Behind every pronunciamiento, a formal list of grievances designed to spark political change in nineteenth-century Mexico, was a disgruntled individual, rebel, or pronunciado. Initially a role undertaken by soldiers, a pronunciado rallied military communities to petition for local, regional, and even national interests. As the popularity of these petitions grew, however, they evolved from a military-led practice to one endorsed and engaged by civilians, priests, indigenous communities, and politicians.
The second in a series of books exploring the phenomenon of the pronunciamiento, this volume examines case studies of individual and collective pronunciados in regions across Mexico. Top scholars examine the motivations of individual pronunciados and the reasons they succeeded or failed; why garrisons, town councils, and communities adopted the pronunciamiento as a political tool and form of representation and used it to address local and national grievances; and whether institutions upheld corporate aims in endorsing, supporting, or launching pronunciamientos. The essays provide a better understanding of the rebel leaders behind these public acts of defiance and reveal how an insurrectionary repertoire became part of a national political culture.
About the Author
Will Fowler is a professor of Latin American Studies at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland. His many books include Forceful Negotiations: The Origins of the Pronunciamiento in Nineteenth-Century Mexico (Nebraska, 2010) and Santa Anna of Mexico (available in a Bison Books edition).
Contributors include Catherine Andrews, Linda Arnold, Raymond Buve, Sergio Cañedo Gamboa, Eduardo Flores Clair, Juan Ortiz Escamilla, Erika Pani, Terry Rugeley, Anne Staples, Guy P.C. Thomson, and Josefina Zoraida Vazquez.
Table of Contents
List of Maps vii
List of Tables viii
Introduction: Understanding Individual and Collective Insurrectionary Action in Independent Mexico, 1821-1876 xviii
Chronology of Main Events and Pronunciamientos, 1821-1876 xxxvii
1 The Compass Points of Unrest: Pronunciamientos from Within, Without, Above, and Below in Southeast Mexico, 1821-1876 Terry Rugeley 1
2 The Rise and Fall of a Regional Strongman: Felipe de la Garza's Pronunciamiento of 1822 Catherine Andrews 22
3 Veracruz, the Determining Region: Military Pronunciamientos in Mexico, 1821-1846 Juan Ortiz Escamilla 42
4 The Clergy and How It Responded to Calls for Rebellion before the Mid-Nineteenth Century Anne Staples 68
5 José Ramón García Ugarte: Partriot, Federalist, or Malcontent? Linda Arnold 91
6 Ponciano Arriaga and Mariano Ávula's Intellectual Backing of the 14 April 1837 Pronunciamiento of San Luis Potosí Sergio A. CañGamboa 111
7 Ayuntamientos and Pronunciamientos during the Nineteenth Century: Examples from Tlaxcala between Independence and the Reform War Raymond Buve 129
8 The End of the "Catholic Nation": Reform and Reaction in Puebla, 1854-1856 Guy Thomson 148
9 In Search of Power: The Pronunciamientos of General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga Josefina Zoraida Vázquez 171
10 The Pronunciamientos of Antonio López de Santa Anna, 1821-1867 Will Fowler 205
11 Intervention and Empire: Politics as Usual? Erika Pani 236
12 A Socialist Pronunciamiento: Julio López Chávez's Uprising of 1868 Eduardo Flores Clair 255