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In this charming comedy of manners, one of Shakespeare's earliest efforts in the genre, a well-intentioned king vows to forego all fleshly delights, setting the stage for romantic hijinks. Ferdinand, the king of Navarre, insists that his court join him in a pledge to undertake a strict regimen of study and celibacy. The grudging compliance of three noblemen is sorely tested -- as is the king's own resolve -- with the arrival of a French princess and a trio of comely attendants.
First performed in 1594, Love's Labour's Lost features such typical Shakespearean elements as lovers in disguise, a witty clown, and an abundance of sparkling repartee. The play's role as a formative work (the plot is thought to be entirely of Shakespeare's invention) makes it of particular interest to students and scholars, and its merry doings and high spirits recommend it to all.
About the Author
Jill P. Ingram is Assistant Professor of Shakespeare and Renaissance Literature at Ohio University. She received her Ph.D. in English from the University of Virginia, and is the author of the book Idioms of Self-Interest: Credit, Identity and Property in English Renaissance Literature (Routledge, 2006). She has also published many articles on English Renaissance culture and literature.
Read an Excerpt
list of parts
Ferdinand KING of Navarre
Don Adriano de ARMADO, a Spanish braggart
MOTH, a boy, his page
COSTARD, a clown
JAQUENETTA, a dairymaid
Anthony DULL, a constable
Sir NATHANIEL, a curate
HOLOFERNES, a pedantic schoolmaster
The PRINCESS of France
BOYET, a lord attending on the princess
Monsieur MARCADÉ, a messenger from the King of France
Lords, Ladies, Attendants
Act 1 [Scene 1] running scene 1
Enter Ferdinand King of Navarre, Berowne, Longaville and Dumaine
KING Let fame, that all hunt after in their lives,
Live registered upon our brazen tombs,
And then grace us in the disgrace of death
When, spite of cormorant devouring time,
Th'endeavour of this present breath may buy
That honour which shall bate his scythe's keen edge
And make us heirs of all eternity.
Therefore, brave conquerors - for so you are,
That war against your own affections
And the huge army of the world's desires -
Our late edict shall strongly stand in force.
Navarre shall be the wonder of the world,
Our court shall be a little academe,
Still and contemplative in living art.
You three, Berowne, Dumaine and Longaville,
Have sworn for three years' term to live with me,
My fellow-scholars, and to keep those statutes
That are recorded in this schedule here. [Shows a paper]
Your oaths are passed, and now subscribe your names,
That his own hand may strike his honour down
That violates the smallest branch herein.
If you are armed to do as sworn to do,
Subscribe to your deepoaths, and keep it too.
LONGAVILLE I am resolved: 'tis but a three years' fast.
The mind shall banquet though the body pine.
Fat paunches have lean pates, and dainty bits
Make rich the ribs, but bankrupt quite the wits.
DUMAINE My loving lord, Dumaine is mortified.
The grosser manner of these world's delights
He throws upon the gross world's baser slaves.
To love, to wealth, to pomp, I pine and die,
With all these living in philosophy.
BEROWNE I can but say their protestation over.
So much, dear liege, I have already sworn,
That is, to live and study here three years.
But there are other strict observances,
As not to see a woman in that term,
Which I hope well is not enrollèd there.
And one day in a week to touch no food,
And but one meal on every day beside,
The which I hope is not enrollèd there.
And then to sleep but three hours in the night,
And not be seen to wink of all the day -
When I was wont to think no harm all night
And make a dark night too of half the day -
Which I hope well is not enrollèd there.
O, these are barren tasks, too hard to keep:
Not to see ladies, study, fast, not sleep.
KING Your oath is passed to pass away from these.
BEROWNE Let me say no, my liege, an if you please.
I only swore to study with your grace
And stay here in your court for three years' space.
LONGAVILLE You swore to that, Berowne, and to the rest.
BEROWNE By yea and nay, sir, then I swore in jest.
What is the end of study, let me know?
KING Why, that to know which else we should not know.
BEROWNE Things hid and barred, you mean, from common
KING Ay, that is study's godlike recompense.
BEROWNE Come on then, I will swear to study so,
To know the thing I am forbid to know:
As thus, to study where I well may dine,
When I to feast expressly am forbid.
Or study where to meet some mistress fine,
When mistresses from common sense are hid.
Or, having sworn too hard-a-keeping oath,
Study to break it and not break my troth.
If study's gain be thus and this be so,
Study knows that which yet it doth not know.
Swear me to this, and I will ne'er say no.
KING These be the stops that hinder study quite
And train our intellects to vain delight.
BEROWNE Why, all delights are vain, and that most vain,
Which with pain purchased doth inherit pain:
As painfully to pore upon a book
To seek the light of truth, while truth the while
Doth falsely blind the eyesight of his look.
Light seeking light doth light of light beguile:
So, ere you find where light in darkness lies,
Your light grows dark by losing of your eyes.
Study me how to please the eye indeed
By fixing it upon a fairer eye,
Who dazzling so, that eye shall be his heed
And give him light that it was blinded by.
Study is like the heaven's glorious sun
That will not be deep-searched with saucy looks:
Small have continual plodders ever won
Save base authority from others' books.
These earthly godfathers of heaven's lights,
That give a name to every fixèd star,
Have no more profit of their shining nights
Than those that walk and wot not what they are.
Too much to know is to know nought but fame,
And every godfather can give a name.
KING How well he's read, to reason against reading.
DUMAINE Proceeded well, to stop all good proceeding.
LONGAVILLE He weeds the corn, and still lets grow the
BEROWNE The spring is near when green geese are
DUMAINE How follows that?
BEROWNE Fit in his place and time.
DUMAINE In reason nothing.
BEROWNE Something then in rhyme.
KING Berowne is like an envious sneaping frost
That bites the first-born infants of the spring.
BEROWNE Well, say I am. Why should proud summer
Before the birds have any cause to sing?
Why should I joy in any abortive birth?
At Christmas I no more desire a rose
Than wish a snow in May's new-fangled shows,
But like of each thing that in season grows.
So your to study now it is too late,
That were to climb o'er the house to unlock the gate.
KING Well, sit you out. Go home, Berowne, adieu.
BEROWNE No, my good lord, I have sworn to stay with
And though I have for barbarism spoke more
Than for that angel knowledge you can say,
Yet confident I'll keep what I have sworn
And bide the penance of each three years' day.
Give me the paper, let me read the same,
And to the strict'st decrees I'll write my name. [Takes the paper]
KING How well this yielding rescues thee from shame.
BEROWNE 'Item, That no woman shall come within
a mile of my court.' Hath this been proclaimed?
LONGAVILLE Four days ago.
BEROWNE Let's see the penalty: 'On pain of losing her tongue.' Who devised this penalty?
LONGAVILLE Marry, that did I.
BEROWNE Sweet lord, and why?
LONGAVILLE To fright them hence with that dread
BEROWNE A dangerous law against gentility!
'Item, If any man be seen to talk with a woman within
the term of three years, he shall endure such public shame as the rest of the court shall possibly devise.'
This article, my liege, yourself must break,
For well you know here comes in embassy
The French king's daughter with yourself to speak -
A maid of grace and complete majesty -
About surrender up of Aquitaine
To her decrepit, sick and bedrid father:
Therefore this article is made in vain,
Or vainly comes th'admirèd princess hither.
KING What say you, lords? Why, this was quite forgot.
BEROWNE So study evermore is overshot.
While it doth study to have what it would,
It doth forget to do the thing it should:
And when it hath the thing it hunteth most,
'Tis won as towns with fire, so won, so lost.
KING We must of force dispense with this decree.
She must lie here on mere necessity.
BEROWNE Necessity will make us all forsworn
Three thousand times within this three years' space,
For every man with his affects is born,
Not by might mastered but by special grace.
If I break faith, this word shall speak for me:
I am forsworn 'on mere necessity'.
So to the laws at large I write my name,
And he that breaks them in the least degree
Stands in attainder of eternal shame.
Suggestions are to others as to me:
But I believe, although I seem so loath,
I am the last that will last keep his oath.
But is there no quick recreation granted?
KING Ay, that there is. Our court, you know, is haunted
With a refinèd traveller of Spain,
A man in all the world's new fashion planted,
That hath a mint of phrases in his brain,
One who the music of his own vain tongue
Doth ravish like enchanting harmony,
A man of compliments, whom right and wrong
Have chose as umpire of their mutiny.
This child of fancy, that Armado hight,
For interim to our studies shall relate
In high-born words the worth of many a knight
From tawny Spain lost in the world's debate.
How you delight, my lords, I know not, I,
But I protest I love to hear him lie,
And I will use him for my minstrelsy.
BEROWNE Armado is a most illustrious wight,
A man of fire-new words, fashion's own knight.
LONGAVILLE Costard the swain and he shall be our sport,
And so to study three years is but short.
Enter a constable [Dull] with a letter, with Costard
DULL Which is the duke's own person?
BEROWNE This, fellow. What wouldst?
DULL I myself reprehend his own person, for I am his grace's tharborough. But I would see his own person in flesh and blood.
BEROWNE This is he.
DULL Signior Arme . . . Arme . . . commends you. There's villainy abroad. This letter will tell you more. [Shows a letter]
COSTARD Sir, the contempts thereof are as touching me.
KING A letter from the magnificent Armado.
BEROWNE How low soever the matter, I hope in God for high words.
LONGAVILLE A high hope for a low heaven. God grant us patience.
BEROWNE To hear, or forbear hearing?
LONGAVILLE To hear meekly, sir, and to laugh moderately, or to forbear both.
BEROWNE Well, sir, be it as the style shall give us cause to climb in the merriness.
COSTARD The matter is to me, sir, as concerning Jaquenetta. The manner of it is, I was taken with the manner.
BEROWNE In what manner?
COSTARD In manner and form following, sir, all those three. I was seen with her in the manor-house, sitting with her upon the form, and taken following her into the park, which, put together, is 'in manner and form following'. Now, sir, for the manner: it is the manner of a man to speak to a woman. For the form: in some form.
BEROWNE For the 'following', sir?
COSTARD As it shall follow in my correction, and God defend the right!
KING Will you hear this letter with attention?
BEROWNE As we would hear an oracle.
COSTARD Such is the simplicity of man to hearken after the flesh.
KING 'Great deputy, the welkin's vicegerent and sole dominator of Navarre, my soul's earth's god, and body's fostering patron'-
COSTARD Not a word of Costard yet.
KING 'So it is'-
COSTARD It may be so: but if he say it is so, he is, in telling true, but so.
COSTARD Be to me and every man that dares not fight.
KING No words!
COSTARD Of other men's secrets, I beseech you.
KING 'So it is, besieged with sable-coloured
melancholy, I did commend the black oppressing humour to the most wholesome physic of thy health-giving air, and, as I am a gentleman, betook myself to walk. The time, when? About the sixth hour, when beasts most graze, birds best peck, and men sit down to that nourishment which is called supper: so much for the time when. Now for the ground, which? Which, I mean, I walked upon. It is ycleped thy park. Then for the place, where? Where, I mean, I did encounter that obscene and most preposterous event that draweth from my snow- white pen the ebon-coloured ink, which here thou viewest, beholdest, surveyest, or seest. But to the place, where? It standeth north-north- east and by east from the west corner of thy curious-knotted garden; there did I see that low-spirited swain, that base minnow of thy mirth'-
KING 'That unlettered small-knowing soul'-
KING 'That shallow vassal'-
COSTARD Still me?
KING 'Which, as I remember, hight Costard'-
COSTARD O, me!
KING 'Sorted and consorted, contrary to thy established proclaimed edict and continent canon, which with - O, with - but with this I passion to say wherewith'-
COSTARD With a wench.
KING 'With a child of our grandmother Eve, a female, or, for thy more sweet understanding, a woman. Him I (as my ever-esteemed duty pricks me on) have sent to thee, to receive the meed of punishment, by thy sweet grace's officer, Anthony Dull, a man of good repute, carriage, bearing, and estimation.'
DULL Me, an't shall please you. I am Anthony Dull.
KING 'For Jaquenetta - so is the weaker vessel called which I apprehended with the aforesaid swain - I keep her as a vessel of the law's fury, and shall, at the least of thy sweet notice, bring her to trial. Thine, in all compliments of devoted and heart-burning heat of duty. Don Adriano de Armado.'
BEROWNE This is not so well as I looked for, but the best that ever I heard.
KING Ay, the best for the worst. But, sirrah, what say you to this?
COSTARD Sir, I confess the wench.
KING Did you hear the proclamation?
COSTARD I do confess much of the hearing it but little of the marking of it.
KING It was proclaimed a year's imprisonment to be taken with a wench.
COSTARD I was taken with none, sir: I was taken with a damsel.
KING Well, it was proclaimed damsel.
COSTARD This was no damsel, neither, sir: she was a virgin.
KING It is so varied too, for it was proclaimed virgin.
COSTARD If it were, I deny her virginity: I was taken with a maid.
KING This maid will not serve your turn, sir.
COSTARD This maid will serve my turn, sir.
KING Sir, I will pronounce your sentence: you shall fast a week with bran and water.
COSTARD I had rather pray a month with mutton and porridge.
KING And Don Armado shall be your keeper.
My Lord Berowne, see him delivered o'er:
And go we, lords, to put in practice that
Which each to other hath so strongly sworn.
[Exeunt King, Longaville and Dumaine]
BEROWNE I'll lay my head to any goodman's hat,
These oaths and laws will prove an idle scorn.
Sirrah, come on.
COSTARD I suffer for the truth, sir, for true it is, I was taken with Jaquenetta, and Jaquenetta is a true girl. And therefore welcome the sour cup of prosperity! Affliction may one day smile again, and until then, sit down, sorrow! Exeunt
[Act 1 Scene 2] running scene 1 continues
Enter Armado and Moth, his page
ARMADO Boy, what sign is it when a man of great spirit grows melancholy?
MOTH A great sign, sir, that he will look sad.
ARMADO Why, sadness is one and the self-same thing, dear imp.
MOTH No, no, O lord, sir, no.
Table of Contents
|List of Illustrations||viii|
|The Date and 'Sources'||42|
|Abbreviations and References||86|
|Love's Labour's Lost||91|
|Appendix A||Two 'False Starts'||237|
|Appendix B||Alterations to Lineation||239|
|Appendix C||A Note on the Music||242|
|Appendix D||The name of Armado's Page||245|
Appropriate for all level of Shakespeare courses, including courses on Shakespeare, or drama, or Renaissance drama as taught in departments of English, courses in Shakespeare or drama taught in departments of theater, Great Books programs where individual volumes might be used, or high school level courses.
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