Pub. Date:
The Paper Tiger


by Lionel Ruby


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781889439143
Publisher: The Paper Tiger
Publication date: 05/20/2000
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 544
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 1.38(d)

Table of Contents

Part 1Language and Logic
1Disputes: Verbal and Otherwise3
A few examples
The analysis of disputes
2The Meaning of "Meaning"16
Semantics and logic
Signs and symbols
The arbitrariness of meanings
Growth and change in language
Some errors of symbolism
The meaning of ambiguity
The analysis of ambiguity
The types of ambiguity
The fallacies of ambiguity
4The Uses of Language66
Neutral, emotive, and directive words
The three purposes of discourse
Appropriate and inappropriate language
The logical and non-logical uses of language
5The Definition of "Definition"88
The importance of definition
Two basic distinctions
The types of definitions
The criteria of an adequate analytical definition
Plato and the rules of definition
Truth and falsity in definitions
The construction of definitions
Part 2Deductive Logic
6Logic and Argument127
Argument and assertion
The law of rationality and evasions thereof
7Syllogisms, Propositions, and Terms154
Introduction to the syllogism
The categorical proposition and its parts
The class-analysis of subject-predicate propositions
Affirmative and negative propositions
Universal and particular propositions
The four types of categorical propositions
The distribution of terms
8The Analysis of Categorical Syllogisms176
The definition of the syllogism
Basic words in the analysis of categorical syllogisms
Preliminary analysis of categorical syllogisms
The rules of the categorical syllogism
The diagramming of syllogisms
The corollaries, figures, and moods
A note on deductive systems
9Semantics and the Syllogism205
The need for semantical analysis
Sentences in irregular forms
Equivalent propositions
10The Syllogism and Everyday Discourse226
Syllogisms and ordinary discourse
A syllogism has three and only three terms
The analysis of syllogisms in everyday discourse
The enthymeme
The sorites
The relations between terms generalized
11The Relations Among Propositions245
Relations with respect to truth and falsity
The seven relations
The square of opposition
The existential import of categorical propositions
The traditional "laws of thought"
12Compound Propositions and Syllogisms272
Compound propositions
Hypothetical propositions and syllogisms
Special aspects of hypothetical propositions and syllogisms
Alternative propositions and syllogisms
The conjunctive proposition and the negated conjunct
The dilemma
13Symbolic Logic300
What is symbolic logic?
Truth-functions and truth-tables
The meaning of "[characters not reproducible]"
Ordinary implication and material implication
The interdefinability of truth functions
Complex propositions and bracketing
Truth tables and argumentation
Complex arguments
Part 3The Logic of Truth: Scientific Methodology
14Truth and Probability327
Deduction and induction
Validity and truth
The meaning of truth
The meaning of empirical probability
Probability and the syllogism
A priori probability
The calculus of mathematical probabilities
15Hypotheses and Scientific Method358
Concerning the proof of a proposition
Problems, facts, and hypotheses
The logical analysis of an example of scientific thinking
Some general considerations concerning hypotheses and negative experiments
Supplementary comments on the eight steps
The problem of verification in history and the law courts
16Cause and Effect: the "Experimental Methods"397
The significance of causal analysis
The definition of "cause" and "condition"
The discovery and testing of hypotheses of causal connection
The "experimental methods"
Causality in the social sciences
The fallacies of causal analysis
17The Nature of Inductive Reasoning433
The meaning of generalizations
The truth or probability of generalizations
The justification of inductions
Analogy and scientific method
Analogy and argumentation
Miscellaneous fallacies
The need for statistics
Statistical descriptions
Statistical averages
Measures of dispersion
Statistical inductions and sampling procedures
Fallacies in the use of statistics
19Logic and Evaluations489
"Statements of fact" and evaluations
Values as expressions of preferences or attitudes
Standards of value--ends and means
Are morals "relative"?
The Venn Diagrams: The Venn diagrams for categorical propositions
The Venn diagrams for syllogisms

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