Steven B. Krivit's Explorations in Nuclear Research three-book series (Hacking the Atom, Fusion Fiasco, Lost History) describes the emergence of a new field of science, one that bridges chemistry and physics. The books give readers an understanding of low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) research and its history and provide a rare behind-the-scenes look at the players and personalities involved.
Lost History, written for scientists and science historians, covers the period from 1912 to 1927, and explores the story of forgotten chemical transmutation research, a precursor to modern low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) research. The book tells the story of century-old research that has been absent from the scientific dialogue for a hundred years — research that is surprisingly similar to events in the modern era.
In the formative years of atomic science in the early 20th century, at the same time that Niels Bohr introduced his model of the atom, and when nuclear science belonged to chemists and physicists alike, some scientists reported inexplicable experimental evidence of elemental transmutations. Papers were published in the top scientific journals of the day, including Physical Review, Science and Nature. Prominent scientists around the world participated in the research. The research was reported in popular newspapers and magazines, such as the New York Times and Scientific American. The book relies heavily on published journal papers.
The experiments, using relatively simple, low-energy benchtop apparatus, did not use radioactive sources, so the results defied prevailing theory. This, coupled with the fact that the experiments were not easily repeated, caused most scientists by 1930 to dismiss the entire body of research as a mistake.
This history of research was omitted from historical references — until now. With the benefit of hindsight, and in light of modern low-energy nuclear research (LENR) and theory, this lost history, after a 60-year hiatus, is told here for the first time. Lost History is the first book that provides critical analyses of the original published scientific papers of the transmutation experiments performed between 1912 and 1927. This book reveals the fascinating story of these experiments and provides significant insights about our understanding of the history of physics, chemistry and nuclear science.
Lost History chronicles the following events that have been either forgotten or misreported:
• From 1912 to 1914, several independent researchers detected the production of noble gases: helium-4, neon, argon, and an as-yet-unidentified element of mass-3, which we now identify as tritium. Two of these researchers were Nobel laureates.
• In 1922, two chemists at the University of Chicago created helium using the exploding electrical conductor method.
• In 1924, a German scientist accidentally found gold and possibly platinum in the residue of mercury vapor lamps that he had been using for photography.
• In 1925, a prominent Japanese scientist reported the production of gold and another metal that was later identified as platinum.
• In 1926, two German chemists pumped hydrogen gas into a chamber with finely divided palladium powder and reported the transmutation of hydrogen into helium. One of them later tried to dismiss the results, but he was never able to completely explain the data as a mistake.
• Contrary to nearly all accounts that credit Ernest Rutherford with the first nuclear transmutation — of nitrogen to oxygen — the credit belongs to a researcher who was working under Rutherford.
About the Author
Steven B. Krivit began his science journalism career focusing on low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) in 2000. He initially reported on the work of credentialed scientists who claimed that they had experimental evidence of "cold fusion." He took those scientists at their word. However, by 2008, Krivit had identified eight experimental facts that disproved their erroneous "cold fusion" hypothesis. Krivit's article on LENR, published by Scientific American on Dec. 7, 2016, provides a concise overview of the topic. Krivit is the publisher and senior editor of New Energy Times. He is a recognized subject-matter expert on LENR research and an author, investigative science journalist, editor, photographer, and international speaker. His is an author or editor of seven books about or including chapters on LENR. Scientific Publications and Encyclopedias Steven B. Krivit is the leading author of review articles and encyclopedia chapters and books about LENRs. He was invited to write and edit for the Royal Society of Chemistry, Elsevier and John Wiley & Sons. He was an editor for the American Chemical Society 2008 and 2009 technical reference books on LENRs and editor-in-chief for the 2011 Wiley Nuclear Energy Encyclopedia. His most recent books are the three-volume Explorations in Nuclear Science series; Hacking the Atom (Vol. 1), Fusion Fiasco (Vol. 2), and Lost History (Vol. 3). In the Media Krivit and/or New Energy Times have been quoted or cited on LENRs, in the U.S. and internationally, by many media outlets and Krivit has appeared on television and radio.