Matthew Arnold, Dover Beach.

John Ashbery, At North Farm.

Margaret Atwood, Romantic.

W. H. Auden, As I Walked Out One Evening.

W. H. Auden, Musèe des Beaux Arts.

Elizabeth Bishop, Filling Station.

William Blake, The Tyger.

William Blake, The Sick Rose.

Eavan Boland, Anorexic.

Gwendolyn Brooks, The Mother.

Gwendolyn Brooks, the preacher: ruminates behind the sermon.

Elizabeth Barrett Browning, How Do I Love Thee? Let Me Count the Ways.

Robert Browning, Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister.

Geoffrey Chaucer, Merciless Beauty.

G. K. Chesterton, The Donkey.

Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Kubla Khan.

Billy Collins, Care & Feeding.

Hart Crane, My Grandmother's Love Letters.

E. E. Cummings, somewhere i have never travelled,gladly beyond.

John Donne, Death be not proud.

John Donne, The Flea.

John Donne, A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning.

Rita Dove, Summit Beach, 1921.

John Dryden, To the Memory of Mr. Oldham.

T. S. Eliot, Journey of the Magi.

T. S. Eliot, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock.

Louise Erdrich, Indian Boarding School: The Runaways.

B. H. Fairchild, A Starlit Night.

Robert Frost, Birches.

Robert Frost, Mending Wall.

Robert Frost, Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening.

Allen Ginsberg, A Supermarket in California.

Dana Gioia, California Hills in August.

Thom Gunn, The Man with Night Sweats.

Donald Hall, Names of Horses.

Thomas Hardy, The Convergence of the Twain.

Thomas Hardy, The Darkling Thrush.

Thomas Hardy, Hap.

Robert Hayden, Those Winter Sundays.

Seamus Heaney, Digging.

Seamus Heaney, Mother of the Groom.

Anthony Hecht, Adam.

George Herbert, Love.

Robert Herrick, To the Virgins to Make Much of Time.

Gerard Manley Hopkins, Spring and Fall.

Gerard Manley Hopkins, No worst, there is none.

Gerard Manley Hopkins, The Windhover.

A. E. Housman, Loveliest of trees, the cherry now.

A. E. Housman, To an Athlete Dying Young.

Randall Jarrell, The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner.

Robinson Jeffers, To the Stone-cutters.

Ben Jonson, On My First Son.

Donald Justice, Counting the Mad.

John Keats, Ode on a Grecian Urn.

John Keats, On First Looking into Chapman's Homer.

John Keats, When I have fears that I may cease to be.

John Keats, To Autumn.

Philip Larkin, Home is so Sad.

Philip Larkin, Poetry of Departures.

Irving Layton, The Bull Calf.

Philip Levine, They Feed, They Lion.

Adrien Louis, Looking for Judas.

Robert Lowell, Skunk Hour.

Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress.

James Merrill, Kite Poem.

Charlotte Mew, The Farmer's Bride.

Edna St. Vincent Millay, Recuerdo.

John Milton, How soon hath time.

John Milton, When I consider how my light is spent.

Marianne Moore, Poetry.

Frederick Morgan, The Master.

Marilyn Nelson, A Strange Beautiful Woman.

Howard Nemerov, The War in the Air.

Lorine Niedecker, Sorrow Moves in Wide Waves.

Yone Noguchi, A Selection of Hokku.

Sharon Olds, The One Girl at the Boys' Party.

Wilfred Owen, Anthem for Doomed Youth.

Linda Pastan, Ethics.

Robert Phillips, Running on Empty.

Sylvia Plath, Daddy.

Edgar Allan Poe, A Dream within a Dream.

Alexander Pope, A little Learning is a dang'rous Thing.

Ezra Pound, The River-Merchant's Wife: a Letter.

Dudley Randall, A Different Image.

John Crowe Ransom, Piazza Piece.

Henry Reed, Naming of Parts.

Adrienne Rich, Living in Sin.

Adrienne Rich, Power.

Edwin Arlington Robinson, Miniver Cheevy.

Theodore Roethke, Elegy for Jane.

Mary Jo Salter, Welcome to Hiroshima.

William Shakespeare, When, in disgrace with Fortune and men's eyes.

William Shakespeare, Not marble nor the gilded monuments.

William Shakespeare, Weary with toil I haste me to my bed.

William Shakespeare, That time of year thou mayst in me behold.

William Shakespeare, My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun.

Louis Simpson, American Poetry.

David R. Slavitt, Titanic.

Christopher Smart, For I will consider my Cat Jeoffry.

William Jay Smith, American Primitive.

Cathy Song, Stamp Collecting.

William Stafford, The Farm on the Great Plains.

Wallace Stevens, Peter Quince at the Clavier.

Wallace Stevens, The Emperor of Ice-Cream.

Ruth Stone, Second Hand Coat.

Jonathan Swift, A Description of the Morning.

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Dark house, by which once more I stand.

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Ulysses.

Dylan Thomas, Fern Hill.

John Updike, Ex-Basketball Player.

Amy Uyematsu, The Ten Million Flames of Los Angeles.

Derek Walcott, The Virgins.

Edmund Waller, Go, Lovely Rose.

Walt Whitman, A Noiseless Patient Spider.

Walt Whitman, I Hear America Singing.

Richard Wilbur, The Writer.

C. K. Williams, Elms.

William Carlos Williams, Spring and All.

William Carlos Williams, To Waken an Old Lady.

William Wordsworth, Composed upon Westminster Bridge.

James Wright, A Blessing.

James Wright, Autumn Begins in Martins Ferry, Ohio.

Mary Sidney Wroth, In This Strange Labyrinth.

Sir Thomas Wyatt, They flee from me that sometime did me sekë.

William Butler Yeats, Crazy Jane Talks with the Bishop.

William Butler Yeats, The Magi.

William Butler Yeats, When You Are Old.

32. Lives of the Poets.


33. Reading a Play.

A Play in Its Elements.

Susan Glaspell, Trifles


John Millington Synge, Riders to the Sea.


David Ives, Sure Thing.

Jane Martin, Beauty.

Writer's Perspective.

Susan Glaspell on Drama, Creating Trifles.

Writing Critically.

Conflict Resolution.

Writing Assignment: Student Essay, Outside Trifles.

34. Critical Casebook: Sophocles.

The Theater of Sophocles.


The Civic Role of Greek Drama.

Aristotle's Concept of Tragedy.



The Origins of Oedipus the King.

Sophocles, Oedipus the King (Translated by Robert Fagles).

The Background of Antigonê.

Sophocles, Antigonê (Translated by Robert Fagles).

Robert Fitzgerald on Sophocles.

Robert Fitzgerald, Translating Sophocles.

Critics on Sophocles.

Aristotle, Defining Tragedy.

Sigmund Freud, The Oedipus Complex.

E. R. Dodds, On Misunderstanding Oedipus.

A. E. Haigh, The Irony of Sophocles.

Patricia M. Line, Antigonê's Flaw.

Writing Critically.

Some Things Change. Some Things Don't.

35. Critical Casebook: Shakespeare.

The Theater of Shakespeare.

William Shakespeare.


A Note on Othello.

William Shakespearem, Othello, the Moor of Venice.

The Background of Hamlet.

William Shakespeare, Hamlet, Prince of Denmark.

The Background of A Midsummer Night's Dream.

William Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night's Dream.

Ben Jonson on Shakespeare.

Ben Jonson, On His Friend And Rival William Shakespeare.

Critics on Shakespeare.

A. C. Bradley, Hamlet's Character.

Rebecca West, Hamlet and Ophelia.

Jan Kott, Producing Hamlet.

Joel Wingard, Reader-Response Issues in Hamlet.

W. H. Auden, Iago as a Triumphant Villain.

Maud Bodkin, Lucifer on Shakespeare's Othello.

Virginia Mason Vaughan, Black and White in Othello.

Anthony Burgess, An Asian Culture Looks at Shakespeare.

John Russell Brown, Recognizing Love in A Midsummer Night's Dream.

Germaine Greer, Shakespeare's "Honest Mirth."

Linda Bamber, Female Power in A Midsummer Night's Dream.

Writing Critically.

Breaking the Language Barrier.

Writing Assignment: Student Essay, Othello: Tragedy or Soap Opera?

36. The Modern Theater.

Realism and Naturalism.

Henrik Ibsen, A Doll's House (Translated by James McFarlane).

Writer's Perspective.

George Bernard Shaw on Drama, Ibsen and the Familiar Situation.

Tragicomedy and the Absurd.

Milcha Sanchez-Scott, The Cuban Swimmer.

Writer's Perspective.

Milcha Sanchez-Scott on Drama, Writing The Cuban Swimmer.

Writing Critically.

What's so Realistic about Realism?

Writing Assignment: Student Essay, Helmer vs. Helmer.

37. Evaluating a Play.

Writing Critically.

Critical Performance.

38. Plays for Further Reading.

Arthur Miller, Death of a Salesman.

Writer's Perspective.

Arthur Miller on Drama, Tragedy and the Common Man..

Tennessee Williams, The Glass Menagerie.

Writer's Perspective.

Tennessee Williams on Drama, How to Stage The Glass Menagerie.

39. New Voices in American Drama.

Beth Henley, Am I Blue?

Writer's Perspective.

Beth Henley on Drama, A Playwright is Born?

David Henry Hwang, The Sound of a Voice.

Writer's Perspective.

David Henry Hwang on Drama, Multicultural Theater.

Terrence McNally, Andre's Mother.

Writer's Perspective.

Terrence McNally on Drama, How to Write a Play.

August Wilson, Joe Turner's Come and Gone.

Writer's Perspective.

August Wilson On Drama, Black Experience in America.


40. Writing About Literature.


Keeping a Journal.

Using Sources and Maintaining Academic Integrity.

Using Critical Sources and Maintaining Academic Integrity.

Discovering Essay Ideas.

Drafting and Revising, or Creativty vs. Analysis.

The Form of Your Finished Paper.

Using Spell-Check and Grammar-Check Programs.

Anonymous (after a poem by Jerrold H. Zar), A Little Poem Regarding Computer Spell Checkers.

41. Writing About a Story.


Sample Student Essay (Explication).


Sample Student Essay (Analysis).

Sample Student Card Report.

Comparing and Contrasting.

42. Writing About a Poem.


Robert Frost, Design.

Sample Student Essay (Explication).


Sample Student Essay (Analysis).

Comparing and Contrasting.

Abbie Huston Evans, Wing-Spread.

Sample Student Essay (Comparison).

How to Quote a Poem.

Before You Begin.

Robert Frost, In White (early draft of "Design").

43. Writing About a Play.


How to Quote a Play.

Writing a Card Report.

Sample Student Card Report.

Reviewing a Play.

Sample Student Drama Review.

44. Writing a Research Paper.

Doing Research for an Essay.

Evaluating and Using Internet Sources.

Guarding Academic Integrity.

Acknowledging and Documenting Sources.

Concluding Thoughts.

Reference Guide for Citations.

45. Critical Approaches to Literature.

Formalist Criticism.

CleanthBrooks, The Formalist Critic.

Michael Clark, Light and Darkness in "Sonny's Blues."

Robert Langbaum, On Robert Browning's "My Last Duchess."

Biographical Criticism.

Virginia Llewellyn Smith, Chekhov's Attitude to Romantic Love.

Brett C. Millier, On Elizabeth Bishop's "One Art."

Emily Toth, Scandal and Kate Chopin.

Historical Criticism.

Hugh Kenner, Imagism.

Joseph Moldenhauer, "To His Coy Mistress" and the Renaissance Tradition.

Barbara T. Christian, Heritage in "Everyday Use."

Psychological Criticism.

Sigmund Freud, The Nature of Dreams.

Gretchen Schulz and R. J. R. Rockwood, Fairy Tales and "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?"

Harold Bloom, Poetic Influence.

Mythological Criticism.

C. G. Jung, The Collective Unconscious and Archetypes.

Northrop Frye, Mythic Archetypes.

Edmond Volpe, Myth in Faulkner's "Barn Burning."

Sociological Criticism.

Georg Lukacs, Content Determines Form.

Daniel P. Watkin, Money and Labor in "The Rocking-Horse Winner."

Alfred Kazin, Walt Whitman and Abraham Lincoln.

Gender Criticism.

Elaine Showalter, Toward a Feminist Poetics.

Juliann Fleenor, Gender and Pathology in "The Yellow Wallpaper."

Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar, The Freedom of Emily Dickinson.

Reader-Response Criticism.

Stanley Fish, An Eskimo "A Rose for Emily."

Robert Scholes, "How Do We Make a Poem?"

Michael J. Colacurcio, The End of Young Goodman Brown.

Deconstructionist Criticism.

Roland Barthes, The Death of the Author.

Barbara Johnson, Rigorous Unreliability.

Geoffrey Hartman, On Wordsworth's "A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal."

Cultural Studies.

Vincent B. Leitch, Poststructuralist Cultural Critique.

Mark Bauerlein, What is Cultural Studies?

Heather Glen, The Stance of Observation in William Blake's "London."





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