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An astronomical gastronomical undertaking —one of the world's preeminent restaurant critics takes on the giants of haute cuisine, one tasting menu at a time
Like the luxury fashion companies Gucci and Chanel, high-end dining has gone global, and Jay Rayner has watched, amazed, as the great names of the restaurant business have turned themselves from artisans into international brands.
Long suspecting that his job was too good to be true, Rayner uses his entrée into this world to probe the larger issues behind the globalization of dinner. Combining memoir with vivid scenes at the table; interviews with the world's most renowned chefs, restaurateurs, and eaters; and a few well-placed rants and raves about life as a paid gourmand, Rayner puts his thoughtful, innovative, and hilarious stamp on food writing. He reports on high-end gastronomy from Vegas to Dubai, Moscow to Tokyo, London to New York, ending in Paris where he attempts to do with Michelin-starred restaurants what Morgan Spurlock did with McDonald's in Super Size Me—eating at those establishments on consecutive days and never refusing a sixteen-course tasting menu when it's offered.
The Man Who Ate the World is a fascinating and riotous look at the business and pleasure of fine dining.
|Publisher:||Holt, Henry & Company, Inc.|
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About the Author
Jay Rayner is the restaurant critic for the London Observer, a regular contributor to Gourmet, and has written for both Saveur and Food&Wine in the United States. He has also written novels, most recently The Oyster House Siege. Rayner began his acclaimed journalism career covering crime, politics, cinema, and theater, winning Young Journalist of the Year in 1991 and Critic of the Year in 2006 at the British Press Awards.
Read an Excerpt
The Man Who Ate the World
In Search of the Perfect Dinner
By Jay Rayner
Henry Holt and CompanyCopyright © 2008 Jay Rayner
All rights reserved.
The first time I visited Las Vegas it was to interview a man who was famous because his wife had cut off his penis. It says much for the shape of my career back in the midnineties that I regarded the assignment as light relief. For the previous week I had been in Toronto investigating a particularly grisly set of murders. A young, middle-class couple — all white teeth and glossy hair — had dragged young women to their pastel-colored house down by Lake Ontario, videoed each other sexually assaulting them, then chopped up their bodies and set them in concrete.
The court cases were still ongoing when I visited Canada in February of 1995 to report the story and, because the accused were being tried separately, there was a lockdown on the reporting of the details until both trials were concluded. Nobody in Canada was meant to know anything about what had been dubbed the Ken and Barbie murders and, if they did know anything, they certainly weren't meant to talk to reporters like me about it. This forced silence only added to my gloom. Everywhere I went the ground was crusted with ice. Snow blew against my cheeks like so much grit on the wind, and in a restaurant in the city's theater district I acquired food poisoning courtesy of some spareribs, which hadn't been particularly good on the way down and were much worse on the way up. I couldn't wait to escape Canada for the sudden sunshine and warmth of Vegas, even if it was to interview a wife beater called John Wayne Bobbitt, who had achieved notoriety only because, one muggy summer's night, he and his penis had managed to arrive at the hospital in different vehicles.
Bobbitt had gone to Vegas in search of an honest man to manage his career, because he felt he had been deceived by his previous manager. While it might seem odd that anybody should go to Vegas — a place long famous for its store of shysters, con men, and career hoods — in search of honesty, it was no more peculiar than that Bobbitt should have been in need of a manager at all. By then he had parlayed the knife attack on him by his then-wife Lorena into a thriving career. On my first full day in the city, enthroned at the huge black glass pyramid that is the Luxor Hotel at the north end of The Strip, I got to witness that career for myself. Bobbitt had starred in a video called John Wayne Bobbitt Uncut, which was, depending on your taste for euphemism, either an adult movie or a desperate skin flick.
The tag line on the cover said it all: "Ever since this whole thing happened all everybody wants to see is my penis ... now you can." Indeed I could. It was a living monument to the powers of cutting-edge microsurgery, and looked not unlike a tree that had been doctored by a tree surgeon or as if it were wearing a tiny life belt. It also functioned pretty well, as the video let me see in more detail than could ever be necessary.
This was the image that was burned into my mind when I went off to meet Bobbitt and his new manager for dinner, which may explain why I cannot for the life of me recall a single thing I ate that night. I know we discussed Bobbitt's plans for a range of branded merchandise including a "penis protector" — an autographed hollow tube — because you don't forget that sort of thing in a hurry.
I do remember that he came across as spectacularly stupid, and grunted his words rather than spoke them. I also recall that outside, in Caesars Forum, the covered shopping arcade where the restaurant was located, dusk fell every half hour courtesy of some clever lighting effects. Of the meal itself I can tell you nothing at all. This is something I regret, for the dinner took place at a seminal restaurant in the history of modern Las Vegas dining: the branch of Wolfgang Puck's Spago, which opened at Caesars Palace in 1992.
Before Spago opened (and for a good few years afterward), food in the big casino hotels of Vegas was regarded only as an amenity, something the gamblers needed to keep them going while they emptied their pockets at the blackjack tables. It was the city of the all-you-can-eat $4.99 buffet and very little else. It's true that, in the midnineties, enterprising hoteliers were beginning to experiment with the notion that there might be sources of income in Vegas other than gaming. Hotels like the Luxor and the Arthurian-themed Excalibur, complete with amusement park rides for the kids, had been put up with the self-declared aim of rebranding the city as a family resort.
It was, however, a halfhearted project, which would eventually be abandoned in favor of a strategy aimed solely at adults (complete with advertising slogan "What happens in Vegas, stays in Vegas"). Certainly in 1995 it was still the sort of place where an emerging porn star like John Wayne Bobbitt, with no discernable talent for anything, could get a table at Spago without a reservation, despite a queue out the door.
It is really no surprise that Wolfgang Puck should have been the first into town. He has long displayed an uncanny nose for the next big thing. I had met him for the first time a few months before my return to Vegas and now that I was here, gawping at the mammoth hotels and the hard-jewel lights, it struck me that he was very much like the city itself: on the surface frivolous, light, apparently obsessed with the ephemeral. But beneath that was a core of steel.
Puck was famous because he decided to put smoked salmon and cream cheese on a pizza. He was seriously rich because he had worked out how to sell that pizza again and again. Likewise, Vegas plays the good-time girl, apparently obsessed only with the here and now, but at heart it's a dollars-and-cents town. Pleasure — like the smoked salmon pizza — is simply its product.
Puck — Austrian born, Michelin trained — knows how to market pleasure. In Los Angeles, at the original Spago on Sunset Strip, he created an environment where movie stars could feel at ease while eating Joe-Schmo food. Then he replicated the experience time and again so now Joe-Schmos could eat the same Joe-Schmo food and feel like movie stars. Some of his food was interesting. Though he did not invent it, Puck can reasonably claim to have popularized Californian-Italian cuisine, and his fusion of Asian and European flavors at Chinois ushered in an era when it became a crime to cook a piece of fish all the way through.
His real talent lay elsewhere: firstly, in his ability to replicate his good ideas, and secondly, in having absolutely no shame. Long before other big names of American cooking — Emeril Lagasse, Bobby Flay, Mario Batali — had cottoned onto the notion of themselves as brands, Puck was selling himself remorselessly. He published books, starred in his own TV series, and opened a chain of expresses at airports that serves one of the worst Caesar salads it has ever been my misfortune to eat. It is the second of these characteristics, this willingness to plunge so far down-market so fast, it's a miracle he didn't get a nosebleed, that is the most important; it was that instinct that enabled him to take on Vegas.
In 1992 only the corporations wanted to be there. No self-respecting chef or restaurateur would go near the place, unless they had a sideline as a high roller. Apart from Puck. As America rose out of the recession of the early nineties, he recognized the growing power of the leisure dollar. For many years, though, he had the city to himself. Then, in October 1998, the Vegas hotelier Steve Wynn opened the $1.7 billion, 3,000-room Bellagio Hotel on the former site of the legendary Dunes Hotel and Golf Course, and everything changed. The city had never seen anything like it, which is saying something for a town that has seen most everything.
Inspired by the Lake Como resort of the same name, it was at the time the most expensive hotel ever built, only later to be trumped in cost by other hotels built by Steve Wynn. It came complete with a multimillion-dollar fountain display out front that danced to piped music. There was an art gallery bulging with works by the great Impressionists from Gauguin and Monet to van Gogh and Renoir. It also happened to have eleven new restaurants.
Although Wynn paid the bills it was the then food and beverage manager of the Bellagio, an Egyptian called Gamal Aziz, who came up with the idea. He had worked in grand hotels all over the world and, when he arrived, was shocked to discover just how lousy the food in Vegas could be. He had stumbled across those buffets and realized that this was where ingredients went to die. "I wanted to signal a change," he told me. "To say there was something new and different about Las Vegas."
Restaurants weren't just places you went to eat. They were to be signifiers, statements about the city's newfound confidence and sophistication. It helped that the U.S. had seen a restaurant renaissance during the nineties, and that media interest in food had exploded. The U.S. cable channel, the Food Network, founded in 1993, had come of age by 1998, after being brought under new ownership the year before. The names of top chefs were now familiar to people who were not in regular striking distance of their restaurants.
At the same time journalists like Ruth Reichl, then restaurant critic for the New York Times, were reinvigorating food writing and championing cooks who might otherwise have been ignored. Into the Bellagio, therefore, came a restaurant by the Alsatian uber-chef Jean-Georges Vongerichten and a new outpost of the legendary Le Cirque from New York. Big-name American chefs like Michael Mina, Todd English, and Julian Serrano were offered deals.
And what deals! Generally there would be an annual consultancy fee, plus 5 percent of the gross. All they had to do was fill the tables and, if they wanted to, forget about the bottom line. As long as there was money coming in, they got a cut of it. Plus, if there was a profit, they got 10 percent of that, too, and there was a lot of profit. Suddenly people were no longer coming to town merely to throw their money away in the casinos while surviving on desiccated shrimp or lumps of sweaty pork that had been festering under the heat lamps of the all-you-can-eat buffets for six hours. The tables they were coming to were covered not with green baize, but in heavyweight linen. Every hotel on The Strip had to have a superstar chef in residence or, better still, six of them, or twelve — and it wasn't just the big U.S. names. The French boys with the Michelin stars were starting to pay attention as well.
In 2004 non-gaming revenues in Las Vegas — from high-end hotel rooms, glossy arcades of shops stuffed full of Cartier and Chanel and, of course, those restaurants — overtook gaming revenues for the first time. This wasn't because gambling had suddenly fallen out of favor. Gaming was still a roaring express train, which was pouring cash into the town. It was just that more money was being spent on all the other stuff. If you were interested in restaurants, you had to be there.
I am interested in restaurants. Ergo, I had to be there. Plus I needed to do something to exorcise the memory of John Wayne Bobbitt and his damaged limb.
Before I could begin, though, I had an appointment to see Freddie Glusman at his restaurant down on Convention Center Boulevard. Piero's is old Las Vegas and so is Freddie. He used to feed clams to Moe Dalitz, the original Las Vegas mobster who founded the Desert Inn and the Stardust. Frank Sinatra was a regular at Freddie's, too. Once, when he was out of town, Sinatra sent down to Piero's for dinner, so Freddie plated up some of his famed pollo vesuvio — chicken, tomato, fried aubergine, and mozzarella — made sure it looked nice, put it on the Learjet, and flew it over to the old man on his estate in Palm Springs.
When Martin Scorsese came to town to shoot his movie Casino and needed somewhere to play the part of Joe Pesci's restaurant, the Leaning Tower, he knew exactly where to go: Freddie's place down on Convention Center Boulevard.
Me? I had absolutely no intention of eating at Piero's. I was looking for transcendent meals and I really didn't care whether the food came with Sinatra's approval. He was a fantastic singer but no restaurant critic. Anyway, I had just four nights in town, and none of them were going to be wasted on pollo vesuvio or saltimbocca alla romana, however good Freddie insisted they were. Still, in the clichéd way of nice middle-class boys who have never punched anyone and who would run a mile from a real Mafia hood if ever they met one, I've always had a thing about the old Vegas of the Rat Pack era.
One of my favorite recordings of all time is Sinatra at the Sands. Not vintage Sinatra vocally — he was only a few years from the nightmare of "My Way" by then — but the Count Basie Orchestra is tight as ever and from Frank's opening line — "Who let all these people into my room?" — to the very last crack of the snare drum you know who's in charge. I was about to submerge myself in the complete artifice that is twenty-first-century Vegas; before I did that I wanted to go back a bit. I wanted to live a little of that recording. It felt like I was coming to pay my respects.
Piero's is a low-slug, dirty pink building, opposite the Convention Center. Glusman's office is reached through the back car park, past the sort of garbage Dumpsters that would be good for dumping a body in, if you were in the body-dumping business. The office is a windowless box on the first floor at the back. Naturally, it's carpeted in tiger print. On the desk in the middle there's a wide dish of black jelly beans. Neither of these things are as interesting, though, as the walls. They are filled with photographs, all the same size and each with the same simple black frame. At first I assumed they would be friends of Freddie's, and some of them are.
Many are not. Here's a picture of Bugsy Siegel, the old hoodlum credited with turning Las Vegas into a gambling Mecca by opening the Flamingo, before taking a bullet in the eye. There's one of Jack Kennedy with Sinatra, and not far away a portrait of Nick "The Greek" Dandalos, the professional poker player famed for having taken part in the greatest card game of all time, against Johnny Moss, a five-month marathon of Texas Hold 'Em held at Binion's Horseshoe in 1949.
Freddie comes in as I am studying the wall. "This is a tribute to Old Vegas?" I say, indicating the pictures.
"Yeah," Freddie says. Now in his seventies he has dark brown leathery skin, big hands, and a voice like he gargles daily with gravel. He's wearing a black sweatshirt and various bits and pieces of gold jewelry and he has those large dangly earlobes that some people acquire in old age. "There's Al Dorfman," he says, pointing with one stubby finger at a black-and-white photograph. "He got shot dead in Chicago. Here's Priscilla and Elvis. Here's Elizabeth Taylor. Here's Harry. He was a Nevada Supreme Court Judge. Had to resign because of some bullshit or other."
"And here's Jimmy Hoffa," I say enthusiastically, pointing at a picture of the Teamsters boss who went missing in mysterious circumstances in 1975, presumably because he had displeased his friends in the mob. "I wonder where he is now."
Freddie stares at me. "How the fuck do I know?" He trudges off back behind his enormous desk.
Glusman has been in Vegas for over forty years. He started out in the "schmatte business" selling women's wear from concessions within hotels. Back then there was only one big-ticket restaurant in each hotel. "Vegas is an entertainment town," he says. "And people in the entertainment business, they want somewhere good to eat, but there weren't that many places. The Flamingo had the Candlelight. At the Sahara it was the House of Lords and the Sands had the Regency Room." These were old-style joints, where the boys on the floor always dressed in a tux, and almost nothing was served unless it had first been flamed tableside in imported cognac.
For years Freddie had been interested in restaurants so, in 1982, he found a chef called Piero and put him in business.
Excerpted from The Man Who Ate the World by Jay Rayner. Copyright © 2008 Jay Rayner. Excerpted by permission of Henry Holt and Company.
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Table of Contents
I Want Proper Dinner,
ONE: Las Vegas,
FIVE: New York,