The study of low-intensity conflict (LIC) has been beset by problems of definition. This manuscript represents five studies by members of the Political-Military Affairs Division of the Air Force. Each study views the persistence with the bilateral relationship between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. These studies analyze LIC environments in Central Asia, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, Latin America, and sub-Saharan Africa. For each region, history, politics, economics, and ideological currents are emphasized so as to illustrate best the wide variety of LIC phenomena that affect the societies under scrutiny. A final study puts into the perspective of a long-term strategy the implications each contribution draws for U.S. policies. Air University Press. United States Air Force.