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Living Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama / Edition 1

Living Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama / Edition 1

by John Brereton

ISBN-10: 0321088999

ISBN-13: 9780321088994

Pub. Date: 01/05/2007

Publisher: Longman

Living Literature
An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama John Brereton

Bringing the past into the present, this innovative anthology focuses on literature as part of a fluid, living conversation across cultures, genres, and time periods. More so than any other anthology, Living Literature energizes students by offering new perspectives on a


Living Literature
An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama John Brereton

Bringing the past into the present, this innovative anthology focuses on literature as part of a fluid, living conversation across cultures, genres, and time periods. More so than any other anthology, Living Literature energizes students by offering new perspectives on a vibrant collection of stories, poems, and plays, contextualizing classic works with contemporary pieces and emphasizing the dynamic creative relationship between writers, artists, filmmakers, and musicians.

Five “Moments” chapters gather literary works from one particular time, place, or cultural viewpoint and frame the connections between them.

  • More than Magnolias: Southern Women Storytellers (Chapter Seven)
  • Passage to America: New Immigrants Tell Their Stories (Chapter Eight)
  • Passionate Verse: Love Poetry of the English Renaissance (Chapter Sixteen)
  • Writing Out Loud: Popular Victorian Narratives (Chapter Seventeen)
  • Sweet Home Chicago: From Chicago Renaissance to A Raisin in the Sun (Chapter Twenty Five)
A Moment in Fiction: Southern Women Storytellers
Flannery O’Connor discusses her craft as one of the seven women writers in the Moments chapter, “More than Magnolias: Southern Women Storytellers.”

“Inspiration” sections in each chapter highlight artists from all genres–filmmakers, painters, musicians–who draw their creative spark from a writer or work in the anthology.

Inspiration: Yeats and U2’s Bono
U2’s Bono draws inspiration from fellow Irishman, William Butler Yeats, incorporating lines of Yeats’s poetry into song lyrics and live performances.

Literary, Web, Audio, and Visual Locales
“Locales” in every chapter prompt readers to seek out contextual resources–a real-life literary location, an online site, an audio clip, or visual image–that will enrich their understanding of a particular text.

Literary Locale: Tennessee Williams Literary Festival, New Orleans
The Tennessee Williams Literary Festival, hosted annually in New Orleans, celebrates the playwright’s work, such as A Streetcar Named Desire.

Visit us at www.ablongman.com

Product Details

Publication date:
Edition description:
New Edition
Product dimensions:
6.22(w) x 9.06(h) x 1.82(d)

Table of Contents


1. Stories: Plot, Character, Setting

The Hare and the Tortoise

Story with a Lesson

Inspiration: Animation and The Tortoise and the Hare

Video locale: Bugs Bunny Cartoons of The Tortoise and the Hare

Plot Ordering the Plot Kate Chopin, The Story of An Hour

For Further Reading: Plot

Richard Ford, Under the Radar


Tim O’Brien, Stockings

Types of Characters

For Further Reading: Character

Alice Munro, Prue


James Joyce, Araby

Literary Locale: James Joyce and Davy Byrnes Pub

Symbolic Setting

For Further Reading: Setting

Literary Locale: Colter’s Chicago—The South Side and the El

Cyrus Colter, Mary’s Convert

2. Stories: Point of View, Theme, Symbol, Performance Point of View

First-Person Narration

Third-Person Narration

Subjective vs. Objective Narration

Jamaica Kincaid, Girl

Point of View in “Girl”

The Narrator’s Role

For Further Reading: Point of View

Margaret Atwood, Happy Endings


John Updike, A & P

Theme in “A & P”

Theme, Meaning, and Intention

For Further Reading: Theme

Anita Desai, Games at Twilight


Stuart Dybek, The Palatski Man

For Further Reading: Symbol

Gabriel García Márquez, The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World


Inspiration: Carver to Altman: From Fiction to Film

Raymond Carver, Cathedral

For Further Reading: Tone

Ana Castillo, Loverboys

Story and Performance

Wallace Stegner, A Note on Technique

Story and Performance in “A Note on Technique”

Audio and Video Locale: Updike’s “A&P” in Performance

3. Writing about Stories

The Cultural Conversation


Short Review

Short Review of Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone

Full Review

Full Review of Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone

Beyond Reviews: Criticism

Popular Criticism

Newsweek, Here’s Harry: Behind the Fastest-Selling Book in History

Scholarly Articles

Roni Natov, Harry Potter and the Extraordinariness of the Ordinary

How to Enter the Conversation?

Virtual Locale: Blogging about Stories

Questions to Develop Ideas About a Story

Point of View





Links to Other Texts


Formats for Writing about Stories

Annotating a Story

Annotations for a page of “The Story of An Hour”

Summarizing a Story

Summaries of “The Story of An Hour”

Keeping a Personal Journal

Double-Entry Reaction Journal on a page of “The Story of An Hour”

Writing a Response Paper

From a Response Paper to “The Story of An Hour”

Writing an Intervention

Writing an Explication

Explication of the opening of “The Story of An Hour”

Writing an Analytical Essay

Student Analytical Essay of “The Story of An Hour”

4. A Fiction Writer in Depth: Nathaniel Hawthorne

Literary Locale: Hawthorne’s Massachusetts—Concord and Salem

Virtual Locale:Hawthorne in Salem Website

Nathaniel Hawthorne Timeline

Stories by Nathaniel Hawthorne

Young Goodman Brown

Lady Eleanore’s Mantle

The Maypole of Merry Mount

Commentary: Nathaniel Hawthorne on his Art and His Life


Hawthorne and Melville: A Literary Friendship

5. A Fiction Writer in Depth: Willa Cather

Literary and Virtual Locale: Willa Cather’s Red Cloud, Nebraska

Willa Cather Timeline

Audio Locale: Cather’s 1933 Radio Speech

Stories by Willa Cather


Paul’s Case

A Wagner Matinée

Inspiration: “A Wagner Matinée” in Performance—Cather from Page to Radio Stage

Audio and Virtual Locale:Recording of Scribbling Women “A Wagner Matinée” Radio Play

An Old Beauty

Virtual Locale:The Willa Cather Archive

Commentary: Willa Cather on Writing

Commentary: Willa Cather the Critic

Willa Cather, From “Shakespeare and Hamlet”

6. A Fiction Writer in Depth: Charles Baxter

Charles Baxter Timeline

Literary Locale: Baxter’s Michigan and the Mystery of the Midwest

Stories by Charles Baxter


Inspiration:“Gryphon” in Performance—Chicago Public Radio’s Stories on Stage


Audio and Virtual Locale:Recording of Stories on Stage “Gryphon” Dramatic Reading

Saul and Patsy Are Pregnant

Virtual Locale:Charles Baxter’s Website

Kiss Away

Commentary: Charles Baxter on Fiction and the Writer’s Role

Commentary: Charles Baxter, Critical Writing on Fiction

Commentary: Excerpts from Selected Reviews

Inspiration: Music in the Fiction of Charles Baxter

Audio Locale:Recordings of “Gimme Shelter” and “Unchain My Heart”

7. More Than Magnolias: Southern Women Storytellers

Literary and Virtual Locale: The Gravesite of Zora Neale Hurston, Fort Pierce, Florida

Southern Women Writers Timeline

Literary and Virtual Locale: Zora Festival, Eatonville, Florida

Zora Neale Hurston, Sweat


“Sweat” in Performance—Hurston from Page to Radio Stage

Audio and Virtual Locale:Recording of Scribbling Women “Sweat” Radio Play

Literary and Virtual Locale:The Homes and the Archives of Eudora Welty—Jackson, Mississippi

Virtual Locale:The Eudora Welty House and The Eudora Welty Collection

Eudora Welty, Why I Live at the P.O.

A Worn Path

A Shower of Gold

Commentary: Eudora Welty on the Craft of Writing

Inspiration: Alice Walker and Lee Smith on Flannery O’Connor and Eudora Welty

Literary Locale: The Georgia Homes of Flannery O’Connor—Savannah and Milledgville

Virtual Locale:Flannery O'Connor Home Foundation and Andalusia Farm Websites

Flannery O’Connor, A Good Man is Hard to Find

Parker’s Back

Inspiration: Flannery O’Connor and Bruce Springsteen’s Nebraska Commentary: Flannery O’Connor on her Craft

Lee Smith, Cakewalk

Mary Hood, How Far She Went

Dorothy Allison, I’m Working on My Charm

Inspiration: Writers Who Inspired Dorothy Allison

Virtual Locale:Alice Walker and other “Voices of Mississippi”

Alice Walker, Everyday Use

Commentary: Contemporary Southern Women Writers Speak On the South

8. Passage to America: New Immigrant Tell Their Stories

Passage to America Timeline

Pat Mora, Immigrants


“I, Too, Sing América”—“All-American” Writers, from Whitman to Hughes to Alvarez

Langston Hughes, I, Too, Sing America

Virtual Locale:

The “Writers on America” Project: What Does It Means to be an American Writer?

Literary Locale:

Los Angeles’s Latino Museum of History, Art and Culture

Jhumpa Lahiri, The Third and Final Continent

Commentary: Jhumpa Lahiri on the Short Story

Virtual Locale:

The South Asian Women’s Network’s Online Bookshelf

Gish Jen, In the American Society

Commentary: Gish Jen on the Short Story

Virtual and Video Locale:Interview With Gish Jen on "Becoming American: Personal Journeys"

Esmeralda Santiago, When I Was Puerto Rican

Commentary: Esmeralda Santiago on When I Was Puerto Rican

Video and Virtual Locale:

Santiago in Performance: PBS Film Adaptation of Almost a Woman

Junot Díaz, Fiesta, 1980

Commentary: Junot Díaz on Fiction

Literary and virtual Locale: New York’s El Museo del Barrio

Anjana Appachana, Her Mother

Commentary: Anjana Appachana on the Short Story

Literary Locale:Ellis Island—The Gateway for the Early U.S. Immigrant

virtual Locale: The Ellis Island Immigration Museum

9. Stories for Further Reading

A Brief Note on the Sequencing of the Stories

A Brief Note on the Inclusion of Non-Fiction

Jonathan Swift, A Modest Proposal

Edgar Allan Poe, The Tell-Tale Heart

Literary Locale: Edgar Allan Poe—The Philadelphia Years

Anton Chekhov, The Lady with the Dog

D.H. Lawrence, The Horse Dealer’s Daughter

Ernest Hemingway, Hills Like White Elephants

Inspiration: Imitation Hemingway and Faux Faulkner Contests

Virtual Locale: Hemispheres Magazine Website

Katherine Anne Porter, The Jilting of Granny Weatherall

William Faulkner, Barn Burning

A Rose for Emily

Literary Locale: Faulkner’s Oxford, Mississippi

James Thurber, The Night the Bed Fell In

George Orwell, Shooting an Elephant

E.B. White, Once More to the Lake

Richard Wright, The Man Who Lived Underground

Jorge Luis Borges, Theme of the Traitor and the Hero

James Baldwin, Sonny’s Blues

Chinua Achebe, A Civil Peace

Leslie Marmon Silko, Yellow Woman

Kazuo Ishiguro, Family Dinner

David Leavitt, Territory

Amy Hempel, In the Cemetery Where Al Jolson is Buried

Lorrie Moore, How to Become a Writer

Sherman Alexie, Lone Ranger & Tonto Fistfight in Heaven

Stuart Dybek, We Didn’t

Inspiration: From Verse to Prose: Yehuda Amichai’s “We Did It” and Dybek’s “We Didn’t”

Andrea Barrett, Rare Bird

Ha Jin, Saboteur


10. Poems: Tone, Image, Language

Shaping Experience

Paul Laurence Dunbar, We Wear the Mask

Literary and VIRTUAL Locale: Paul Laurence Dunbar House—Dayton, Ohio


Linda Pastan, Marks

D.H. Lawrence, Piano

For Further Reading: Tone

Ezra Pound, The River Merchant’s Wife: A Letter

Inspiration: Two Additional Translations of Li Po’s Poem

Philip Larkin, This Be The Verse

Virtual Locale: The Lannan Foundation and Louise Glück

Louise Glück, The Red Poppy

Audio Locale: Louise Glück’s “The Red Poppy”

Margaret Atwood, Siren Song

Images and Imagery

Ezra Pound, In a Station of the Metro

William Shakespeare, Sonnet 73

For Further Reading: Images and Imagery

Robert Burns, My Luve’s like a Red, Red Rose

Sylvia Plath, Metaphors

Wallace Stevens, Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird

Adrienne Rich, Diving into the Wreck

Inspiration: Adrienne Rich Rethinks Emily Dickinson

Poetic Language

Emily Dickinson, I like to see it lap the miles

William Butler Yeats, The Lake Isle of Innisfree

Literary Locale: Yeats and the Landscape in Sligo, Ireland

Inspiration: U2’s Bono—The Yeats of Our Time?

Before the World Was Made

Commentary: Louise Glück on Poetic Language

For Further Reading: Poetic Language

Frank O’Hara, The Day Lady Died

Audio Locale: Lady Sings the Blues

Thomas Gray, Ode on the Death of a Favorite Cat, Drowned in a Tub of Goldfishes

Phyllis Wheatley, On Being Brought from Africa to America

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Snow-Flakes

Jimmy Santiago Baca, Green Chile

Struggles Over Poetic Language

11. Poems: Meter, Stanza, Form


William Langland, From Piers Plowman

John Newton, From Amazing Grace





John Hollander, Historical Reflection



Blank verse

William Shakespeare, From Macbeth

John Milton, From Paradise Lost

Elizabeth Barrett Browning, From Aurora Leigh

For Further Reading: Meter

Robert Frost, Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening

Literary Locale: The Robert Frost Place, Franconia, New Hampshire

Ben Jonson, Song: To Celia

A.E. Housman, When I Was One-and-Twenty


Alexander Pope, From The Rape of the Lock

Percy Bysshe Shelley, From Ode to the West Wind

Anonymous, From Bonny Barbara Allan

Free verse

Walt Whitman, When I heard the Learn’d Astronomer

William Carlos Williams, The Red Wheelbarrow

William Carlos Williams, This Is Just to Say

Inspiration: William Carlos Williams and Tino Villaneuva

For Further Reading: Stanza

William Carlos Williams, The Great Figure

Inspiration: Charles Demuth's painting The Figure 5 in Gold

George Herbert, Easter Wings

William Wordsworth, A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal

Adrienne Rich, Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers

Video Locale: Adrienne Rich and The Lannan Foundation



John Keats, On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer

John Keats, When I Have Fears That I May Cease to Be

Edna St. Vincent Millay, I will put Chaos into fourteen lines

Billy Collins, Sonnet

Commentary: Billy Collins on American Poetry

John Milton, On His Blindness

Robert Frost, Once by the Pacific

Alice Oswald, Wedding

Weldon Kees, For My Daughter


Ben Jonson, On My First Son

Thomas Gray, Sonnet on the Death of Richard West

Samuel Johnson, On the Death of Mr. Robert Levet, a Practiser in Physic

Chidiock Tichborne, Elegy Written with His Own Hand in the Tower before His Execution

E.E. Cummings, Buffalo Bill’s

Inspiration: Cummings and Bjork: Poetry as Pop Song

I will wade out

It may not always be so


William Shakespeare, Aubade from Cymbeline

Amy Lowell, Aubade

John Donne, The Sun Rising

Richard Wilbur, A Late Aubade

Terese Svoboda, Aubade

Barbara Lau, Aubade/Iowa

Philip Larkin, Aubade

William Shakespeare, Aubade from Romeo and Juliet


Elizabeth Bishop, One Art

Video Locale: Documentary on Elizabeth Bishop

Dylan Thomas, Do not go gentle into that good night

For Further Reading: Form

Theodore Roethke, The Waking

Robert Frost, Design

Edna St. Vincent Millay, Love Is Not All: It Is Not Meat nor Drink

Gertrude Schnackenberg, Signs

Marge Piercy, Barbie Doll

Michael Drayton, Since There’s No Help

Edmund Spenser, One day I wrote her name upon the strand

Thomas Hardy, The Darkling Thrush

During Wind and Rain

Gerard Manly Hopkins, God’s Grandeur

The Windhover

12. Writing about Poetry

The Cultural Conversation


Short Review: The Collected Poems of Robert Lowell, ed. by Frank Bidart and David Gewanter

Full Review: The Collected Poems of Robert Lowell, ed. by Frank Bidart and David Gewanter

Beyond Reviews: Criticism

Popular Criticism

Scott Thrill, Eminem vs. Robert Frost

Scholarly Articles or Works

Edward Hirsch, From How to Read a Poem

How to Enter the Conversation

Questions to Develop Ideas about a Poem

Point of View





Links to Other Texts


Virtual Locale: Poetry Websites and Blog

Formats for Writing about Poems

Annotating a Poem

Annotations forDickinson’s “After Great Pain”

Summarizing or Paraphrasing a Poem

Summary of “After Great Pain”

Paraphrase of “After Great Pain”

Keeping a Personal Journal

Double-Entry Reaction Journal on “After Great Pain”

Writing a Response Paper

From a Response Paper to “After Great Pain”

Writing an Intervention

Inspiration: Two Poets Respond to Emily Dickinson

Francis Heaney, Skinny Domicile [An anagram of Emily Dickinson]

Billy Collins,Taking Off Emily Dickinson’s Clothes

Writing an Explication

Student Explication of “After Great Pain”

Professional Explication of “After Great Pain”

Writing an Analytical Essay

Student Analytical Essay of “After Great Pain”

13. A Poet in Depth: Walt Whitman

Inspiration: Ralph Waldo Emerson’s Letter to Whitman

Virtual Locale: The Whitman Electronic Archive

Walt Whitman Timeline

Literary Locale: Walt Whitman House, Camden, New Jersey

Poems by Walt Whitman

From Song of Myself

Audio Locale: Whitman Reading “America”

Crossing Brooklyn Ferry

Literary Locale: Whitman in New York

Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking

When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom’d

O Captain! My Captain!

Inspiration: Whitman and the Civil War

A Noiseless Patient Spider

Inspiration: The Music of Whitman

I Hear America Singing

Literary Locale: The “I Hear America Singing” Mural, Bronx, New York

When I Heard at the Close of the Day

I Saw in Louisiana a Live-Oak Growing

Video Locale: Whitman in Video

Cavalry Crossing a Ford

The Wound-Dresser

Commentary: Walt Whitman on his Art and Poetry

Commentary: Four Poets Inspired by Whitman

Langston Hughes, Old Walt

Kenneth Koch, Whitman’s Words

Marge Piercy, How I Came to Walt Whitman and Found Myself

Alicia Ostriker, Loving Walt Whitman and the Problem of America

14. A Poet in Depth: Emily Dickinson

Literary Locale: The Emily Dickinson Museum

Emily Dickinson Timeline

Poems by Emily Dickinson

I heard a Fly buzz—when I died

Because I could not stop for Death

A narrow Fellow in the Grass

Inspiration:Three Poets Write of Emily Dickinson

Hart Crane, To Emily Dickinson

Linda Pastan, Emily Dickinson

Wild Nights—Wild Nights!

It dropped so low—in my Regard—

I taste a liquor never brewed

Safe in their Alabaster Chambers

There’s a certain Slant of light

I felt a Funeral, in my Brain


“In My Dreams Awake”: Photos by John Dugdale and Dickinson’s Poetry

Elysium is as far to

We grow accustomed to the Dark

The Soul selects her own Society

My Life had stood—a Loaded Gun—

Video Locale: Loaded Gun: Life, Death, and Dickinson

Tell all the Truth but tell it slant

As imperceptibly as Grief

‘Faith’ is a fine invention

From all the Jails, the boys and girls

The Bible is an antique Volume—

Audio Locale: The Songs of Emily Dickinson

Much Madness is divinest Sense—

Beauty be not caused, it is

On a columnar Self

Commentary: Excerpts from Selected Reviews

Commentary: Emily Dickinson in her Letters

15. A Poet in Depth: Gwendolyn Brooks

Literary Locale:Brooks inBronzeville, Chicago

Gwendolyn Brooks Timeline

Poems by Gwendolyn Brooks

Kitchenette Building

Sadie and Maud

The Mother

the preacher: ruminates behind the sermon

Gay Chaps at the Bar

What shall I give my children? who are poor (Sonnet 2)

First Fight. Then Fiddle (Sonnet 4)

In Honor of David Anderson Brooks, My Father

Beverly Hills, Chicago

The Bean Eaters

Audio Locale: Brooks Reading Her Poetry

Audio Locale: Brooks Reading “We Real Cool”

Commentary: Gwendolyn Brooks on the Men in “We Real Cool”

A Bronzeville Woman Loiters in Mississippi…

Crazy Woman

Ballad of Rudolph Reed

Inspiration:Artists of Inspiration—Hughes, Frost, and Robeson

Langston Hughes

Of Robert Frost

Paul Robeson

The Sermon on the Warpland

The Second Sermon on the Warpland

From In the Mecca

Inspiration: Brooks and Emily Dickinson


Commentary: Gwendolyn Brooks on her Life and the Art of Poetry

Commentary: Excerpts from Selected Reviews

Inspiration:The Wall of Respect, Chicago

The Wall

16. Passionate Verse: Love Poetry of the English Renaissance

English Renaissance Timeline

Sir Philip Sidney, Loving in Truth

Pastoral Poems

Christopher Marlowe, The Passionate Shepherd to his Love

Inspiration: Sir Walter Raleigh’s Nymph—Talking Back to Marlowe’s Shepherd Poems on Clothing

Ben Jonson, Still to Be Neat, Still to Be Drest

Robert Herrick, Delight in Disorder

Upon Julia's Clothes

Virtual Locale: Elizabethan Clothing

Carpe Diem Poems

Robert Herrick, To Virgins, to Make Much of Time

Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress

Poems and Music

Thomas Campion, When Thou Must Home to Shades of Underground

Fire, Fire, Fire

Shakespearean Love Sonnets

William Shakespeare, Sonnet 18

Audio and Virtual Locale: Sir John Gielgud Reading the Shakespearean Sonnets

Sonnet 55

Sonnet 106

Audio Locale: Shakespearean Sonnets Out Loud—Sung and Spoken

Sonnet 116

Sonnet 130

INSPIRATION: Shakespeare’s Sonnet 130 and Sting’s “Sister Moon”

Sonnet 138

INSPIRATION: Love’s Fire—Shakespeare’s Sonnets from Page to Stage

Garden scene from Romeo and Juliet

INSPIRATION: Romeo and Juliet: The Garden Scene, From Stage to Screen

VIDEO AND VIRTUAL LOCALE: Trailer for George Cukor’s 1936 film, Romeo and Juliet

VIRTUAL LOCALE: Two Versions of the Famous Romeo and Juliet Garden Scene

Women’s Voices in the English Renaissance

Lady Mary Wroth, Am I Thus Conquer'd? Have I Lost the Powers

When every one to pleasing pastime hies

How fast thou fliest, O time, on loues swift wings

My paine still smother'd in my grieved brest

Ben Jonson, A Sonnet to the Noble Lady, the Lady Mary Wroth

Katherine Philips, Against Love

A Married State

To My Excellent Lucasia, On Our Friendship

Anne Bradstreet, To My Dear and Loving Husband

Commentary: Virginia Woolf’s A Room of One’s Own

17. Writing Out Loud: Popular Victorian Narratives

Poetry’s Oral Beginnings

Virtual Locale: Aural Poetry on the Web

Poetry Readings at Home

Professional Authors on the Stage

Inspiration: Modern Poetry Out Loud—From Beat Poets to Russell Simmons’ Def Poetry Jam

Professonal Readers

Video Locale: Fooling With Words with Bill Moyers


Victorian Narratives Timeline

Clement Clark Moore, A Visit from St. Nicholas

Ernest L. Thayer, Casey at the Bat

Felicia Hemans, Casabianca

INSPIRATION: Elizabeth Bishop Responds to Felicia Hemans

Letitia Elizabeth Landon, The Proud Layde

Edgar Allan Poe, The Raven

Commentary: Poe on the Composition of “The Raven”

Literary and Virtual Locale: Poe Historical Sites

Annabelle Lee

Video Locale: Poe on American Masters

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, from The Building of the Ship

Inspiration: Sonnet on Mrs. Kemble’s Reading from Shakespeare

The Wreck of the Hesperus

Inspiration: George Harrison Riffing on Longfellow

Robert Browning, My Last Duchess

Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Mother and Poet

Walt Whitman, O Captain! My Captain!

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Ulysses

The Charge of the Light Brigade

18. Poems for Further Reading

A Brief Note on the Sequencing of the Poems

Video Locale: Robert Pinsky’s Favorite Poems Project

Robert Southwell, The Burning Babe

John Donne, First Anniversary

A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning

Batter My Heart Three Personed God

The Canonization

Death be not Proud

The Flea

The Relic

The Anniversarie

Ben Jonson, Come, my Celia, let us prove

On My First Daughter

George Herbert, The Pulley

The Windows

John Milton, How Soon Hath Time

Richard Lovelace, To Lucasta, Going to the Wars

Andrew Marvell, The Garden

Mary, Lady Chudleigh, To the Ladies

Jonathan Swift, A Description of the Morning

Samuel Johnson, Prologue Spoken by Mr. Garrick at the Opening of the Theatre in Drury-Lane, 1747

Christopher Smart, For I will consider my cat Jeoffry

William Cowper, The Castaway

William Blake, Infant Joy

The Lamb

The Tyger

Infant Sorrow

A Poison Tree

The Sick Rose

Virtual Locale: The William Blake Archive

William Wordsworth, Lines Composted a Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey

Composed upon Westminster Bridge, September 3, 1802

It is a Beauteous Evening

London, 1802

My Heart Leaps Up When I Behold

The World Is Too Much with Us

Surprised by Joy


Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Kubla Khan

Dejection: An Ode

George Gordon, Lord Byron, When We Two Parted

The Destruction of Sennacherib

She Walks in Beauty

Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ozymandias

Ode to the West Wind

When the lamp is shattered

England in 1819

John Clare, Badger

John Keats, La Belle Dame sans Merci

Ode to a Nightingale

Ode on a Grecian Urn

The Eve of St. Agnes

To Autumn

Elizabeth Barrett Browning, How Do I Love Thee

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Mezzo Cammin


Edgar Allen Poe, The Bells

Alfred Tennyson, Break, Break, Break

Now Sleeps the Crimson Petal

Tears, Idle Tears

Robert Browning, My Last Duchess

Meeting at Night

Parting at Morning

Matthew Arnold, Dover Beach

Inspiration: Anthony Hecht’s The Dover Bitch

Christina Rossetti, Song

Lewis Carroll [Charles Ludwig Dodgson], Jabberwocky

Thomas Hardy, Hap

The Darkling Thrush

The Convergence of the Twain

During Wind and Rain

Gerard Manly Hopkins, Spring and Fall

Emma Lazarus, The New Colossus

A.E. Housman, Loveliest of trees, the cherry now

Eden Phillpotts, The Learned

W.B. Yeats, The Song of the Wandering Angus

The Scholars

The Wild Swans at Coole

The Second Coming

Leda and the Swan

Sailing to Byzantium

Virtual Locale: Boland on Yeats—Branching Out Lecture Series

Paul Lawrence Dunbar, Theology


Robert Gould Shaw

Robert Frost, Mending Wall

The Road Not Taken

For Once, Then, Something

Once by the Pacific

Audio Locale: Frost Reading “The Road Not Taken”

Rainer Maria Rilke, Archaic Torso of Apollo (trans. by Stephen Mitchell)

Carl Sandburg, Chicago

Wallace Stevens, The Emperor of Ice Cream

Anecdote of the Jar

The Snow Man

The Idea of Order at Key West

The House Was Quiet and the World Was Calm

Literary Locale: Stevens Walking Tour, Hartford, Connecticut

William Carlos Williams, Landscape with the Fall of Icarus

Virtual Locale: Pinsky on Williams—Branching Out Lecture Series

Marianne Moore, Poetry

Robinson Jeffers, Continent’s End

Carmel Point

T.S. Eliot, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock

Audio Locale: Eliot Reading Prufrock


Audio Locale: NPR’s top 15 American Poems of the 20th Century

Edna St. Vincent Millay, Recuerdo

What lips my lips have kissed

Wilfred Owen, Anthem for Doomed Youth

Dulce et decorum est

Louise Bogan, Women

Federico García Lorca, Arbolé, Arbolé (trans. by William Logan)

Langston Hughes, The Negro Speaks of Rivers

Audio Locale: Hughes Reading “The Negro Speaks of Rivers”

Theme for English B


Virtual Locale: Pinsky on Williams and Frost—Branching Out Poetry Lecture Series

Stevie Smith, Not Waving But Drowning

The Heavenly City

Countee Cullen, Yet Do I Marvel

Pablo Neruda, Oblivion

The Potter

The Son

W.H. Auden, Stop All the Clocks, Cut Off the Telephone

Musée des Beaux Arts

September 1, 1939

Audio Locale: Auden Reading at the 92nd Street Y

Theodore Roethke, My Papa’s Waltz

Root Cellar

Elizabeth Bishop, At the Fishhouses

First Death in Nova Scotia

The Moose

Czeslaw Milosz, After Paradise

Robert Hayden, Homage to the Empress of the Blues

Those Winter Sundays

Octavio Paz, With Our Eyes Shut/Con Los Ojos Cerrados

William Stafford, Ask Me

Waiting in Line

Dylan Thomas, Fern Hill

In My Craft or Sullen Art

Robert Lowell, Skunk Hour

Amy Clampitt, On the Disadvantages of Central Heating

Richard Hugo, Degrees of Gray in Phillipsburg

Denise Levertov, The Ache of Marriage

The Wedding-Ring

Jack Gilbert, The Forgotten Dialect of the Heart

A.R. Ammons, The City Limits

Allen Ginsberg, A Supermarket in California

Audio Locale: Ginsberg Reading “A Supermarket in California”

First Party at Ken Kesey’s with Hell’s Angels

James Merrill, To a Butterfly

Frank O’Hara, Why I Am Not a Painter

Inspiration: Frank O’Hara and the New York School of Painters

Ave Maria

Digression on Number 1, 1948

In Memory of My Feelings

John Ashbery, Paradoxes and Oxymorons

Galway Kinnell, After Making Love We Hear Footsteps

Blackberry Eating

W.S. Merwin, One of the Lives

James Wright, A Blessing

Lying in a Hammock at William Duffy’s Farm in Pine Island, Minnesota

Philip Levine, Animals are Passing from Our Lives

Anne Sexton, The Starry Night

Two Hands

Adrienne Rich, Moving in Winter

Living in Sin

Gary Snyder, Above Pate Valley

Derek Walcott, Midsummer, Tobago

Geoffrey Hill, September Song

Linda Pastan, Agoraphobia

Sylvia Plath, Mushrooms

The Mirror


Audre Lorde, Coal

Mark Strand, Keeping Things Whole

Mary Oliver, The Wild Geese

When Death Comes

Lucille Clifton, homage to my hips

Audio Locale: Clifton Reading “homage to my hips”

Charles Simic, Eyes Fastened With Pins

Margaret Atwood, This is a Photograph of Me

Siren Song


Frank Bidart, Hammer

Seamus Heaney, Digging

From the Frontier of Writing

The Summer of Lost Rachel

Billy Collins, Picnic, Lightning

Audio Locale: Billy Collins on National Public Radio

Toi Derricotte, Black Boys Play the Classics

Robert Hass, Meditation at Lagunitas

A Story about the Body

Marilyn Hacker, Sonnet

William Matthews, An Airline Breakfast

Pat Mora, La Migra

Sharon Olds, Sex Without Love

Tess Gallagher, I Stop Writing This Poem

Nikki Giovanni, Ego Tripping

Louise Glück, Mock Orange

The School Children

James Tate, Where Babies Come From

Eavan Boland, Anorexic

The Dolls Museum in Dublin

Mary Kinzie, Beautiful Days

Ira Sadoff, Nazis

Linda Hogan, First Light

Jane Kenyon, Let Evening Come

Yusef Komunyakaa, Facing It

Wendy Rose, For the White Poets Who would be Indian

Agha Shahid Ali, The Country Without a Post Office

Julia Alvarez, Dusting

Anne Carson, Helen

Carolyn Forche, The Colonel

Jorie Graham, Over and Over Stitch

The Way Things Work

Brooks Haxton, Again Consider the Wind

Ed Hirsch, Fast Break

Marie Howe, Isaac

Garrett Hongo, The Legend

Brigit Pegeen Kelly, River of Heaven

Judith Ortiz Cofer, Quinceañera

Rita Dove, Describe Yourself in Three Words or Less


Cynthia Huntington, Breaking

Linton Kwesi Johnson, Sense Outa Nonsense

Dorianne Laux, For My Daughter Who Loves Animals

Naomi Shahib Nye, Rain

Gary Soto, Oranges

Black Hair

Susan Stewart, Kingfisher Carol

Rosanna Warren, Simile

Sandra Cisneros, Loose Woman

Marilyn Chin, Composed Near the Bay Bridge

Cathy Song, Beauty and Sadness

A Conservative View

Henri Cole, Myself With Cats

Martin Espada, Public School 190, Brooklyn, 1963

The Bouncer’s Confession

Li-Young Lee, From Blossoms

Lucia Perillo, The Afterlife of the Fifties Dad

The Crows Start Demanding Royalties

Elizabeth Alexander, Affirmative Action Blues (1993)

Deborah Garrison, A Working Girl Can’t Win

Sherman Alexie, Evolution

19. Biographies of Selected Poets


Plays: Action and Performance

Seeing vs. Reading

Talking about Drama

Susan Glaspell, Trifles

INSPIRATION: Glaspell’s A Jury of Her Peers

Drama as Action

Audio Locale: Scribbling Women’s A Jury of Her Peers

Performance Notes: Trifles in Performance

Virtual Locale:American Literature on the Web—Susan Glaspell

Lady Gregory, Spreading the News

Performance Notes: Spreading the News in Performance

Virtual Locale: Gregory’s Our Irish Theatre Online

David Ives, The Philadelphia

Performance Notes: The Philadelphia in Performance

Inspiration: Ives on the Power of Theater

Writing about Plays

The Cultural Conversation


Full Review

Chris Rohmann, Opening Night Review: Art

Ross Wetzsteon, Janet McTeer in A Doll’s House

Brief Reviews

Beyond Reviews: Criticism

How to Enter the Conversation?

Virtual Locale:Blogging about Plays

Questions to Develop Ideas About a Play

Point of View





Links to Other Texts


Formats for Writing about Plays

Annotating a Play

Annotations forGlaspell’s Trifles

Keeping a Personal Journal

Double-Entry Reaction Journal for Spreading the News

Writing a Response Paper

From a Response Paper to [EXAMPLE TK]

Writing an Intervention

Inspiration: Muriel Rukeyser on Oedipus

Muriel Rukeyser, Myth

Writing a Critical Analysis

Critical Analysis of Glaspell’s Trifles

A Playwright in Depth: Sophocles

Theater in Sophocles’ Time

Literary Locale: The Greek Theater

Ritual and Religion in Greek Drama

video locale: Joseph Campbell and The Power of Myth

Tragedy in Greek Drama

Performance Notes on Greek Drama

Modern Setting and Dress

Major Alterations


The Greek Canon

Greek Drama on the American Stage

Sophocles Timeline

Plays by Sophocles

Oedipus The King (translated by Robert Fagles)

Commentary: Aristotle on Tragedy and Oedipus Rex

Commentary: Other Critical Responses to Oedipus—Freud, Dodds, and Artaud

Sigmund Freud, On the Oedipus Complex

E.R. Dodds, disagreeing with Freud, from “On Misunderstanding the Oedipus Rex”

Antonin Artaud, from The Theater and its Double

INSPIRATION: The Oedipal Complex on Film

Antigone (translated by Dudley Fitts and Robert Fitzgerald)

Antigone on the American Stage

Audio Locale: Antigone and Modern-Day Current Events

Inspiration: Antigone Abroad

23. A Playwright in Depth: William Shakespeare

Literary Locale: The Globe Theater, London

William Shakespeare Timeline

Video Locale: Will the Real Will Please Stand Up?—The Shakespeare Debate

Performance Notes on Shakespearean Drama

To Cut or Not to Cut?

Radical Changes

Modern Dress

Casting the Play

Inspiration: Shakespeare in the Modern Movies

Plays by Shakespeare

Reading The Tempest

The Tempest (edited by David Bevington)

Inspiration: The Tempest in Film and Verse

The Tempest in Performance

Cultural Context for The Tempest: O Brave New World

AUDIO LOCALE: Songs from Shakespeare’s Plays

Inspiration: Retelling The Tempest—On Film and In Verse

Commentary: Aime Cesaire, A Tempest (translated by Richard Miller)

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark (edited by David Bevington)

Inspiration: Stoppard’s Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead

Commentary: Danitra Vance, Flotilda Williams as Juliet

Othello, The Moor of Venice (edited by David Bevington)

Virtual Locale: Shakespeare on the Web

Drama Becomes Modern

LITERARY LOCALE: The Ibsen Museum in Oslo, Norway

Henrik Ibsen, A Doll House (translated by Rolf Fjelde)

Inspiration: A “Little” Doll’s House

Virtual Locale: Ibsen on the Net

Performance Notes on Modern Theater

New Plays, New Audiences

Changing the Stage

Psychology, "The Method," and Politics

Tennessee Williams, The Glass Menagerie

Literary Locale: The Tennessee Williams/New Orleans Literary Festival

Arthur Miller, Death of a Salesman

Audio Locale: Retrospective of a Master Playwright

INSPIRATION: Bright Futures in Sales

Audio Locale: 50th Anniversary of Death of a Salesman

Commentary: Arthur Miller on Trial

25. Sweet Home Chicago: From Renaissance to A Raisin in the Sun

VIDEO LOCALE: George King’s Goin’ to Chicago

Chicago Renaissance Timeline

St. Clair Drake and Horace R. Cayton, from Bronzeville

LITERARY LOCALE: Parkway Community House—Bronzeville, Chicago

Poetry of the Chicago Renaissance

Gwendolyn Brooks, We Real Cool

The Lovers of the Poor

LITERARY LOCALE: Chicago’s South Side Community Art Center

Frank Marshall Davis, I Sing No New Songs

Robert Whitmore

Margaret Walker, I Want to Write

For My People

Margaret Danner, Far From Africa: Four Poems

AUDIO LOCALE: Hughes and Danner’s "Writers of the Revolution" Discussion

The Blues

VIDEO, AUDIO, and VIRTUAL LOCALE: Martin Scorsese’s The Blues

Robert Johnson, Sweet Home Chicago

McKinley Morganfield (Muddy Waters), Rolling Stone

Willie Dixon, Spoonful

LITERARY AND AUDIO LOCALE: The Chicago Blues—Chess Records

Commentary on the Blues



Thomas A. Dorsey, Precious Lord Take My Hand

Sam Cooke, If I Could Just Touch the Hem of His Garment

A Change Is Gonna Come

VIRTUAL LOCALE: Encyclopedia of Chicago Website

Stories of the Chicago Renaissance

Gwendolyn Brooks, “Home” from Maud Martha

Richard Wright, The Man Who Lived Underground (in fiction)

Commentary: On Richard Wright

Margaret Walker, Richard Wright and the Writer’s Art from Daemonic Genius

INSPIRATION: Literature on the Newsstands of Chicago

Langston Hughes, In the Dark

Commentary: A Literary Correspondence: Langston Hughes-Arna Bontemps

Cyrus Colter, Mary’s Convert

Plays in the Chicago Renaissance

Lorraine Hansberry, A Raisin in the Sun

Inspiration: Hughes and Hansberry: What Happens to a Dream Deferred?

26. From Avant-Garde to Contemporary Theater

Performance Notes on Contemporary Theater

Pushing Boundaries

Designer Theater

Breaking the Fourth Wall

Samuel Beckett, Not I

Commentary: Beckett’s Legacy in the Drama World

Luis Valdez, Los Vendidos

Literary Locale: El Teatro Campesinoin California

Philip Kan Gotanda, The Wash

Virtual Locale: Philip Kan Gotanda’s Website

August Wilson, The Piano Lesson

VIDEO LOCALE: The Piano Lesson on Screen

Inspiration: August Wilson and the Blues

Anna Deavere Smith, From Twilight, Los Angeles 1992 (selections)

Video Locale: Twilight: Los Angeles, 1992, From Stage to Screen

Inspiration:A New Generation of One-Woman Acts on Stage


The Literature Research Project

Understanding Literary Research

Entering the Cultural Conversation about Literature

Choosing a Topic

Narrowing Your Topic and Developing a Research Question

Determining Your Purpose: Types of Literary Research Projects

Distinguishing Between Expository Essays and Literary Arguments

The Research Process: A Step-By Step Summary

Finding and Evaluating Sources

Finding Sources

Annotated References for Literary Research

Annotated Library Subscription Databases for Literary Research

Evaluating Sources

Print Sources

Internet Sources

Taking Adequate Notes

The Actual Writing Process

Drafting a Thesis

Creating an Outline

Writing a First Draft

Revising and Editing

Avoiding Plagiarism

Academic Honesty

Unintentional Plagiarism

An Example of Plagiarism and How to Prevent It

Documenting Sources

Using Parenthetical Citations in Your Text

Integrating Quotations

Formatting Literary Quotations from Stories, Plays, and Stories

Creating the Works Cited Page

Sample Literary Research Project: From Question to Finished Paper

Class Assignment Sheet for Research Project

Sample Student Prospectus

Sample Student Thesis and Outline

Sample Student Research Paper

Glossary of Literary Terms


Index of Authors and Titles

Index of First Lines of Poetry

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