Marriages and Families: Diversity and Change / Edition 6

Marriages and Families: Diversity and Change / Edition 6

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Prentice Hall
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Marriages and Families: Diversity and Change / Edition 6

Marriages and Families: Diversity and Change empowers and challenges students to examine their personal belief systems and societal views to make informed choices and decisions about their own marriage, family and intimate relationships. Within an engaging narrative and a sociological approach, the text addresses the many issues facing marriages and families today, and provides many opportunities for the student to consider and apply the material they are learning in the course to their own lives.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780205683147
Publisher: Prentice Hall
Publication date: 03/11/2009
Series: MyFamilyLab Series
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 576
Product dimensions: 8.40(w) x 10.80(h) x 0.90(d)

Table of Contents

Boxes     xv
Preface     xvii
About the Authors     xxiii
Marriages and Families Over Time     1
Contemporary Definitions of Marriages and Families     3
What Is Marriage?     3
What Is a Family?     4
Race, Class, and Gender     5
Family Functions and the Debate over Family Values     6
Social Functions of Families     6
Contrasting Views of Families     8
Debunking Myths about Marriages and Families     12
The Universal Nuclear Family     14
The Self-Reliant Traditional Family     15
The Naturalness of Different Spheres for Wives and Husbands     15
The Unstable African American Family     15
Families in Early America     16
Colonial Families     17
African American Families under Slavery     18
Free African American Families     19
Slavery's Hidden Legacy: Racial Mixing     20
Native American Families     21
Families in the Nineteenth Century     22
Emergence of the Good Provider Role     22
The Cult of Domesticity     22
Changing Views of Childhood     22
The Impact ofClass and Ethnicity     23
Immigration and Family Life     23
The Economic Roles of Women and Children     23
Ethnic and Racial Family Patterns     23
Mexican American Families     24
Families in the Twentieth Century     25
The Emergence of the Companionate Family     25
The Great Depression     25
World War II and Its Aftermath     25
Changing Patterns of Immigration     26
Lessons from History     27
Contemporary Patterns in Marriages and Families     27
Looking Ahead: Marriages and Families in the Future     28
The Sociological Imagination     28
Writing Your Own Script     29
Supporting Marriages and Families     30
Summary     30
Key Terms     31
Questions for Study and Reflection     31
Additional Resources     31
Ways of Studying and Explaining Marriages and Families     33
The Sociology of Marriages and Families     36
Studying Marriages and Families: The Link between Research and Theory     36
Methodological Techniques in the Study of Marriages and Families     37
Surveys     40
Observation      41
Case Studies     42
Ethnography     43
Scientific Methodologies Used by Feminist Researchers     43
A Critical Look at Traditional Research on Marriages and Families     44
A More Inclusive Sociology     44
Contemporary Marriage and Family Scholarship     46
Theoretical Perspectives     47
Structural Functionalism     47
Conflict Theory     50
Symbolic Interactionism     53
Social Constructionism     53
Social Exchange Theory     55
The Developmental Family Life Cycle Model     56
Feminist Theories and Perspectives     56
Men's Studies and Marriage and Family Research     59
Men in Families     59
Supporting Marriages and Families     61
Summary     61
Key Terms     62
Questions for Study and Reflection     62
Additional Resources     63
Understanding Gender: Its Influence in Intimate Relationships     64
Distinguishing Sex and Gender Roles     65
The Process of Sex Differentiation     65
Gender Differences: The Nature-Nurture Debate     67
Traditional Meanings of Femininity and Masculinity     69
Traditional Gender Roles: Female and Male     69
Gender Variations: Race, Class, and Culture     70
Gender Roles in Transition     70
Theories of Gender Role Socialization     72
Psychoanalytic/Identification Theory     73
Social-Learning Theory     74
Cognitive-Development Theory     75
Enculturated-Lens Theory     76
Agents of Socialization     76
Parents     76
Language     77
Peers     78
Play and Organized Sports     78
Teachers and School Organization     79
The Mass Media     80
Consequences of Gender Stereotyping     84
Lifestyle Choices     84
Self-Esteem     84
Self-Confidence     85
Mental Health     86
Women, Men, and Friends     87
Patterns of Communication     88
Changing Realities, Changing Roles     88
Supporting Marriages and Families     89
Summary     89
Key Terms     89
Questions for Study and Reflection     90
Additional Resources     90
The Many Faces of Love     91
What Is This Thing Called Love?     93
Love as a Social Construction     94
How Does Romantic Love Develop in Contemporary Society?     94
Love in Western Society: A Historical Perspective     95
The Importance of Love     98
How Do People Express Love?     100
Lee's Six Styles of Loving     101
Love Versus Friendship, Infatuation, and Liking     102
Close Friendship Versus Love     102
Infatuation Versus Love     104
Liking Versus Love     104
Some Theories of Love     105
The Wheel Theory of Love     105
The Theory of Love as a Story     107
Love Stories     107
Love as a Social Exchange     108
Love as Limerence     108
Love Across Gender, Sexuality, and Race     110
Gender Differences in Love Relationships     110
Lesbian and Gay Love Relationships     111
Female-Male Relationships Across Race and Ethnicity     112
Obstacles to Love and Loving Relationships     115
Demographic Factors and Social and Cultural Change     115
Traditional Gender Role Socialization     116
Patriarchy as an Obstacle to Lesbian Love     116
Lack of Trust     117
Jealousy and Envy     117
Romantic Love Today     120
Supporting Marriages and Families     120
Summary     121
Key Terms     122
Questions for Study and Reflection     122
Additional Resources     123
Dating, Coupling, and Mate Selection     125
Mate Selection in Cross-Cultural and Historical Perspective     127
Mate Selection Cross-Culturally     127
Mate Selection in the United States: A Historical Perspective     129
Dating Among Later-Life Adults     132
Functions of Dating: Past and Present     133
The Intersections of Race, Gender, Class, and Sexual Orientation     135
Dating Patterns Among African Americans     135
The Impact of Gender     137
The Impact of Social Class on the Dating Process     138
Lesbian and Gay Dating     139
Theories of Mate Selection     141
Exchange Theories     141
Filter Theories     142
Mate Selection: Finding and Meeting Partners     142
The Marriage Market and the Pool of Eligibles     143
Freedom Versus Constraint in Mate Selection     144
Other Factors that Affect Mate Selection     150
Personal Qualities and Mate Selection     150
Meeting Partners: Where and How     151
School, Church, and Work     151
Singles' Bars and Gay Bars     153
Self-Advertising: Personal Ads     153
Dating Clubs and Dating Services     154
Computer Dating and the Internet     154
Dating in Cyberspace     155
The Future of Dating     157
Violence in Dating and Intimate Relationships     158
Physical Abuse     158
Date and Acquaintance Rape     159
Breaking up     162
Supporting Marriages and Families     162
Summary     164
Key Terms     164
Questions for Study and Reflection     164
Additional Resources     165
Sexuality and Intimate Relationships     166
Human Sexuality: Past and Present     169
Jewish Traditions and Human Sexuality     170
Christian Traditions and Human Sexuality     170
Sexuality in the United States: An Overview     170
Sexual Attitudes and Behavior in the Twentieth Century and Beyond     172
Sexuality as Social Learning     179
Sources of Sexual Learning     181
Sexual Orientations     188
Heterosexuality     188
Homosexuality     189
Bisexuality     191
Human Sexual Expression     191
Sexual Response     191
Autoeroticism     191
Interpersonal Sexual Behavior     193
Sexual Expression Among Lesbians and Gays     194
Sexuality Across the Life Cycle     195
Nonmarried Sexuality and Pregnancy     195
Marital Sexuality: Does Good Sex Make Good Marriages?     199
Extramarital Sexuality     199
Postmarital Sexuality     202
Sexuality and Aging     202
Sexual Dysfunctions     204
Sexual Responsibility: Protecting Yourself from AIDS and Other STDS     206
AIDS     206
Supporting Marriages and Families     212
Summary     212
Key Terms     213
Questions for Study and Reflection     213
Additional Resources     213
Living Single, Living with Others: Nonmarital Lifestyles     215
Historical Perspectives     217
Singlehood in Early America      217
Singlehood in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries     218
Singlehood Today: Current Demographic Trends     219
Demystifying Singlehood     220
Individual Decision Making     220
The Influence of Social and Economic Forces     220
Types of Singles     221
Advantages and Disadvantages of Singlehood     221
Single Lifestyles     223
Income     224
Support Networks     225
Happiness and Life Satisfaction     225
The Never-Married in Later Life     226
Heterosexual Cohabitation     227
Historical Perspectives     227
The Meaning of Cohabitation Today     228
Reasons for Cohabitation     229
Advantages and Disadvantages of Cohabitation     231
Cohabitation and the Division of Labor     231
Cohabitation and Marital Stability     232
Cohabitation and the Law     232
Lesbian and Gay Relationships     234
Methodological Issues     234
Demystifying Lesbian and Gay Relationships     234
Living Together: Domestic Tasks, Finances, and Decision Making     235
The Social and Legal Context of Lesbian and Gay Relationships      236
Elderly Lesbians and Gays     237
Communal Living and Group Marriage     237
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Communal Lifestyle     237
Communes, Shared Housing, and the Future     238
Group Marriages     239
Supporting Nonmarried Adults     239
Summary     240
Key Terms     240
Questions for Study and Reflection     240
Additional Resources     240
The Marriage Experience     242
Why Do People Marry?     245
Sociological Perspective     246
The Meaning of Marriage     247
Marriage as a Commitment     247
Marriage as a Sacrament     247
Marriage as a Legal Contract     250
Some Legal Aspects of the Marriage Contract     251
Change and Continuity in the Meaning of Marriage     255
Provisions of the Modern Marriage Contract     255
The Marriage Contract Today     256
Marriage Traditions in the United States     257
The Wedding     262
Marriage and Gender     265
"Her" Marriage     265
"His" Marriage     265
Transitions and Adjustments to Marriages      266
A Typology of Marital Relationships     266
Heterogamous Marriages     267
Interracial Marriages     267
Interethnic Marriages     273
Interfaith Marriages     274
Marital Satisfaction, Communication, and Conflict Resolution     275
Successful Marriage     275
Effective Communication     276
Self-Disclosure     278
Conflict and Conflict Resolution     278
Supporting Marriages and Families     279
Summary     280
Key Terms     282
Questions for Study and Reflection     283
Additional Resources     284
Reproduction and Parenting     285
Historical Overview: Fertility Trends in the United States     287
Current Fertility Patterns     288
To Parent or Not     289
The Costs of Parenthood     289
The Benefits of Parenthood     289
The Social Pressures to Procreate     290
The Child-Free Option     290
Delayed Parenting     291
Controlling Fertility     292
Contraceptive Use     292
Reasons for Not Using Contraceptives      293
Abortion     293
Historical Perspectives     294
Race, Class, and Age     295
Public Attitudes toward Abortion     296
Infertility     296
Causes of Infertility     296
Consequences of Infertility     297
Medical Treatments and Reproductive Technology: Implications for the Meaning of Parenthood     297
Artificial Insemination     297
Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)     298
The Choice to Parent     299
Conception     300
Multiple Conception and Births     300
Sex Preference and Selection     301
Pregnancy     302
Prenatal Development and Care     302
Prenatal Problems and Defects     303
Expectant Fathers     306
The Cultural Double Bind     306
Parental Adjustments, Adaptations, and Patterns of Child Rearing     307
Parental Roles     308
Gender Differences in the Experience of Parenthood     311
Styles of Parenting     312
Race and Class     314
Lesbian and Gay Parents     320
Single Parents     321
Teenaged Parents     324
Supporting Parents and Children     326
Summary     327
Key Terms     327
Questions for Study and Reflection     328
Additional Resources     328
Evolving Work and Family Structures     329
The Work-Family Connection     331
The Transformation of Work and Family Roles     333
Variations by Race, Gender, and Marital Status     334
Reasons Women Work     334
Work and Family Structures     334
Traditional Nuclear Families, Including Stay-at-Home Dads     334
The Two-Person Career     335
Dual-Earner Families     336
Commuter Marriages     336
The Impact of Work on Family Relationships     337
Marital Power and Decision Making     337
Marital Happiness and Satisfaction     338
Husbands and the Division of Household Labor     339
Child Care     342
Inequities in the Workplace: Consequences for Families     345
Occupational Distribution     345
The Race-Gender Gap in Earnings: Good News and Bad News     346
The Union Difference     347
Sexual Harassment     348
The Economic Well-Being of Families      349
Economic Uncertainty: The Widening Income Gap     350
Who Are the Poor?     352
Unemployment and Underemployment     353
Unemployment and Marital Functioning     353
Balancing Work and Family: Restructuring the Workplace     357
Family-Friendly Policies and Benefits     357
Continuing Progress or Retrenchment?     358
Supporting Marriages and Families     359
Summary     359
Key Terms     360
Questions for Study and Reflection     360
Additional Resources     360
Power, Abuse, and Violence in Intimate Relationships     362
The Roots of Family Violence: A Historical Context     364
Violence against Women     364
Violence against Children     365
Violence against the Elderly     365
Violence against Siblings     366
Myths About Violence and Abuse     366
Family Violence and U.S. Culture     367
The Media     368
Physical Assault: The Case of Battered Women     370
What Is Woman Battering?     372
How Prevalent Is Woman Battering?     373
Theories of Spousal or Partner Abuse     375
Why Do Women Remain in Abusive Relationships?     377
Confronting Intimate Violence     378
The Sexual Assault of Women     379
Rape Myths     380
Rape and Race     380
Blaming the Victim     380
Marital Rape     380
The Criminal Justice Response to Woman Assault     382
Attitudes and Behaviors     382
Have We Made Progress?     384
The Effects of Physical and Sexual Assault on Women     385
Coping and Survival Strategies     385
Psychological and Emotional Strategies     385
Self-Destructive Strategies     385
Fighting Back     386
A Comparative Look at Battered Men     386
Child Assault and Abuse     387
The Physical Assault of Children     389
The Sexual Assault of Children     391
Elder Abuse in the United States     393
What Is Elder Abuse?     394
Who Are the Abused and the Abusers?     394
Sibling Abuse     395
Supporting Marriages and Families     396
Summary     397
Key Terms     397
Questions for Study and Reflection     397
Additional Resources      398
The Process of Uncoupling: Divorce in the United States     399
Historical Perspectives     402
Divorce in Early America     402
Divorce in Nineteenth-Century America     402
Twentieth-Century America: Efforts at Reform     403
Current Trends: How Many Marriages End in Divorce?     404
Who Is Likely to Divorce?     406
Divorce Among African Americans     406
Divorce Among Latinas/os     406
Divorce Among Asian Americans     407
Factors Affecting Marital Stability     407
Age at First Marriage     408
Education     408
Income     408
Religion     408
Parental Divorce     409
Cohabitation     409
Presence of Children     409
The Process of Divorce     410
Stages in the Divorce Process     410
The Six Stations of Divorce     412
Other Forms of Marital Disruption     413
The Causes of Divorce     413
Societal Factors     413
From the Perspective of Divorced People     414
From the Perspective of Family Therapists and Matrimonial Lawyers     415
The Impact of Divorce on Spouses     416
Common Consequences of Divorce     416
Gender Differences in Divorce     418
Recovering from Divorce     421
The Impact of Divorce on Children     422
Short-Term versus Long-Term Effects of Divorce on Children     422
Children and Divorce in Other Countries     423
Changing Patterns in Child Custody     424
Sole Custody     424
Joint Custody     424
Which Is Better, Sole or Joint Custody?     425
When Things Go Wrong: Family Abduction     427
Reaching Accord: Counseling, Collaborative Law, and Mediation     427
The Renewed Debate: Should Parents Stay Married for the Sake of Their Children?     428
Supporting Marriages and Families     428
Summary     429
Key Terms     429
Questions for Study and Reflection     429
Additional Resources     430
Remarriage and Remarried Families     431
Historical Perspective     435
Cultural Images of Stepfamilies     435
The Process of Remarriage     436
Dating and Courtship Patterns     436
The Decision to Remarry     437
Patterns of Remarriage      437
The Stations of Remarriage     439
Remarrying a Former Spouse     441
The Development of Remarried Families     441
Remarried Families: Roles, Interactions, and Reactions     441
Children and the Remarriage Service     441
Children and the Honeymoon     444
Children in Remarried Families     444
Adult Children's Reaction to Parental Later-Life Remarriages     449
Stepmothers: A Bad Rap?     449
Stepfathers: Polite Strangers?     450
Lesbian and Gay Stepfamilies     451
Ex-Spouses: Do They Fade Away?     452
The Strengths and Benefits of Remarried Families     452
The Quality of the Remarital Relationship     453
Stability in Remarriage     454
Supporting Remarriage and Remarried Families     455
Summary     456
Key Terms     457
Questions for Study and Reflection     457
Additional Resources     457
Marriages and Families in Later Life     459
Characteristics of Later-Life Families     461
The Sandwich Generation     461
Diversity in the Family Life Cycle     462
Changing Age Norms     462
The Demographics of Aging: Defining "Old"     463
Age Categories of the Elderly     463
Gender and Marital Status     463
Race, Ethnicity, and Class     464
Poverty Among the Elderly     465
Living Arrangements     465
Housing Patterns     467
Marriages in Later Life     467
Marital Quality and Satisfaction     468
Adjustment to Retirement     468
Intergenerational Relationships: Contact and Social Exchanges     470
Quality of Relationships     470
Evolving Patterns of Kinship: Grandparenthood     470
Styles of Grandparenting     471
Benefits and Conflicts     472
Great-Grandparenthood     474
The Child-Free Elderly     474
Sibling Relationships     475
Health and Illness     475
Family Caregiving     477
The Spouse as Caregiver     477
Adult Children as Caregivers     478
Children as Caregivers     479
The Stresses and Rewards of Elderly Caregiving     480
The Experience of Widowhood     480
Stages of Widowhood     480
Gender Differences in Widowhood      482
Beyond Widowhood     483
Lesbian and Gay Elderly     484
Supporting Families in Later Life     485
Summary     485
Key Terms     485
Questions for Study and Reflection     486
Additional Resources     486
Marriages and Families in the Twenty-First Century: U.S. and World Trends     487
Globalization: Its Economic Impact on Children and Families     489
Inequities in Income and Wealth     490
Health and Health Care     491
Access to Health Care     492
Trends in Drug Use and Associated Health Problems     495
Alcohol Use and Abuse     497
Addiction: A Family Problem     497
Differential Life Chances: Death and Disease     498
Families Coping with Loss: Dying and Death     499
The Process of Dying     500
The Needs and Tasks of the Dying     500
National Mourning     501
Death of a Child     501
Death of a Sibling     501
Death of a Parent     501
Death of a Spouse or Partner     502
Suicide     502
AIDS     502
Disenfranchised Grief     503
The Right-to-Die Movement     503
The Challenge of Racism and Ethnic and Religious Discrimination in Family Life     503
Racism at Home and Abroad     504
The Domestic and Global Challenge: Immigration, Migration, and Mass Displacement     507
Safety and Security: Gangs, Street Violence, and Violence in America's Schools     512
Gangs     512
Street Violence     513
Youth Violence     513
Violence in Schools     514
Terrorism and War     514
Terrorism in the United States     515
War     515
Meeting the Needs of Children: Foster Care and Adoption     520
Problems Confronting Foster Care     520
Becoming Parents through Adoption     521
Who Can Adopt? Characteristics and Current Controversies     521
International Adoptions     522
Transracial (Interracial) Adoptions     522
Supporting Children and Families Here and Abroad     524
Summary     525
Key Terms     526
Questions for Study and Reflection     526
Additional Resources     527
Sexual Dysfunctions and Sexually Transmitted Diseases     528
Human Anatomy and Reproduction      532
Methods of Abortion     535
Methods of Birth Control     536
Glossary     540
References     547
Photo Credits     598
Name Index     599
Subject Index     603

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