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Loose-leaf Version of Ways of the World: A Brief Global History with Sources, Volume 2 / Edition 2

Loose-leaf Version of Ways of the World: A Brief Global History with Sources, Volume 2 / Edition 2

by Robert W. Strayer

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781457647284
Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's
Publication date: 11/09/2012
Edition description: Second Edition
Pages: 720
Product dimensions: 7.30(w) x 9.10(h) x 1.00(d)

About the Author

Robert W. Strayer (PhD, University of Wisconsin) taught African, Soviet, and world history for many years at SUNY College at Brockport, where he received Chancellor’s Awards for Excellence in Teaching and for Excellence in Scholarship. In 1998 he was visiting professor of world and Soviet history at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand. Since 2002, he has taught world history at the University of California, Santa Cruz; California State University, Monterey Bay; and Cabrillo College. His scholarship includes work in African history (Kenya: Focus on Nationalism, 1975; The Making of Mission Communities in East Africa, 1978); Soviet history (Why Did the Soviet Union Collapse?,1998;  The Communist Experiment, 2007) and World History (The Making of the Modern World, 1988, 1995; Ways of the World, 2009, 2011). He is a long-time member of the World History Association and served on its Executive Committee.

Table of Contents


Versions and Supplements


Special Features

Working with Primary Sources

Prologue: The Three Cs of World History: Change, Comparison, and Connection

Context in World History: Change

Context in World History: Comparison

Context in World History: Connection

12 The Worlds of the Fifteenth Century

The Shapes of Human Communities

     Paleolithic Persistence: Australia and North America

     Agricultural Village Societies: The Igbo and the Iroquois

     Herding Peoples: Central Asia and West Africa

Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: Comparing China and Europe

     Ming Dynasty China

     European Comparisons: State Building and Cultural Renewal

     European Comparisons: Maritime Voyaging

Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The Islamic World

     In the Islamic Heartland: The Ottoman and Safavid Empires

     On the Frontiers of Islam: The Songhay and Mughal Empires

Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The Americas

     The Aztec Empire

     The Inca Empire

Webs of Connection

A Preview of Coming Attractions: Looking Ahead to the Modern Era, 1500–2012

Reflections: What If? Chance and Contingency in World History

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance?

     Big Picture Questions

     Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: Major Developments around the World in the Fifteenth Century

Snapshot: World Population Growth, 1000–2000

*Portrait: Zheng He, China's Non-Chinese Admiral

Considering the Evidence

     Documents: The Aztecs and the Incas through Spanish Eyes

     12.1—Diego Duran on the Aztecs: King Moctezuma I, Laws, Ordinances and Regulations, ca. 1450 and Diego Duran, Book of the Gods and Rites, 1574-1576

     12.2— Pedro de Cieza de Léon on the Incas: Pedro de Cieza de Léon, Chronicles of the Incas, ca. 1550

Using the Evidence

     *Visual Sources: Islam and Renaissance Europe

     Gentile Bellini, Portrait of Mehmed II

     The Venetian Ambassador Visits Damascus

     Aristotle and Averroes

     St. George Baptizes the Pagans of Jerusalem

     Giovanni da Modena, Muhammad in Hell

Using the Evidence 

Part Four: The Early Modern World, 1450–1750

The Big Picture

Debating the Character of an Era

     An Early Modern Era?

     A Late Agrarian Era?

     *Mapping Part Four

13 Political Transformations: Empires and Encounters, 1450–1750

European Empires in the Americas

     The European Advantage

     The Great Dying

     The Columbian Exchange

Comparing Colonial Societies in the Americas

     In the Lands of the Aztecs and the Incas

     Colonies of Sugar

     Settler Colonies in North America

The Steppes and Siberia: The Making of a Russian Empire

     Experiencing the Russian Empire

     Russians and Empire

Asian Empires

     Making China an Empire

     Muslims and Hindus in the Mughal Empire

     Muslims and Christians in the Ottoman Empire

Reflections: The Centrality of Context in World History

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance?

     Big Picture Questions

     Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: Ethnic Composition of Colonial Societies in Latin America

*Portrait: Doña Marina, Between Two Worlds

Considering the Evidence

     Documents: State Building in the Early Modern Era

     13.1—The "Self-Portrait" of a Chinese Emperor: The Emperor Kangxi, Reflections, 1671-1722

     13.2—The Memoirs of Emperor Jahangir: Jahangir, Memoirs, 1605-1627

     13.3—An Outsider’s View of Suleiman I: Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq, The Turkish Letters, 1555-1562

     13.4—French State-Building and Louis XIV: Louis XIV, Memoirs, 1670 Using the Evidence

     Visual Sources: The Conquest of Mexico through Aztec Eyes

     Disaster Foretold

     Moctezuma and Cortés

     The Massacre of the Nobles

     The Spanish Retreat from Tenochtitlán

Using the Evidence

14 Economic Transformations: Commerce and Consequence, 1450–1750

Europeans and Asian Commerce

     A Portuguese Empire of Commerce

     Spain and the Philippines

     The East India Companies

     Asian Commerce

Silver and Global Commerce

The "World Hunt": Fur in Global Commerce

Commerce in People: The Atlantic Slave Trade

     The Slave Trade in Context

     The Slave Trade in Practice

     Consequences: The Impact of the Slave Trade in Africa

Reflections: Economic Globalization—Then and Now

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance?

     Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: The Slave Trade in Numbers (1501-1866)

*Portrait: Ayuba Suleiman Diallo, To Slavery and Back

Considering the Evidence

     Documents: Voices from the Slave Trade 00

     14.1—The Journey to Slavery: Olaudah Equiano, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, 1789

     14.2—The Business of the Slave Trade: Thomas Phillips, "A Journal of a Voyage Made in the Hannibal of London," 1694

     14.3—The Slave Trade and the Kingdom of Kongo: King Affonso I, Letters to King Jao of Portugal, 1526

     14.4—The Slave Trade and the Kingdom of Asante: Osei Bons, Conversation with Joseph Dupuis, 1820

Using the Evidence

     Visual Sources: Exchange and Status in the Early Modern World

     Tea and Porcelain in Europe

     A Chocolate Party in Spain

     An Ottoman Coffeehouse

     Clothing and Status in Colonial Mexico

Using the Evidence

15 Cultural Transformations: Religion and Science, 1450–1750

The Globalization of Christianity

     Western Christendom Fragmented: The Protestant Reformation

     Christianity Outward Bound

     Conversion and Adaptation in Spanish America

     An Asian Comparison: China and the Jesuits

Persistence and Change in Afro-Asian Cultural Traditions

     Expansion and Renewal in the Islamic World

     China: New Directions in an Old Tradition

     India: Bridging the Hindu/Muslim Divide

A New Way of Thinking: The Birth of Modern Science

     The Question of Origins: Why Europe?

     Science as Cultural Revolution • Science and Enlightenment

     Looking Ahead: Science in the Nineteenth Century

     European Science beyond the West

Reflections: Cultural Borrowing and Its Hazards

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance?

     Big Picture Questions

     Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: Catholic/Protestant Differences in the Sixteenth Century

Snapshot: Major Thinkers and Achievements of the Scientific Revolution

*Portrait: Ursula de Jesus, An Afro-Peruvian Slave and Christian Visionary

Considering the Evidence

     Documents: Renewal and Reform in the Early Modern World

     15.1—Luther’s Protest: Martin Luther, Table Talk, early sixteenth century

     15.2—Progress and Enlightenment: Marquis de Condorcet, Sketch of the Progress of the Human Mind, 1793-1794

     15.3—The Wahhabi Perspective on Islam: Abdullah Wahhab, "History and Doctrines of the Wahhabis," 1803

     15.4—The Poetry of Kabîr: Kabîr, Poetry, ca. late fifteenth century

Using the Evidence

     Visual Sources: Global Christianity in the Early Modern World

     Pieter Seanredam, Interior of a Dutch Reformed Church

     Catholic Baroque: Interior of Pilgrimage Church, Mariazell, Austria

     Cultural Blending in Andean Christianity

     Making Christianity Chinese

     Christian Art at the Mughal Court

Using the Evidence

Part Five: The European Moment In World History, 1750–1914

The Big Picture European Centrality and the Problem of Eurocentrism

     Eurocentric Geography and History

     Countering Eurocentrism

     *Mapping Part Five

16 Atlantic Revolutions, Global Echoes, 1750–1914

Atlantic Revolutions in a Global Context

Comparing Atlantic Revolutions

     The North American Revolution, 1775–1787

     The French Revolution, 1789–1815

     The Haitian Revolution, 1791–1804

     Spanish American Revolutions, 1810–1825

Echoes of Revolution

     The Abolition of Slavery

     Nations and Nationalism

     Feminist Beginnings

Reflections: Revolutions Pro and Con

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance?

     Big Picture Questions

     Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: Key Moments in the Growth of Nationalism

*Portrait: Kartini, Feminism and Nationalism in Java

Considering the Evidence

     Documents: Claiming Rights

     16.1—The French Revolution and the "Rights of Man": The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, 1789

     16.2—Rights and National Independence: Simón Bolívar, The Jamaica Letter, 1815

     16.3—Rights and Slavery: Frederick Douglass, "What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?", 1852

     16.4—The Rights of Women: Elizabeth Cady Stanton, The Solitude of Self, 1892

Using the Evidence

     Visual Sources: Representing the French Revolution

     The Early Years of the French Revolution: "The Joyous Accord"

     A Reversal of Roles: The Three Estates of Revolutionary France

     Revolution and Religion: "Patience, Monsignor, your turn will come"

     An English Response to Revolution: "Hell Broke Loose or The Murder of Louis"

Using the Evidence

17 Revolutions of Industrialization, 1750–1914

Explaining the Industrial Revolution

     Why Europe?

     Why Britain?

The First Industrial Society

     The British Aristocracy

     The Middle Classes

     The Laboring Classes

     Social Protest

     Europeans in Motion

Variations on a Theme: Comparing Industrialization in the United States and Russia

     The United States: Industrialization without Socialism

     Russia: Industrialization and Revolution

The Industrial Revolution and Latin America in the Nineteenth Century

     After Independence in Latin America

     Facing the World Economy

     Becoming like Europe?

Reflections: History and Horse Races

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance?

     Big Picture Questions

     Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: Measuring the Industrial Revolution

Snapshot: The Industrial Revolution and the Global Divide

*Portrait: Ellen Johnston, Factory Girl and Poet

Considering the Evidence

     *Documents: Experiencing Industrialization

     17.1— The Experience of an English Factory Worker: Elizabeth Bentley, Factory Worker, Testimony, 1831 and William Harter, Mill Owner, Testimony, 1832

     17.2—A Weaver’s Lament: Only a Weaver, 1860s

     17.3—A Middle-Class Understanding of the Industrial Poor: Samuel Smiles, Thrift, 1875

     17.4—Socialism According to Marx: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto, 1848

     17.5—Socialism in Song: Eugene Pottier (trans. Charles Kerr), The Internationale, 1871

Using the Evidence

     Visual Sources: Art and the Industrial Revolution

     The Machinery Department of the Crystal Palace

     The Railroad as a Symbol of the Industrial Era

     Outside the Factory: Eyre Crowe, The Dinner Hour, Wigan

     Inside the Factory: Lewis Hine, Child Labor, 1912

     John Leech, Capital and Labour

Using the Evidence

18 Colonial Encounters in Asia and Africa, 1750–1950

Industry and Empire

A Second Wave of European Conquests

Under European Rule

     Cooperation and Rebellion

     Colonial Empires with a Difference

Ways of Working: Comparing Colonial Economies

     Economies of Coercion: Forced Labor and the Power of the State

     Economies of Cash-Crop Agriculture: The Pull of the Market

     Economies of Wage Labor: Migration for Work

     Women and the Colonial Economy: Examples from Africa

     Assessing Colonial Development

Believing and Belonging: Identity and Cultural Change in the Colonial Era



     "Race" and "Tribe"

Reflections: Who Makes History?

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance?

     Big Picture Questions • Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: Long-Distance Migration in an Age of Empire, 1846–1940

*Portrait: Wanjiku of Kenya, An Ordinary Woman in Extraordinary Times

Considering the Evidence

Documents: Indian Responses to Empire

     18.1—Seeking Western Education: Ram Mohan Roy, Letter to Lord Amherst, 1823

     18.2—The Indian Rebellion: Prince Feroze Shah, The Azamgarh Proclamation, 1857

     18.3—The Credits and Debits of British Rule in India: Dadabhai Naoroji, Speech to a London Audience, 1871

     18.4—Gandhi on Modern Civilization: Mahatma Gandhi, Indian Home Rule, 1908

Using the Evidence

     Visual Sources: The Scramble for Africa

     Prelude to the Scramble

     Conquest and Competition

     From the Cape to Cairo

     British and French in North Africa

     The Ethiopian Exception

Using the Evidence

19 Empire in Collision: Europe, the Middle East, and East Asia, 1800–1914

Reversal of Fortune: China’s Century of Crisis

     The Crisis Within

     Western Pressures

     The Failure of Conservative Modernization

The Ottoman Empire and the West in the Nineteenth Century

     "The Sick Man of Europe"

     Reform and Its Opponents

     Outcomes: Comparing China and the Ottoman Empire

The Japanese Difference: The Rise of a New East Asian Power

     The Tokugawa Background

     American Intrusion and the Meiji Restoration

     Modernization Japanese Style

     Japan and the World

Reflections: Success and Failure in History

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance?

     Big Picture Questions

     Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: Chinese/British Trade at Canton, 1835–1836

*Portrait: Commissioner Lin, Confronting the Opium Trade

Considering the Evidence

     *Documents: Changing China

     19.1—Towards a Constitutional Monarchy: Kang Youwei, Memorial to Emperor Guangxu, 1898

     19.2—Education and Examination: Anonymous, Editorial on China’s Examination System, 1898, and Emperor Guangxu, Edict on Education, 1898

     19.3—Gender, Reform, and Revolution: Qiu Jin, An Address to Two Hundred Million Fellow Countrywomen, 1904

     19.4—Prescriptions for a Revolutionary China: Sun Yat-sen, The Three People’s Principles and the Future of the Chinese People, 1906

Using the Evidence

     Visual Sources: Japanese Perceptions of the West

     The Black Ships

     Women and Westernization

     Kobayashi Kiyochika’s Critique of Wholesale Westernization

     Japan, China, and Europe: A Reversal of Roles

Using the Evidence

Part Six: The Most Recent Century, 1914–2012

The Big Picture

Since World War I: A New Period in World History?

     *Mapping Part Six

20: Collapse at the Center: World War, Depression, and the Rebalancing of Global Power, 1914–1970s

The First World War: European Civilization in Crisis, 1914–1918

     An Accident Waiting to Happen

     Legacies of the Great War

Capitalism Unraveling: The Great Depression

Democracy Denied: Comparing Italy, Germany, and Japan

     The Fascist Alternative in Europe

     Hitler and the Nazis

     Japanese Authoritarianism

A Second World War

     The Road to War in Asia

     The Road to War in Europe

     The Outcomes of Global Conflict

The Recovery of Europe

Reflections: War and Remembrance: Learning from History

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance?

     Big Picture Questions

     Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: Comparing the Impact of the Depression

*Portrait: Etty Hillesum, Witness to the Holocaust

Considering the Evidence

     Documents: Ideologies of the Axis Powers

     20.1—Hitler on Nazism: Adolph Hitler, Mein Kampf (My Struggle), 1925-1926

     20.2—The Japanese Way: Cardinal Principles of the National Entity of Japan, 1937

Using the Evidence

     Visual Sources: Propaganda and Critique in World War I

     Defining the Enemy

     War and the Colonies

     Women and the War

     War and the Colonies

     The Battlefield

     The Aftermath of War

Using the Evidence

21 Revolution, Socialism, and Global Conflict: The Rise and Fall of World Communism, 1917–Present

Global Communism

Comparing Revolutions as a Path to Communism

     Russia: Revolution in a Single Year

     China: A Prolonged Revolutionary Struggle

Building Socialism in Two Countries

     Communist Feminism

     Socialism in the Countryside

     Communism and Industrial Development

     The Search for Enemies

East versus West: A Global Divide and a Cold War

     Military Conflict and the Cold War

     Nuclear Standoff and Third World Rivalry

Paths to the End of Communism

     China: Abandoning Communism and Maintaining the Party

     The Soviet Union: The Collapse of Communism and Country

Reflections: To Judge or Not to Judge

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance?

     Big Picture Questions

     Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: China under Mao, 1949–1976

*Portrait: Anna Dubova, A Peasant Woman and Soviet Communist

Considering the Evidence

     Documents: Experiencing Stalinism

     21.1—Stalin on Stalinism: Joseph Stalin, "The Results of the First Five-Year Plan," 1933

     21.2—Living through Collectivization: Maurice Hindus, Red Bread, 1931

     21.3—Living through Industrialization: Personal Accounts of Soviet Industrialization, 1930s

     21.4—Living through the Terror: Personal Accounts of the Terror, 1930s

Using the Evidence

     Visual Sources: Poster Art in Mao’s China

     Smashing the Old Society

     Building the New Society: The People’s Commune

     Women, Nature, and Industrialization

     The Cult of Mao

Using the Evidence

22 The End of Empire: The Global South on the Global Stage, 1914–Present

Toward Freedom: Struggles for Independence

     The End of Empire in World History

     Explaining African and Asian Independence

Comparing Freedom Struggles

     The Case of India: Ending British Rule

     The Case of South Africa: Ending Apartheid

Experiments with Freedom

     Experiments in Political Order: Party, Army, and the Fate of Democracy

     Experiments in Economic Development: Changing Priorities, Varying Outcomes

     Experiments with Culture: The Role of Islam in Turkey and Iran

Reflections: History in the Middle of the Stream

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance?

     Big Picture Questions

     Next Steps: For Further Study


Snapshot: World Population Growth, 1950-2011

*Portrait: Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Muslim Pacifist

Considering the Evidence

     Documents: Contending for Islam

     22.1—A Secular State for an Islamic Society in Turkey: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Speech to the General Congress of the Republican Party, 1927

     22.2—Political Islam: Ayatollah Khomeini, Sayings of the Ayatollah Khomeini, 1980

     22.3—Progressive Islam: Kabir Helminski, "Islam and Human Values," 2009

     22.4—Abandoning Islam: Ayaan Hirsi Ail, From Islam to America, 2010

Using the Evidence

     Visual Sources: Representing Independence

     African National Congress

     Vietnamese Independence and Victory over the United States

     Winning a Jewish National State

     A Palestinian Nation in the Making

Using the Evidence

23 Capitalism and Culture: A New Phase of Global Interaction, since 1945

The Transformation of the World Economy


     Growth, Instability, and Inequality

     Globalization and an American Empire

The Globalization of Liberation: Focus on Feminism

     Feminism in the West

     Feminism in the Global South

     International Feminism

Religion and Global Modernity

     Fundamentalism on a Global Scale

     Creating Islamic Societies: Resistance and Renewal in the World of Islam

     Religious Alternatives to Fundamentalism

Experiencing the Anthropocene Era: Environment and Environmentalism

     The Global Environment Transformed

     Green and Global

Final Reflections: Pondering the OAR

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance?

     Big Picture Questions

     Next Steps: For Further Study


*Snapshot: Global Development and Inequality: 2011

*Portrait: Rachel Carson, Pioneer of Environmentalism

Considering the Evidence

     *Documents: Voices of Global Feminism

     23.1—Communist Feminism: Alexandra Kollotai, "Communism and the Family," 1920

     23.2—Western Feminism: Andrea Dworkin, "Remember, Resist, Do Not Comply," 1995

     23.3—Black American Feminism: Combahee River Collective, A Black Feminist Statement, 1977

     23.4—Islamic Feminism: Benzair Bhutto, Politics and the Muslim Woman, 1985

     23.5—Mexican Zapatista Feminists: Indigenous Women's Petition, March 1, 1994 and The Women's Revolutionary Law, January 1, 1994

Using the Evidence

     Visual Sources: Experiencing Globalization

     Globalization and Work

     Globalization and Consumerism

     Globalization and Protest

     Globalization: One World or Many?

Using the Evidence




About the Author

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