Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystem / Edition 1

Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystem / Edition 1

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National Academies Press

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Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystem / Edition 1

Although the ocean-and the resources within-seem limitless, there is clear evidence that human impacts such as overfishing, habitat destruction, and pollution disrupt marine ecosystems and threaten the long-term productivity of the seas. Declining yields in many fisheries and decay of treasured marine habitats, such as coral reefs, has heightened interest in establishing a comprehensive system of marine protected areas (MPAs)-areas designated for special protection to enhance the management of marine resources. Therefore, there is an urgent need to evaluate how MPAs can be employed in the United States and internationally as tools to support specific conservation needs of marine and coastal waters.

Marine Protected Areas compares conventional management of marine resources with proposals to augment these management strategies with a system of protected areas. The volume argues that implementation of MPAs should be incremental and adaptive, through the design of areas not only to conserve resources, but also to help us learn how to manage marine species more effectively.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780309072861
Publisher: National Academies Press
Publication date: 04/30/2001
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 288
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x (d)

Table of Contents

Executive Summary1
Recognizing the Limits2
Managing Marine Resources2
Conclusions and Recommendations4
Why MPAs?13
Statement of Task14
Study Approach and Report Organization15
2Conservation Goals17
Conservation Goals on Land and in the Sea17
Goals of Marine Reserves and Protected Areas21
3Conventional Management of Marine Fisheries30
Problems and Issues in Fishery Management30
Conventional Fishery Management32
Uncertainty, Fishery Management, and a Role for Marine Reserves40
4Societal Values of Marine Reserves and Protected Areas42
Origin of the Values Associated with Marine Ecosystems43
Costs and Benefits to User Groups46
Economic Incentives60
Community Involvement66
5Empirical and Modeling Studies of Marine Reserves71
Conceptual Basis71
Empirical Evidence and Inferences from Models79
How Should the Location of Marine Protected Areas and Reserves Be Chosen?97
How Large Should Marine Protected Areas Be?111
Multiple-Use Zoning of Marine Protected Areas118
7Monitoring, Research, and Modeling126
Monitoring Programs126
Research Needs135
8Historical Background and Evaluation of Marine Protected Areas in the United States145
International History of Marine Protected Areas145
Marine Protected Areas in the United States151
9Conclusions and Recommendations174
CCommittee and Staff Biographies219
DMeeting Agendas223
EPresidential Executive Order Regarding Marine Protected Areas in the United States232
FIUCN Protected Area Categories System237
GDescription of Studies Estimating Marine Reserve Area Requirements247

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