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Management 3.0: Leading Agile Developers, Developing Agile Leaders / Edition 1

Management 3.0: Leading Agile Developers, Developing Agile Leaders / Edition 1

by Jurgen AppeloJurgen Appelo
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In many organizations, management is the biggest obstacle to successful Agile development. Unfortunately, reliable guidance on Agile management has been scarce indeed. Now, leading Agile manager Jurgen Appelo fills that gap, introducing a realistic approach to leading, managing, and growing your Agile team or organization.

Writing for current managers and developers moving into management, Appelo shares insights that are grounded in modern complex systems theory, reflecting the intense complexity of modern software development. Appelo’s Management 3.0 model recognizes that today’s organizations are living, networked systems; and that management is primarily about people and relationships.

Management 3.0 doesn’t offer mere checklists or prescriptions to follow slavishly; rather, it deepens your understanding of how organizations and Agile teams work and gives you tools to solve your own problems. Drawing on his extensive experience as an Agile manager, the author identifies the most important practices of Agile management and helps you improve each of them.

Coverage includes

• Getting beyond “Management 1.0” control and “Management 2.0” fads

• Understanding how complexity affects your organization

• Keeping your people active, creative, innovative, and motivated

• Giving teams the care and authority they need to grow on their own

• Defining boundaries so teams can succeed in alignment with business goals

• Sowing the seeds for a culture of software craftsmanship

• Crafting an organizational network that promotes success

• Implementing continuous improvement that actually works

Thoroughly pragmatic–and never trendy–Jurgen Appelo’s Management 3.0 helps you bring greater agility to any software organization, team, or project.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780321712479
Publisher: Addison-Wesley
Publication date: 01/11/2011
Series: Addison-Wesley Signature Series (Cohn) Series
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 456
Sales rank: 772,474
Product dimensions: 6.90(w) x 9.00(h) x 1.00(d)

About the Author

Jurgen Appelo is a writer, speaker, trainer, developer, entrepreneur, manager, blogger, reader, dreamer, leader, and freethinker. And he’s Dutch, which explains his talent for being weird.

After studying software engineering at the Delft University of Technology, and earning his Master’s degree in 1994, Jurgen busied himself either starting up or leading a variety of Dutch businesses, always in the position of team leader, manager, or executive.

Jurgen’s most recent occupation was CIO at ISM eCompany, one of the largest e-business solution providers in The Netherlands. As a manager, Jurgen has experience in leading software developers, development managers, project managers, quality managers, service managers, and kangaroos, some of which he hired accidentally.

He is primarily interested in software development and complexity theory, from a manager’s perspective. As a writer, he has published papers and articles in many magazines, and he maintains a blog at As a speaker, he is regularly invited to talk at seminars and conferences.

Last but not least, Jurgen is a trainer, with workshops based on the Management 3.0 model. His materials address the topics of energizing people, empowering teams, aligning constraints, developing competence, growing structure, and improving everything.

However, sometimes he puts all writing, speaking, and training aside to do some programming himself, or to spend time on his ever-growing collection of science fiction and fantasy literature, which he stacks in a self-designed book case that is four meters high.

Jurgen lives in Rotterdam (The Netherlands)–and sometimes in Brussels (Belgium)–with his partner Raoul. He has two kids and an imaginary hamster called George.

Table of Contents

Forewords xix

Acknowledgments xxv

About the Author xxvii

Preface xxix

1 Why Things Are Not That Simple 1

Causality 2

Complexity 3

Our Linear Minds 5

Reductionism 7

Holism 8

Hierarchical Management 9

Agile Management 11

My Theory of Everything 12

The Book and the Model 13

Summary 14

Reflection and Action 14

2 Agile Software Development 17

Prelude to Agile 17

The Book of Agile 19

The Fundamentals of Agile 22

The Competition of Agile 24

The Obstacle to Agile 28

Line Management versus Project Management 28

Summary 30

Reflection and Action 31

3 Complex Systems Theory 33

Cross-Functional Science 34

General Systems Theory 35

Cybernetics 36

Dynamical Systems Theory 37

Game Theory 37

Evolutionary Theory 38

Chaos Theory 38

The Body of Knowledge of Systems 39

Simplicity: A New Model 41

Revisiting Simplification 44

Nonadaptive versus Adaptive 45

Are We Abusing Science? 46

A New Era: Complexity Thinking 48

Summary 50

Reflection and Action 50

4 The Information-Innovation System 51

Innovation Is the Key to Survival 52

Knowledge 54

Creativity 56

Motivation 58

Diversity 60

Personality 62

Only People Are Qualified for Control 64

From Ideas to Implementation 65

Summary 66

Reflection and Action 67

5 How to Energize People 69

Creative Phases 69

Manage a Creative Environment 72

Creative Techniques 74

Extrinsic Motivation 75

Intrinsic Motivation 78

Demotivation 79

Ten Desires of Team Members 80

What Motivates People: Find the Balance 83

Make Your Rewards Intrinsic 86

Diversity? You Mean Connectivity! 87

Personality Assessments 89

Four Steps toward Team Personality Assessment 90

Do-It-Yourself Team Values 92

Define Your Personal Values 94

The No Door Policy 95

Summary 97

Reflection and Action 97

6 The Basics of Self-Organization 99

Self-Organization within a Context 99

Self-Organization toward Value 101

Self-Organization versus Anarchy 102

Self-Organization versus Emergence 104

Emergence in Teams 106

Self-Organization versus Self-Direction

versus Self-Selection 107

Darkness Principle 108

Conant-Ashby Theorem 110

Distributed Control 111

Empowerment as a Concept 112

Empowerment as a Necessity 113

You Are (Like) a Gardener 115

Summary 117

Reflection and Action 118

7 How to Empower Teams 119

Don’t Create Motivational Debt 119

Wear a Wizard’s Hat 121

Pick a Wizard, Not a Politician 122

Empowerment versus Delegation 123

Reduce Your Fear, Increase Your Status 124

Choose the Right Maturity Level 125

Pick the Right Authority Level 127

Assign Teams or Individuals 131

The Delegation Checklist 132

If You Want Something Done, Practice Your Patience 133

Resist Your Manager’s Resistance 134

Address People’s Ten Intrinsic Desires 136

Gently Massage the Environment 136

Trust 138

Respect 141

Summary 144

Reflection and Action 144

8 Leading and Ruling on Purpose 147

Game of Life 147

Universality Classes 149

False Metaphor 150

You’re Not a Game Designer 151

But…Self-Organization Is Not Enough 152

Manage the System, Not the People 154

Managers or Leaders? 156

Right Distinction: Leadership versus Governance 156

Meaning of Life 158

Purpose of a Team 160

Assigning an Extrinsic Purpose 163

Summary 164

Reflection and Action 165

9 How to Align Constraints 167

Give People a Shared Goal 167

Checklist for Agile Goals 170

Communicate Your Goal 172

Vision versus Mission 174

Examples of Organizational Goals 176

Allow Your Team an Autonomous Goal 177

Compromise on Your Goal and Your Team’s Goal 178

Create a Boundary List of Authority 179

Choose the Proper Management Angle 180

Protect People 181

Protect Shared Resources 183

Constrain Quality 185

Create a Social Contract 186

Summary 188

Reflection and Action 188

10 The Craft of Rulemaking 191

Learning Systems 191

Rules versus Constraints 193

The Agile Blind Spot 196

What’s Important: Craftsmanship 198

Positive Feedback Loops 200

Negative Feedback Loops 201

Discipline * Skill = Competence 204

Diversity of Rules 206

Subsidiarity Principle 208

Risk Perception and False Security 209

Memetics 211

Broken Windows 215

Summary 216

Reflection and Action 217

11 How to Develop Competence 219

Seven Approaches to Competence Development 221

Optimize the Whole: Multiple Levels 223

Optimize the Whole: Multiple Dimensions 224

Tips for Performance Metrics 227

Four Ingredients for Self-Development 229

Managing versus Coaching versus Mentoring 231

Consider Certification 233

Harness Social Pressure 235

Use Adaptable Tools 237

Consider a Supervisor 238

Organize One-on-Ones 241

Organize 360-Degree Meetings 242

Grow Standards 245

Work the System, Not the Rules or the People 246

Summary 247

Reflection and Action 248

12 Communication on Structure 249

Is It a Bug or a Feature? 250

Communication and Feedback 250

Miscommunication Is the Norm 253

Capabilities of Communicators 254

Network Effects 258

Tuning Connectivity 260

Competition and Cooperation 262

Groups and Boundaries 264

Hyper-Productivity or Autocatalysis 266

Pattern-Formation 268

Scale Symmetry: Patterns Big and Small 270

How to Grow: More or Bigger? 272

Summary 274

Reflection and Action 274

13 How to Grow Structure 275

About Environment, Products, Size, and People 275

Consider Specialization First… 278

…And Generalization Second 279

Widen People’s Job Titles 281

Cultivate Informal Leadership 283

Watch Team Boundaries 284

The Optimal Team Size Is 5 (Maybe) 286

Functional Teams versus Cross-Functional Teams 288

Two Design Principles 290

Choose Your Organizational Style 292

Turn Each Team into a Little Value Unit 294

Move Stuff out to Separate Teams 295

Move Stuff up to Separate Layers 299

How Many Managers Does It Take to Change an Organization? 301

Create a Hybrid Organization 302

The Anarchy Is Dead, Long Live the Panarchy 303

Have No Secrets 305

Make Everything Visible 307

Connect People 308

Aim for Adaptability 308

Summary 309

Reflection and Action 310

14 The Landscape of Change 313

The Environment Is Not “Out There” 313

The Fear of Uncertainty 315

Laws of Change 317

Every Product Is a Success…Until It Fails 319

Success and Fitness: It’s All Relative 321

How to Embrace Change 321

Adaptation, Exploration, Anticipation 322

The Red Queen’s Race 325

Can We Measure Complexity? 327

Are Products Getting More Complex? 328

The Shape of Things: Phase Space 331

Attractors and Convergence 332

Stability and Disturbances 334

Fitness Landscapes 335

Shaping the Landscape 337

Directed versus Undirected Adaptation 339

Summary 340

Reflection and Action 341

15 How to Improve Everything 343

Linear versus Nonlinear Improvement 345

Know Where You Are 347

Travel Tips for Wobbly Landscapes 348

Change the Environment, Summon the Mountain 350

Make Change Desirable 353

Make Stagnation Painful 354

Honor Thy Errors 355

The Strategy of Noise 356

The Strategy of Sex 359

The Strategy of Broadcasts 360

Don’t Do Copy-Paste Improvement 362

Some Last Practical Tips for Continuous Change 364

Keep on Rolling 366

Summary 367

Reflection and Action 367

16 All Is Wrong, but Some Is Useful 369

The Six Views of Management 3.0 369

Yes, My Model Is “Wrong” 371

But Other Models Are “Wrong,” Too 373

The Fall and Decline of Agilists 376

The Complexity Pamphlet 377

Summary 380

Reflection and Action 380

Bibliography 381

Index 393

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