Marcus Garvey rose from obscurity to become one of the twentieth century's most controversial black leaders, fighting tirelessly for black pride and self-determination. He drew thousands with his message of racial dignity and repelled thousands of others with the "back-to-Africa" program of his Universal Negro Improvement Association. His seemingly harebrained schemes convinced many people that Garvey was a lunatic or worse, yet whether viewed as a hero or a villain, Marcus Garvey demanded to be seen - and heard. His ideas touched black activists and intellectuals as diverse as W.E.B. Du Bois and Malcolm X, and continue to hover over modern discussions of race relations in America and around the world.