Managing Hypertension

Managing Hypertension

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Overview

Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common chronic disease affecting people of different ages, cultural backgrounds and socio-economic statuses worldwide. Research links hypertension to increased risk of heart disease, kidney disease and cardiovascular disease—the leading cause of death worldwide. This book provides an up-to-date illustrated overview of research findings concerning hypertension, covering risk factors, increase in prevalence, cultures affected and challenges to treating and managing the disease in specific populations. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods for effectively managing hypertension are discussed.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780786494217
Publisher: McFarland & Company, Incorporated Publishers
Publication date: 10/31/2016
Series: McFarland Health Topics
Pages: 244
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 0.70(d)
Age Range: 18 Years

About the Author

Registered nurse Sandra A. Moulton is an urgent care coordinator at Toronto Central Community Care Access Centre in Toronto, Canada and has been a part-time clinical instructor at the University of New Brunswick Nursing School of Health Sciences. She lives in Scarborough, Ontario Canada. Elaine A. Moore has worked in hospital laboratories for more than 30 years, primarily in immunohematology and toxicology. She is a freelance medical writer and laboratory consultant. For more information, visit her website at www.elaine-moore.com. She lives in Sedalia, Colorado.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments vi

Preface 1

Introduction 3

Part I

1 Hypertension: An Overview 7

Overview of Blood Pressure and High Blood Pressure 8

Are There Symptoms of High Blood Pressure? 8

Blood Pressure Measurements 9

Proper Steps to Measure Blood Pressure Manually 9

What Is Hypertension or High Blood Pressure? 11

Prehypertension 13

Risk Factors for Prehypertension 15

Prehypertension Stages 15

I've Been Diagnosed with Prehypertension. What Is the Course of Action? 15

Dentistry and Hypertension 18

Home Blood Pressure Monitoring 19

Classifications of High Blood Pressure 19

Etiology (Causes) of Hypertension 20

Adult Blood Pressure Levels 20

Risk Factors for Hypertension 22

2 Hypertension Prevalence 23

Prevalence of Hypertension in African Americans 23

Diseases Attributable to Hypertension 24

Statistics of Hypertension, Mortality, and Morbidity-A Brief Overview 27

Manifestation of Hypertension (Pathophysiology) 29

Sodium Sensitivity 29

Genetics 30

Natural History of Essential Hypertension 31

How Complicated Hypertension Affects Target Organs 31

Variation in Rates of High Blood Pressure by Age, Gender, and Race 33

Brief Overview: Role of the Heart in Blood Pressure 34

Position of the Heart 35

3 Cardiovascular Disease 36

Home Blood Pressure Monitoring 38

Negative Outcomes of Clinic Visits Versus Home Blood Pressure Monitoring 39

Self-Management for Hypertension Using Home Blood Pressure Monitoring 40

Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring 44

Reducing Risk Factors of Coronary Heart Disease in Special Populations to Meet Healthy People 2020 Objective 47

Hypertension and Its Relation to Left Ventricular Hypertrophy 49

Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) 51

Definition of Heart Failure 53

Stages of Heart Failure 54

Heart Failure in Ethnic Minority Populations in Canada 55

Role of Diabetes and Coronary Artery Disease 56

Hypertension and Heart Disease in Diabetes 57

Some Coronary Artery Changes in People with Diabetes and Whether

Vitamin D Deficiency Plays a Role 58

Biochemical Changes in Diabetes 61

Diabetic Atherosclerosis 61

Diabetic Coronary Plaque 61

Heart Disease Risk Factors 62

4 Vitamin D 64

What Is Vitamin D and How Is It Metabolized? 64

Functions of Vitamin D 65

Does Vitamin D Play a Role in the Development of Hypertension 66

Some Food Sources of Vitamin D 68

The Connection Between Vitamin D Insufficiency and Blood Pressure: A Comparison 68

Lower Vitamin D Levels and Mortality 69

Parathyroid Hormone and Vitamin D Levels 71

Low Vitamin D Levels and Cardiovascular Disease 72

5 Kidney Disease 73

Brief Description of the Kidneys 73

Functions of the Kidneys 73

Causes of Kidney Disease 74

The Kidneys: Fluid Balance, Electrolytes, and Waste Products 75

Renin and Blood Pressure 76

Economic Impact of Kidney Disease in the United States 76

Two Major Complications of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) 77

Chronic Kidney Disease and Its Prevalence 77

Prevalence of End-Stage Renal Disease 79

Kidney Disease and Hypertension 79

Does Weight Play a Role in the Development of Chronic Kidney Disease? 80

Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Hypertensive Chronic Kidney Disease 83

Diabetic Kidney Disease and Blood Pressure 84

Definition of Chronic Kidney Disease 84

The Five Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease and Their Detection 85

Modalities for Kidney Failure-Brief Statistics 86

Hypertension and Kidney Disease 86

Uncontrolled Blood Pressure and Chronic Kidney Disease 87

Autoimmune Diseases and Chronic Kidney Disease 87

End-Stage Renal Disease Treatment in the United States 88

Peritoneal Dialysis and Hemodialysis 89

Vascular Access: A Brief History of the Pioneers 90

Three Types of Vasadar Access 90

Arteriovenous Fistula 90

Advantages of Arteriovenous Fistula 92

Disadvantages 92

Maintenance of Arteriovenous Fistula 92

Live Kidney Donors and African Americans 94

6 Stroke and Cerebrovascular Disease 96

Stroke Mortality Reduction in the United States 97

Risk Factors for Stroke 97

Possible Cause of Stroke 98

How Does Stroke Happen? 98

Prevalence of Stroke 99

Avoidable Deaths Statistics from Stroke, Hypertension, and Heart Disease in the United States 99

Strategies to Avoid Stroke Deaths 100

Mortality: Stroke 101

Lifestyle Changes for Decreasing Stroke Risk 101

Stroke Types 103

Economic Impact of Stroke 105

High Blood Pressure and Ischemic Stroke 105

Genetic Variation and Intracerebral Hemorrhage 107

Disparities in Stroke Risks 107

Effects After Stroke 112

Part II

7 Nonpharmacological Management for Hypertension 116

Individual Lifestyle Modifications for Hypertension Management 117

The Roundtable Recommendation for Blood Pressure Management: The Lifestyle Approach 119

An Overview of the GenSalt Study 121

Adherence Interventions: Lifestyle Modification, Medicine and Home Blood Pressure Monitoring 122

Intervention Approach: Blood Pressure Improvement in Primary Care for African Americans 124

Utilization of Community Settings for Lifestyle Interventions 124

Church Interventions to Promote Lifestyle Changes 127

Dietary Supplements for Hypertension 128

Physical Activity for Hypertension Management 129

Hypertension: Gait Slowing in Older Adults 132

Nutritional Intake and Physical Activity as Cardiovascular Risk Factors 135

Self-Efficacy and Self-Care Management for Hypertension 138

A Review of Patient-Tailored Self-Management for Blood Pressure 139

Definition of Self-Management 140

Self-Management for Blood Pressure Control 140

Tailored Interventions' Effectiveness: Self-Management Behaviors for Chronic Diseases 142

8 Pharmacological Management for Hypertension 145

Hypertension and Increased Age 147

Consistent Care Versus Standard Care for Blood Pressure Control Among African Americans and Whites 148

Medicine 148

Forms of Medication Used for Hypertension 149

Functions of Blood Pressure Medications 149

Some Popular Blood Pressure Medications 149

JNC 8 Guidelines 153

Resistant Hypertension 154

A Glance: Hypertension Management by Various Hypertension Societies 159

Differences in Medication Response in Non-Hispanic Whites and African Americans 161

Medication Adherence 161

Factors or Barriers to Medication Adherence for Hypertension in Different Cultural Groups 163

Factors That Affect Medication Adherence in African Americans with Hypertension 167

9 Hypertension Case Stories 171

The Story of an African American Woman 171

The Case of Jasper (J.M.) 172

Janice: A New Diagnosis of Hypertension and Kidney Failure 173

Donald's Story 174

10 Hypertension: Prevalence, Consequences and Lifestyle Modification Factors 177

Hypertension Prevalence in Football Players 177

Prehypertenston and Hypertension: Physical Therapists' Involvement 178

High Blood Pressure in Blacks 180

Question: Self-Report Questionnaires for Antihypertensive Medication Adherence 182

Cardiovascular Disease 183

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Differences in Various Ethnicities in Canada 187

Women and Coronary Artery Disease 190

Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Disease 191

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) 193

End-Stage Renal Disease: Psychosocial Impact and Knowledge Needs 194

Overview of Vitamin D, Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease 199

Summary 203

Appendix 1 Sample Five-Day Meal Plan 205

Appendix 2 Test Your Knowledge of Hypertension 211

Bibliography 215

Index 229

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